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author:("Feng, liangi")
1.  Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among residents in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China 
BMC Public Health  2014;14(1):1152.
Background
The Three Gorges Dam in China is the world’s largest hydro-electric scheme in the contemporary world. After the construction of the Dam, great changes took place on the residents’ lifestyles characterized by reduced physical activity due to the loss of arable land and a series of psychological problems caused by resettlement, which might be regarded as contributing factors to the development of diabetes in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). However, there is no study that has been conducted targeting large population samples with the aim of determining the prevalence of diabetes in TGRR. This study purposed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the adult population ≥18 years in TGRR and to evaluate the associated risk factors.
Methods
A total of 3721 randomly selected adults, aged ≥18 years and having lived in TGRR for at least one year, participated in questionnaire-based interview from April to May 2013 and had their physical examinations and standard glucose taken. 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on the subjects with fasting glucose levels being ≥ 5.6 mmol/L. Diabetes and IFG were defined according to WHO 1999 criteria.
Results
The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and IFG were 7.6% (7.9% among men and 7.4% among women) and 9.0% (9.1% among men and 8.9% among women), respectively. Among the identified cases of diabetes in this study, 54.46% (171/314) were newly diagnosed. The prevalence of diabetes cases rose with age (4.0%, 4.5%, 8.1%, 11.2%, 12.4% and 12.9% among persons who were 18 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69 and ≥ 70 years of age, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic-regression analyses showed that the diabetes was significantly linked to age, family history of diabetes, central obesity, educational level and hypertension for both men and women. In addition, smoking was significantly associated with diabetes in men.
Conclusions
Diabetes has become a major public health problem in the TGRR with a large number of the cases undiagnosed. These results suggest that regular population-based diabetes screening should be conducted to identify early-stage diabetes and integrated strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes initiated.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1152
PMCID: PMC4232641  PMID: 25377171
2.  A Community-Based Comprehensive Intervention Program for 7200 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chongqing (China) 
This study assessed the feasibility of community-based comprehensive intervention on Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on a large population in China. An intervention study was conducted on 7200 T2DM patients within one year and consisted of six lectures on health issues, and four times face-to-face lifestyle counseling delivered by general health practitioners, at local primary health centers (PHCs). A “knowledge, attitude and practice” (KAP) survey and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurement were conducted at baseline and after the intervention, respectively. A total of 6586 T2DM patients completed the intervention. After one year intervention, patients’ KAP level improved significantly (p < 0.001) and the average FPG has decreased from 8.53 mmol/L (standard deviation: 2.84) to 7.11 mmol/L (standard deviation: 1.34) (p < 0.001). Patients in rural areas and with lower education level showed higher FPG and poorer KAP level both before and after the intervention. In conclusion, community-based comprehensive intervention for T2DM is feasible on a large population. Improving and repeating the comprehensive strategy is greatly recommended in order to sustain the impact, especially in rural areas and for patients with lower education levels.
doi:10.3390/ijerph111111450
PMCID: PMC4245623  PMID: 25383608
type 2 diabetes mellitus; intervention; community
3.  The Dynamic Trends of HIV Prevalence, Risks, and Prevention among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chongqing, China 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:602719.
Objective. This study was to characterize the continuously changing trends of HIV prevalence, risks, sexual behaviors, and testing behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing, China. Methods. Five consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among MSM in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2013. Testing for HIV and syphilis was performed, and HIV risks, sexual behavior, prevention, and HIV testing behavior were collected using the same questionnaire. Results. HIV prevalence increased from 13.0% to 19.7% from 2006 to 2013 (P = 0.004), with an increase of 1.0% per year. Syphilis prevalence peaked in 2008 with a positive rate of 11.6% and then experienced a sharp drop to 2.8% in 2012 and 2.9% in 2013. Percentage of those who ever received HIV testing in the last year increased from 17.0% to 43.3% (P < 0.001); condom use at the last anal intercourse and reported consistent condom use in the last 6 months increased from 51.8% to 71.0% (P < 0.001) and from 24.7% to 47.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions. HIV continued to spread among MSM in Chongqing even when a decline in prevalence of syphilis and increase in awareness rate, condom use, and HIV testing seeking behaviors seemed to occur.
