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2.  Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China 
Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with intestinal parasites and duration of receiving treatment for infection with M. tuberculosis in persons with PTB. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was not higher in persons with PTB, and there was no evidence that PTB increased susceptibility to intestinal parasites in this study. However, for patients with PTB, women and patients with comorbidities were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0426
PMCID: PMC3886404  PMID: 24166044
4.  Luminal thrombosis in middle cerebral artery occlusions: a high-resolution MRI study 
Background and purpose
High signals within occluded vessels on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images (HST1) are highly suggestive of luminal thrombosis. We sought to investigate the feasibility of in vivo identification of luminal thrombosis in middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI).
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the HR-MRI data of 25 patients with unilateral symptomatic MCA occlusion. HST1 were defined as an area of high signal within the cross-section of occluded MCA, the intensity of which was >150% of the signal of adjacent muscles. The prevalence of HST1 and their relationship to infarct sizes and infarct patterns were analyzed.
Results
The average time from stroke onset to HR-MRI examination was 9±6 days. There were 18 (72%) occluded vessels with HST1 on HR-MRI. HST1 were observed in 5/7 patients with a large territory infarct (≥1/3 MCA distribution) and 13/18 patients without (P=0.37). In the patients with non-large territory infarcts, the presence of HST1 was similar in those with and without border zone infarcts (9/13 vs. 4/5, P=0.42).
Conclusions
It’s feasible to in vivo identify luminal thrombosis in occluded MCA. HR-MRI is a potentially powerful tool for investigating the mechanisms of stroke due to MCA occlusions.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2014.07.10
PMCID: PMC4200643  PMID: 25333050
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA occlusion); magnetic resonance imaging; thrombosis; cerebral infarct
5.  The pathogenesis of optic neuritis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in BALB/c mice 
Parasites & Vectors  2014;7:339.
Background
One of the most common causes of meningitis in South East Asia is angiostrongyliasis or infection by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis. Although this nematode usually resides in the pulmonary arteries of rats, its incidental occurence in other hosts such as humans can cause optic neuritis and lead to serious vision sequelae. Nevertheless, there are currently no systematic studies conducted in this area.
Methods
In order to study the pathogenesis of optic neuritis, mice were tried as a new animal model to study and challenge with A. cantonensis on 7d, 14d and 21d, respectively. Electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potential (VEP), ophthalmoscopy and histology were examined on day 7d, 14d and 21d and tribendimidine (TBD) was later used to treat optic neuritis on day 14d for a week to evaluate its therapeutic effects.
Results
Infection of A. cantonensis caused obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in the retina and optic nerve adventitia in day 14d and 21d followed by optic nerve fiber demyelination and retinal ganglion swelling at day 21d in the challenged mice. Prolonged VEP latency and decreased ERG amplitude were also observed on day 21. After treatment of TBD in the infected mice, retinal and optic nerve inflammation were alleviated, but VEP latency and ERG amplitude did not improve on day 21d and 28d.
Conclusions
The current study provides evidence that A. cantonensis can cause optic neuritis along with optic nerve demyelination and retinal ganglion cell damage in a mouse model. TBD alone treatment can improve the symptoms of optic neuritis, but does not aid in vision recovery, suggesting that both neuroprotective agents and Dexamethasone should be administered, along with treatment for the infection, to protect the optic nerve and ganglion cells. Furthermore, as the symptoms of optic neuritis caused by A. cantonensis in mice are similar to the optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis (MS) human patients, we suggest that the BALB/c mouse model provided in this study may be useful to explore therapies of optic neuritis in MS patients.
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-339
PMCID: PMC4223635  PMID: 25052055
Optic neuritis; Infection; Angiostrongylus cantonensis; BALB/c mice
6.  On Some Nonclassical Algebraic Properties of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:192957.
Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov's soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation =L. We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.
doi:10.1155/2014/192957
PMCID: PMC4131116  PMID: 25143964
7.  Clinical analysis of 13 males with primary choriocarcinoma and review of the literature 
OncoTargets and therapy  2014;7:1135-1141.
Objective
To analyze the management and prognosis of primary choriocarcinoma (PCC) in male patients.
Methods
The clinical records of males with PCC who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The literature regarding this clinical condition was also reviewed.
