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1.  HE4 a novel tumour marker for ovarian cancer: comparison with CA 125 and ROMA algorithm in patients with gynaecological diseases 
Tumour Biology  2011;32(6):1087-1095.
The aim of this study is to evaluate a new tumour marker, HE4, in comparison with CA 125 and the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in healthy women and in patients with benign and malignant gynaecological diseases. CA 125 and HE4 serum levels were determined in 66 healthy women, 285 patients with benign gynaecological diseases (68 endometriosis, 56 myomas, 137 ovarian cysts and 24 with other diseases), 33 patients with non-active gynaecological cancer and 143 with active gynaecological cancer (111 ovarian cancers). CA 125 and HE4 cut-offs were 35 U/mL and 150 pmol/L, respectively. ROMA algorithm cut-off was 13.1 and 27.7 for premenopausal or postmenopausal women, respectively. HE4, CA 125 and ROMA results were abnormal in 1.5%, 13.6% and 25.8% of healthy women and in 1.1%, 30.2% and 12.3% of patients with benign diseases, respectively. Among patients with cancer, HE4 (in contrast to CA 125) had significantly higher concentrations in ovarian cancer than in other malignancies (p < 0.001). Tumour marker sensitivity in ovarian cancer was 79.3% for HE4, 82.9% for CA 125 and 90.1% for ROMA. Both tumour markers, HE4 and CA 125 were related to tumour stage and histological type, with the lowest concentrations in mucinous tumours. A significantly higher area under the ROC curve was obtained with ROMA and HE4 than with CA 125 in the differential diagnosis of benign gynaecological diseases versus malignant ovarian cancer (0.952, 0.936 and 0.853, respectively). Data from our population indicate that ROMA algorithm might be further improved if it is used only in patients with normal HE4 and abnormal CA 125 serum levels (cancer risk for this profile is 44.4%). ROMA algorithm in HE4 positive had a similar sensitivity and only increases the specificity by 3.2% compared to HE4 alone.
doi:10.1007/s13277-011-0204-3
PMCID: PMC3195682  PMID: 21863264
HE4; CA-125; ROMA; Tumour markers; Ovarian cancer; Abdominal masses; Risk of malignancy
2.  Inflammatory Responses in Blood Samples of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Pulmonary Infections 
We analyzed the characteristics of the inflammatory response occurring in blood during pulmonary infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A prospective study of consecutive hospital admissions of HIV-infected patients with new-onset radiologic pulmonary infiltrates was carried out in a tertiary university hospital from April 1998 to May 2001. Plasma cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were determined at the time of admission and 4, 5, and 6 days later. Patients were included in a protocol addressed to study etiology and outcome of disease. A total of 249 episodes of infection were included, with the main diagnoses being bacterial pneumonia (BP) (118 episodes), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (41 episodes), and mycobacteriosis (36 episodes). For these three patient groups, at the time of admission the median CRP and cytokine levels were as follows: CRP, 10.2, 3.8 and 5 mg/dl, respectively (P = 0.0001); IL-8, 19, 3, and 2.9 pg/ml (P = 0.045); and TNF-α, 46.4, 44, and 75 pg/ml, respectively (P = 0.029). There were no significant differences in levels of IL-1β, IL-6, or IL-10 among the patient groups. A total of 23 patients died. At the time of admission, HIV-infected patients with BP had higher plasma CRP and IL-8 levels than did PCP and mycobacteriosis patients. TNF-α levels were higher in patients with mycobacteriosis. An elevated IL-8 level (>61 pg/ml) at the time of admission was an independent factor associated with higher mortality (odds ratio, 12; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 235.5).
doi:10.1128/CDLI.11.3.608-614.2004
PMCID: PMC404570  PMID: 15138189
3.  Evaluation of Inflammatory and Renal-Injury Markers in Women Treated with Antibiotics for Acute Pyelonephritis Caused by Escherichia coli 
The evolution and the relationship between inflammatory and renal-injury markers in women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis under antimicrobial therapy were investigated in a prospective study. Markers were measured before and 6 and 24 h after the intravenous administration of 1 g of ceftriaxone. Before treatment, the median levels of all markers except the serum creatinine levels were high. Twenty-four hours after the onset of antibiotic treatment, the C-reactive protein (CRP) level continued to be high, while the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and the urine IL-6, IL-8, albumin, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels decreased significantly. In contrast, serum creatinine and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels and urine N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, α1-microglobulin, and β2-microglobulin levels did not change over time. There was a significant correlation between IL-6 and IL-8 levels and urine albumin and IgG levels (urine albumin and IgG levels are glomerular and urinary tract-injury markers) as well as between serum CRP levels and the levels of the tubular-injury markers. In women with acute pyelonephritis, appropriate antibiotic treatment rapidly decreases serum IL-6 levels and urine IL-6 and IL-8 levels, which correlate well with urine albumin and IgG levels.
doi:10.1128/CDLI.11.1.142-146.2004
PMCID: PMC321338  PMID: 14715561

Results 1-3 (3)