doi:10.1155/2014/602719
PMCID: PMC3982456  PMID: 24783216
4.  Study of drug resistance and molecular typing of 59 cholerae01 clinical isolates from 1984 to 2002 in Chongqing, China 
Objective: To analyze the correlation between drug resistance and Cholerae01 clinical isolates from 1984 to 2002 in Chongqing, China. Methods: K-B assay was applied to detect the sensitivity of 59 Cholerae01 clinical isolates (20 Ogawa, 39 Inaba) to 16 kinds of antibiotics. BioNumerics software was used for a cluster analysis of electrophoresis patterns obtained from the Not I enzyme-cutting genomic DNA by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Vibrio cholerae01 in Chongqing area, China were highly resistant to Cotrimoxazole, Furazolidone and Streptomycin. The resistance rates were 28.81% (17/59), 61.02% (36/59) and 30.51% (18/59), respectively. While the isolates from the crowd were sensitive to Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Ampicillin, Neomycin and Doxycycline, and no drug-resistant strains were observed. Conclusion: No significant changes are found in the drug resistance of Vibrio cholerae01 from the crowd in Chongqing, China and the drug resistances of the Ogawa and the Inaba strains are different. Vibrio cholerae01 from the crowd in Chongqing, China are highly homologous, which may be from the epidemic strains with the same source.
PMCID: PMC3832330  PMID: 24260599
Vibrio cholerae01; drug-resistance; molecular typing
5.  Participation of HIV prevention programs among men who have sex with men in two cities of China—a mixed method study 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:847.
Background
Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China.
Methods
This is a mixed-method study conducted in Beijing and Chongqing. A qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 54 MSM, 11 key informants, and 8 focus group discussions, a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling among 998 MSM were conducted in 2009 and 2010 respectively to elicit information on MSM’s perception and utilization of HIV prevention programs. Qualitative findings were integrated with quantitative multivariate factors to explain the quantitative findings.
Results
Fifty-six percent of MSM in Chongqing and 75.1% in Beijing ever participated in at least one type of HIV prevention program (P=0.001). Factors related to participation in HIV prevention programs included age, ethnicity, income, HIV risk perception, living with boyfriend, living in urban area, size of MSM social network, having talked about HIV status with partners, and knowing someone who is HIV positive. Reasons why MSM did not participate in HIV prevention programs included logistical concerns like limited time for participation and distance to services; program content and delivery issues such as perceived low quality services and distrust of providers; and, cultural issues like HIV-related stigma and low risk perception.
Conclusions
The study shows that there is much room for improvement in reaching MSM in China. HIV prevention programs targeting MSM in China may need to be more comprehensive and incorporate the cultural, logistic and HIV-related needs of the population in order to effectively reach and affect this population’s risk for HIV.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-847
PMCID: PMC3570394  PMID: 23039880
MSM; HIV prevention programs; Utilization; Participation; China
6.  Predictors of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Chinese Metropolitan City: Comparison of Risks among Students and Non-Students 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37211.
Background
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at a substantial risk of HIV, given rising HIV prevalence in urban China. Adolescent and adult students often take HIV-related risk as part of sexual exploration. We compared the risks of HIV and syphilis infections and risky sexual behaviors between student and non-student among urban MSM.
Methods
Respondent driven sampling approach was used to recruit men who were self-identified as MSM in Chongqing Metropolitan City in southwestern China in 2009. Each participant completed a computer-assisted self-interview which collected demographic and behavioral data, and provided blood specimens for HIV and syphilis testing. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified predictors for HIV and syphilis infections while comparing student and non-student MSM.
Results
Among 503 MSM participants, 36.4% were students, of whom 84.2% were in college. The adjusted prevalence of HIV infection was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1%–10.2%) in students and 20.9% (95% CI: 13.7%–27.5%) in non-students; the adjusted prevalence of syphilis was 4.4% (95% CI: 0.7%–9.0%) in students and 7.9% (95% CI: 3.6%–12.9%) in non-students (P = 0.12). Two groups had similar risky sexual behaviors such as number of sexual partners and exchanging sex for money. Multivariate analysis showed that students had lower HIV prevalence than non-students (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8) adjusting for age, ethnicity and other variables.
Conclusion
Student MSM have lower HIV and similar syphilis prevalence compared with non-student MSM. However, due to a shorter duration of sexual experience and high prevalence of at-risk sexual behaviors among student MSM, HIV risk might be quite high in students as in non-students.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037211
PMCID: PMC3356386  PMID: 22623994

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