Results
The median survival interval of the 13 patients treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital was 54 months (range, 6–115 months), and the 1- and 3-year survival rates were 53.8% and 43.1%, respectively. All patients were treated with surgery; 12 were treated with combined chemotherapy. After including 100 cases found in the literature, for a total of 113 patients, the median survival interval was 10 months (range, 6.4–13.6 months). The testis was the most common primary site (36.2%). Most patients (70.9%) had metastatic lesions at diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that longer median overall survival was significantly associated with patient age <34 years old (48 months vs 10 months, odds ratio [OR] =0.47, P=0.029), the presence of other histological components (54 months vs 11 months, OR =0.54, P=0.011), and combined chemotherapy and surgical treatments (14 months vs 2.5 months, OR =0.18, P=0.002).
Conclusion
PCC is an extremely rare disease among men, and its prognosis is much worse than that of gestational choriocarcinoma. The complete resection of the primary site and metastases followed by chemotherapy seems to provide patients with the best chance at survival. Furthermore, additional chemotherapy cycles might facilitate better progress.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S62561
PMCID: PMC4074184  PMID: 25018640
PCC; men; prognosis
8.  Stromal fibroblast activation and their potential association with uterine fibroids (Review) 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):479-486.
Uterine fibroids are the most common type of benign, gynecologic neoplasm and are the primary indication for performance of a hysterectomy, accounting for >200,000 hysterectomies annually in the USA. At present, females are younger and exhibit larger leiomyomas at the time of diagnosis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumor microenvironments have emerged as an important target for cancer therapy. Repeated stimulation by infectious or non-infectious agents in the uterine tissues, including inflammation, mechanical forces or hypoxia, stimulate the resident fibroblasts to undergo specific activation and, thus, are significant in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, complex signaling pathways regulate the mechanisms of fibroblastic activation. The current review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of fibroblastic activation and the potential association with uterine leiomyoma pathogenesis, enabling an integrated pathogenic analysis for review of the therapeutic options.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2225
PMCID: PMC4081411  PMID: 25013460
fibroblasts; fibroblast activation; uterine fibroids; α-smooth muscle actin; transforming growth factor-β
9.  ROBUST PHOTO-REGULATION OF GABAA RECEPTORS BY ALLOSTERIC MODULATION WITH A PROPOFOL ANALOG 
Nature communications  2012;3:1095.
Photochemical switches represent a powerful method for improving pharmacological therapies and controlling cellular physiology. Here we report the photo-regulation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) by a derivative of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), a GABAAR allosteric modulator, that we have modified to contain photo-isomerizable azobenzene. Using α1β2γ2 GABAARs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and native GABAARs of isolated retinal ganglion cells, we show that the trans-azobenzene isomer of the new compound (trans-MPC088), generated by visible light (wavelengths ~440 nm), potentiates the GABA-elicited response and at higher concentrations directly activates the receptors. cis-MPC088, generated from trans-MPC088 by UV light (~365 nm), produces little if any receptor potentiation/activation. In cerebellar slices, MPC088 co-applied with GABA affords bidirectional photo-modulation of Purkinje cell membrane current and spike-firing rate. The findings demonstrate photo-control of GABAARs by an allosteric ligand and open new avenues for fundamental and clinically oriented research on GABAARs, a major class of neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system.
doi:10.1038/ncomms2094
PMCID: PMC4023869  PMID: 23033071
10.  Subalgebras of BCK/BCI-Algebras Based on Cubic Soft Sets 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:458638.
Operations of cubic soft sets including “AND” operation and “OR” operation based on P-orders and R-orders are introduced and some related properties are investigated. An example is presented to show that the R-union of two internal cubic soft sets might not be internal. A sufficient condition is provided, which ensure that the R-union of two internal cubic soft sets is also internal. Moreover, some properties of cubic soft subalgebras of BCK/BCI-algebras based on a given parameter are discussed.
doi:10.1155/2014/458638
PMCID: PMC4034581  PMID: 24895652
11.  Association of Radiologic Findings with Mortality in Patients with Avian Influenza H7N9 Pneumonia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93885.
Background
The novel H7N9 virus causes severe illness, including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with high rates of mortality. We investigated the association of initial radiologic characteristics obtained at admission with clinical outcomes in patients with avian influenza H7N9 pneumonia.
Methods
Demographics, comorbidities, clinical findings, radiologic appearance and scores of the affected lung parenchyma were compared between survivor group (n = 15) and mortality group (n = 7). Two radiologic scores were calculated, one using chest radiography and one using CT. Follow-up CT scans at discharge were analyzed in 12 patients of the survival group.
