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1.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the fructofuranosidase from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous  
The invertase from X. dendrorhous has been purified, deglycosylated and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution.
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous invertase is an extracellular enzyme that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce neokestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The native enzyme, which is highly glycosylated, failed to crystallize. Therefore, it was submitted to EndoH deglycosylating treatment and crystals were grown by vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.29, b = 204.93, c = 146.25 Å. Several diffraction data sets were collected using a synchrotron source. Self-rotation function and gel-filtration experiments suggested that the enzyme is a dimer with twofold symmetry.
doi:10.1107/S1744309110029192
PMCID: PMC3001643  PMID: 21045290
yeast invertase; β-fructofuranosidases; glycoside hydrolase family 32
2.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the fructofuranosidase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis  
The invertase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, purified and crystallized. The wild-type enzyme was also purified and crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution.
Schwanniomyces occidentalis invertase is an extracellular enzyme that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The enzyme has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant and wild-type forms, which showed different glycosylation patterns, were crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. Although crystallization trials were conducted on both forms of the protein, crystals suitable for X-ray crystallographic analyses were only obtained from the wild-type enzyme. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.78, b = 119.49, c = 137.68 Å. A diffraction data set was collected using a synchrotron source. Self-rotation function and sedimentation-velocity experiments suggested that the enzyme was dimeric with twofold symmetry.
doi:10.1107/S1744309109039384
PMCID: PMC2777049  PMID: 19923741
yeast invertases; fructofuranosidases; glycoside hydrolase family 32
3.  New Insights into the Fructosyltransferase Activity of Schwanniomyces occidentalis β-Fructofuranosidase, Emerging from Nonconventional Codon Usage and Directed Mutation▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(22):7491-7499.
Schwanniomyces occidentalis β-fructofuranosidase (Ffase) releases β-fructose from the nonreducing ends of β-fructans and synthesizes 6-kestose and 1-kestose, both considered prebiotic fructooligosaccharides. Analyzing the amino acid sequence of this protein revealed that it includes a serine instead of a leucine at position 196, caused by a nonuniversal decoding of the unique mRNA leucine codon CUG. Substitution of leucine for Ser196 dramatically lowers the apparent catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the enzyme (approximately 1,000-fold), but surprisingly, its transferase activity is enhanced by almost 3-fold, as is the enzymes' specificity for 6-kestose synthesis. The influence of 6 Ffase residues on enzyme activity was analyzed on both the Leu196/Ser196 backgrounds (Trp47, Asn49, Asn52, Ser111, Lys181, and Pro232). Only N52S and P232V mutations improved the transferase activity of the wild-type enzyme (about 1.6-fold). Modeling the transfructosylation products into the active site, in combination with an analysis of the kinetics and transfructosylation reactions, defined a new region responsible for the transferase specificity of the enzyme.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01614-10
PMCID: PMC2976189  PMID: 20851958
4.  Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a β-Fructofuranosidase from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous▿ †  
An extracellular β-fructofuranosidase from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was characterized biochemically, molecularly, and phylogenetically. This enzyme is a glycoprotein with an estimated molecular mass of 160 kDa, of which the N-linked carbohydrate accounts for 60% of the total mass. It displays optimum activity at pH 5.0 to 6.5, and its thermophilicity (with maximum activity at 65 to 70°C) and thermostability (with a T50 in the range 66 to 71°C) is higher than that exhibited by most yeast invertases. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze fructosyl-β-(2→1)-linked carbohydrates such as sucrose, 1-kestose, or nystose, although its catalytic efficiency, defined by the kcat/Km ratio, indicates that it hydrolyzes sucrose approximately 4.2 times more efficiently than 1-kestose. Unlike other microbial β-fructofuranosidases, the enzyme from X. dendrorhous produces neokestose as the main transglycosylation product, a potentially novel bifidogenic trisaccharide. Using a 41% (wt/vol) sucrose solution, the maximum fructooligosaccharide concentration reached was 65.9 g liter−1. In addition, we isolated and sequenced the X. dendrorhous β-fructofuranosidase gene (Xd-INV), showing that it encodes a putative mature polypeptide of 595 amino acids and that it shares significant identity with other fungal, yeast, and plant β-fructofuranosidases, all members of family 32 of the glycosyl-hydrolases. We demonstrate that the Xd-INV could functionally complement the suc2 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, finally, a structural model of the new enzyme based on the homologous invertase from Arabidopsis thaliana has also been obtained.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02061-08
PMCID: PMC2643559  PMID: 19088319

Results 1-4 (4)