Results
All the patients in mortality group developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and required mechanical ventilation, while in the survival group 33% (5/15) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (P<0.05) and 27% (4/15) required mechanical ventilation (P<0.05). The mean radiographic and CT scores of the mortality group were 50% higher compared to the survival group (P<0.05). ROC analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.738 for the radiographic score with an optimal cutoff value of a score of 19 for prediction of mortality, with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 67%, and an area under curve of 0.833 for the CT score with an optimal cutoff value of a CT score of 21 for prediction of mortality, with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 73%. The mean CT score of the affected lung parenchyma at discharge was 30% lower than the initial CT examination (P<0.05).
Conclusion
High initial radiologic score is associated with mortality in patients with avian influenza H7N9 pneumonia.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093885
PMCID: PMC3976364  PMID: 24705783
12.  Correlations of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene Expression with Human Pituitary Adenomas: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90396.
Objective
Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an important paracrine growth factor involved in early lactotrope transformation and early onset of angiogenesis in pituitary hyperplasia. Emerging evidences have shown that PTTG expression may contribute to the etiology of pituitary adenomas; but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the correlations of PTTG expression with human pituitary adenomas.
Methods
A range of electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE (1966∼2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980∼2013), CINAHL (1982∼2013), Web of Science (1945∼2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982∼2013) without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratio (OR) or standard mean difference (SMD) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated.
Results
Twenty-four clinical cohort studies were included with a total of 1,464 pituitary adenomas patients. The meta-analysis results revealed that patients with invasive pituitary adenomas had higher positive expression of PTTG than those of non-invasive patients (OR  = 6.68, 95%CI  = 3.72–11.99, P<0.001). We also found a significant difference in microvessel density between invasive and non-invasive patients (SMD  = 1.81, 95%CI  = 0.39–3.23, P = 0.013). However, there were no significant difference in PTTG expression between functional and non-functional patients with pituitary adenomas (OR  = 1.11, 95%CI  = 0.58–2.10, P = 0.753). No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis (all P>0.05).
Conclusion
This present meta-analysis suggests that PTTG expression may be associated with tumor invasiveness and microvessel density of pituitary adenomas, while no correlations with functional status was found.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090396
PMCID: PMC3942425  PMID: 24594688
13.  Disruption of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 Signaling Results in Defects in Cellular Differentiation, Neuronal Patterning, and Hearing Impairment 
Deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) leads to hearing impairment in mice due to defects in the development of the organ of Corti, the sensory epithelium of the Cochlea. To examine the role of FGFR3 in auditory development, cochleae from Fgfr3−/− mice were examined using anatomical and physiological methods. Deletion of Fgfr3 leads to the absence of inner pillar cells and an increase in other cell types, suggesting that FGFR3 regulates cell fate. Defects in outer hair cell differentiation were also observed and probably represent the primary basis for hearing loss. Furthermore, innervation defects were detected consistent with changes in the fiber guidance properties of pillar cells. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of FGFR3, we examined the expression of Bmp4, a known target. Bmp4 was increased in Fgfr3−/− cochleae, and exogenous application of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) onto cochlear explants induced a significant increase in the outer hair cells, suggesting the Fgf and Bmp signaling act in concert to pattern the cochlea.
doi:10.1002/dvdy.21192
PMCID: PMC3904742  PMID: 17557302
hair cell; cochlea; BMP4; Prox1; innervation; Deiters’ cells; Pillar cells; microtubules; stria vascularis
14.  Decomposition of Fuzzy Soft Sets with Finite Value Spaces 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:902687.
The notion of fuzzy soft sets is a hybrid soft computing model that integrates both gradualness and parameterization methods in harmony to deal with uncertainty. The decomposition of fuzzy soft sets is of great importance in both theory and practical applications with regard to decision making under uncertainty. This study aims to explore decomposition of fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces. Scalar uni-product and int-product operations of fuzzy soft sets are introduced and some related properties are investigated. Using t-level soft sets, we define level equivalent relations and show that the quotient structure of the unit interval induced by level equivalent relations is isomorphic to the lattice consisting of all t-level soft sets of a given fuzzy soft set. We also introduce the concepts of crucial threshold values and complete threshold sets. Finally, some decomposition theorems for fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces are established, illustrated by an example concerning the classification and rating of multimedia cell phones. The obtained results extend some classical decomposition theorems of fuzzy sets, since every fuzzy set can be viewed as a fuzzy soft set with a single parameter.
doi:10.1155/2014/902687
PMCID: PMC3914603  PMID: 24558342
15.  Application of 68Ga-PRGD2 PET/CT for αvβ3-integrin Imaging of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke 
Theranostics  2014;4(8):778-786.
Purpose: Ischemic vascular diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, have been found to be associated with elevated expression of αvβ3-integrin, which provides a promising target for semi-quantitative monitoring of the disease. For the first time, we employed 68Ga-S-2-(isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 (68Ga-PRGD2) to evaluate the αvβ3-integrin-related repair in post-MI and post-stroke patients via positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).
Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval, 23 MI patients (3 days-2 years post-MI) and 16 stroke patients (3 days-13 years post-stroke) were recruited. After giving informed consent, each patient underwent a cardiac or brain PET/CT scan 30 min after the intravenous injection of 68Ga-PRGD2 in a dose of approximately 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) per kilogram body weight. Two stroke patients underwent repeat scans three months after the event.
Results: Patchy 68Ga-PRGD2 uptake occurred in or around the ischemic regions in 20/23 MI patients and punctate multifocal uptake occurred in 8/16 stroke patients. The peak standardized uptake values (pSUVs) in MI were 1.94 ± 0.48 (mean ± SD; range, 0.62-2.69), significantly higher than those in stroke (mean ± SD, 0.46 ± 0.29; range, 0.15-0.93; P < 0.001). Higher 68Ga-PRGD2 uptake was observed in the patients 1-3 weeks after the initial onset of the MI/stroke event. The uptake levels were significantly correlated with the diameter of the diseases (r = 0.748, P = 0.001 for MI and r = 0.835, P = 0.003 for stroke). Smaller or older lesions displayed no uptake.
Conclusions: 68Ga-PRGD2 uptake was observed around the ischemic region in both MI and stroke patients, which was correlated with the disease phase and severity. The different image patterns and uptake levels in MI and stroke patients warrant further investigations.
doi:10.7150/thno.8809
PMCID: PMC4063976  PMID: 24955139
68Ga-PRGD2; PET/CT; stroke; myocardial infarction; αvβ3-integrin; angiogenesis.
16.  HIV and intestinal parasite co-infections among a Chinese population: an immunological profile 
Background
Parasite infections often result in a switch of the human body’s predominant immune reaction from T-helper 1 (Th1)-type to Th2-type. Hence, parasite infections are widely expected to accelerate the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the People’s Republic of China, both parasitic diseases and AIDS are epidemic in certain rural areas, and co-infections are relatively common. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the frequency of HIV and parasite co-infections, and its effects on immune responses. We studied (1) the immune status of an HIV-infected population, and (2) the effect of co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites on selected parameters of the human immune system.
Methods
A total of 309 HIV-infected individuals were recruited and compared to an age-matched and sex-matched control group of 315 local HIV-negative individuals. Questionnaires were administered to all participants to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics, sanitation habits, family income, and recent clinical manifestations. Two consecutive stool samples and 10 ml samples of venous blood were also collected from each individual for the diagnosis of parasite infections and quantitative measurements of selected cytokines and CD4+ T-lymphocytes, respectively.
Results
During the study period, 79 HIV-infected individuals were not under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and were thus included in our analysis; the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 6.3% and that of protozoa was 22.8%. The most common protozoan infections were Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) (13.9%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.1%). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in HIV-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HIV negative individuals (P < 0.05). Compared to the non-co-infected population, no significant difference was found for any of the measured immunological indicators (P > 0.05). However, the following trends were observed: IFN-γ levels were lower, but the IL-4 level was higher, in the population co-infected with HIV and helminths. In the population co-infected with HIV and B. hominis, the IL-2 level was higher. The population co-infected with HIV and Cryptosporidium spp. had markedly lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts.
Conclusion
According to the immunologic profile, co-infection with helminths is disadvantageous to HIV-infected individuals. It was associated with a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance in the same direction as that caused by the virus itself, which might indicate an acceleration of the progress from an HIV infection to AIDS. Co-infection with Cryptosporidium spp. was not associated with a significant change in immune factors but co-infection with Cryptosporidium spp. was associated with a reduced level of CD4 + T-lymphocytes, confirming the opportunistic nature of such infections. Co-infection with B. hominis, on the other hand, was associated with an antagonistic shift in the immunological profile compared to an HIV infection.
doi:10.1186/2049-9957-2-18
PMCID: PMC3766051  PMID: 23971713
HIV; Intestinal parasite; Co-infection; Immunological profile; People’s Republic of China
17.  Risk Factors for Small Airway Obstruction among Chinese Island Residents: A Case-Control Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68556.
Background
We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for small airway obstruction (SAO) among Chinese island residents to establish means to prevent and treat SAO.
Methods
From October 17, 2011 to November 1, 2011, a total of 2,873 residents aged >20 years who lived on the Huangqi Peninsula of Fujian were recruited by random cluster sampling. They were asked to complete a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) questionnaire and underwent physical examinations and lung function evaluations. SAO was defined as a forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity, Vmax50%, of less than 70% of predicted. Risk factors for SAO were assessed from among demographic and anthropometric variables, blood chemistry results, and questionnaire response items.
Results
A total of 216 (7.52%) Chinese island residents were identified as having SAO (95 males; 121 females). Their survey and test results were compared with 432 age and sex-matched healthy controls (192 males; 240 females) for SAO risk factors. Among numerous factors investigated, only diabetes mellitus (p = 0.039), smoking index (SI, p<0.001 for SI>600), second hand smoke (p = 0.002), and lack of regular exercise (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for SAO.
Conclusions
The risk factors for SAO among Chinese island residents appeared to be similar to those among people who live in high-density urban environments and impoverished rural areas. Public health policies and medical practices directed toward improving respiratory health for island residents should be comparable to those used for urban and rural dwellers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068556
PMCID: PMC3715483  PMID: 23874670
18.  Msx2 plays a critical role in lens epithelium cell cycle control 
AIM
To investigate the effects of Msx2 on lens epithelium cell cycle, and evaluate the changes of the proliferation, apoptosis of lens epithelium cells.
METHODS
Mice lens epithelium cells were cultured and transfected with pEGFP-Msx2 and control. Msx2-deficient mice (Msx2−/−) lens tissue were isolated. Lens tissue and transfected cells were prepared for mRNA extraction using Trizol reagent. CyclinD1 and Prox1 expression were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. BrdU incorporation and apoptosis rate were investigated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis.
RESULTS
After transfected with pEGFP-Msx2, lens epithelium cells failed to incorporate BrdU and anti-phospho-histone-3 immunofluorescence failed to detect cell nuclei which GFP were positive. Msx2 over expression resulted in increasing apoptosis rate in lens epithelium cells. CyclinD1 and Prox1 expression increased significantly in Msx2 knockout mice by real-time RT-PCR quantization and CyclinD1 expression decreased significantly in Msx2 overexpressed cell.
CONCLUSION
Msx2 has the effect of inhibiting proliferation and differentiation, triggering apoptosis on mice lens epithelium cells.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2013.03.04
PMCID: PMC3693005  PMID: 23826518
Msx2; lens epithelium cell; cell cycle
20.  Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios as independent predictors of cervical stromal involvement in surgically treated endometrioid adenocarcinoma 
OncoTargets and therapy  2013;6:211-216.
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative inflammatory markers (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio) and cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
Methods
We studied 318 patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent comprehensive surgical staging. We used univariate and multivariate analyses of cervical stromal involvement and receiver-operating curves to calculate optimal cutoff values for neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios to predict cervical stromal involvement.
Results
The presence of cervical stromal involvement was associated with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that higher neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios independently predicted cervical stromal involvement (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.10–8.76, P = 0.032, and odds ratio 5.27, 95% confidence interval 1.94–14.35, P = 0.001, respectively). At a threshold of 2.01, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was 71.0% sensitive and 63.8% specific for stromal involvement; at a 172.24 threshold, the platelet-lymphocyte ratio was 48.4% sensitive and 88.9% specific.
Conclusion
Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios can help identify the risk of cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrial cancer. Evaluating these ratios may help select patients who should be particularly watched and tested for cervical stromal involvement.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S41711
PMCID: PMC3604973  PMID: 23525143
neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio; platelet-lymphocyte ratio; endometrioid adenocarcinoma; cervical stromal involvement
21.  SUBUNIT-SPECIFIC POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TARGETING HUMAN ρ1 GABAC RECEPTOR 
Experimental eye research  2011;93(1):59-64.
The GABAC receptor, a postsynaptic membrane receptor expressed prominently in the retina, is a ligand-gated ion channel that consists of a combination of ρ subunits. We report characterization of a novel guinea pig polyclonal antibody, termed GABAC Ab N-14, directed against a 14-mer peptide (N-14) of the extracellular domain of the human ρ1 subunit. The antibody exhibits high sensitivity for N-14 by ELISA. In Western blots, GABAC Ab N-14 shows reactivity with the ρ1 subunit of preparations obtained from ρ1 GABAC-expressing neuroblastoma cells, Xenopus oocytes, and mammalian retina and brain. Flow cytometry reveals a rightward shift in mean fluorescence intensity of GABAC-expressing neuroblastoma cells probed with GABAC Ab N-14. Immunostaining of neuroblastoma cells and oocytes with GABAC Ab N-14 yields fluorescence only with GABAC-expressing cells. Antibody binding has no effect on GABA-elicited membrane current responses. Immunostaining of human retinal sections shows preferential staining within the inner plexiform layer. GABAC Ab N-14 appears well suited for investigative studies of GABAC ρ1 subunit in retina and other neural tissues.
doi:10.1016/j.exer.2011.04.009
PMCID: PMC3138833  PMID: 21536029
GABA receptor; GABAC; retina; ρ1 subunit; antibody
22.  R-CHOP regimen can significantly decrease the risk of disease relapse and progression in patients with non-germinal center B-cell subtype diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2012;31(6):306-314.
To further explore the role of rituximab when added to the CHOP-like regimen in the treatment of immunohistochemically defined non-germinal center B-cell subtype (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 159 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients were studied retrospectively based on the immunohistochemical evaluation of CD10, Bcl-6, MUM-1, and Bcl-2. Altogether, 110 patients underwent the CHOP-like regimen, and rituximab was added for the other 49 patients. Cox regression analysis showed that compared with the CHOP-like regimen, the rituximab-based regimen (R-CHOP regimen) significantly decreased the risk of disease relapse and progression in CD10-negative patients (P = 0.001), Bcl-6-negative patients (P = 0.01), and MUM-1-positive patients (P = 0.003). The risk of disease relapse in patients with non-GCB subtype (P = 0.002) also decreased. In contrast, patients with the opposite immunohistochemical marker expression profile and GCB subtype did not benefit from treatment with the R-CHOP regimen. In addition, non-GCB subtype patients had a significantly higher expression rate of Bcl-2 than GCB subtype patients (P = 0.042). Although univariate analysis found that both Bcl-2-positive and -negative patients had significantly higher event-free survival rates with the R-CHOP regimen, only Bcl-2 positivity (P = 0.004) maintained significance in the Cox regression analysis. We conclude that the addition of rituximab can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with non-GCB subtype DLBCL, which is closely related to the expression of CD10, Bcl-6, MUM-1, and Bcl-2.
doi:10.5732/cjc.011.10420
PMCID: PMC3777489  PMID: 22640627
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; rituximab; chemotherapy; NF-κB; immunohistochemistry
23.  Tris(5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole-κN 3)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)nickel(II) 
The title mononuclear complex, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C9H10N2)3], shows a central NiII atom which is coordinated by two carboxyl­ate O atoms and the N atom from a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate ligand and by three N atoms from different 5,6-dimethyl-1H-­benzimidazole ligands in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The crystal structure shows intermolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812019502
PMCID: PMC3379080  PMID: 22719301
24.  Tris(1H-benzimidazole-κN 3)(pyridine-2,6-dicarb­oxy­lato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)nickel(II) 
In the title complex, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C7H6N2)3], the NiII ion is coordinated by two carboxyl­ate O atoms and the N atom from a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate ligand and by three N atoms from three benzimidazole ligands to form a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812019514
PMCID: PMC3379081  PMID: 22719302
25.  Homonymous Quadrantanopsia as the First Manifestation of Cerebral Metastasis of Invasive Mole: a case report 
Introduction
Homonymous quadrantanopsia results from retrochiasmal lesions in the visual pathway. Invasive mole is a benign tumor that arises from myometrial invasion of a hydatidiform mole via direct extension through tissue or venous channels. Cerebral metastasis of invasive mole is rare and there has been no report demonstrating homonymous quadrantanopsia as the first manifestation of metastasis in any trophoblastic neoplasms.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 31-year-old Asian woman who presented with right homonymous inferior quadrantanopsia from the mass effect of a solitary cerebral metastasis from an invasive mole. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the brain showed a metastatic tumor in the left occipital lobe. The visual field improved slightly after chemotherapy. There was a reduction in the tumor size and the surrounding edema. This is the first case report demonstrating that homonymous quadrantanopsia should be included in the manifestations of the metastasis of an invasive mole.
Conclusions
The presentation of homonymous quadrantanopsia must alert ophthalmologists to conduct a complete medical history and arrange specialist consultation.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-117
PMCID: PMC3353198  PMID: 22531212
Cerebral metastasis; Homonymous Quadrantanopsia; Invasive mole

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