Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by altered bowel habits, persistent pain and discomfort, and typically colorectal hypersensitivity. Linaclotide, a peripherally-restricted 14-amino acid peptide approved for the treatment of IBS with constipation, relieves constipation and reduces IBS-associated pain in these patients presumably by activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), which stimulates production and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from intestinal epithelial cells. We investigated whether activation of GC-C by the endogenous agonist uroguanylin or the primary downstream effector of that activation, cGMP, directly modulates responses and sensitization of mechanosensitive colorectal primary afferents. The distal 2 cm of mouse colorectum with attached pelvic nerve was harvested, pinned flat mucosal side up for in vitro single-fiber recordings and the encoding properties of mechanosensitive afferents (serosal, mucosal, muscular and muscular-mucosal) to probing and circumferential stretch studied. Both cGMP (10–300μM) and uroguanylin (1–1000nM) applied directly to colorectal receptive endings significantly reduced responses of muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents to stretch; serosal and mucosal afferents were not affected. Sensitized responses (i.e., increased responses to stretch) of muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents were reversed by cGMP, returning responses to stretch to control. Blocking the transport of cGMP from colorectal epithelia by probenecid, a mechanism validated by studies in cultured intestinal T84 cells, abolished the inhibitory effect of uroguanylin on muscular-mucosal afferents. These results suggest that GC-C agonists like linaclotide alleviate colorectal pain and hypersensitivity by dampening stretch-sensitive afferent mechanosensitivity and normalizing afferent sensitization.
RhoE, a novel member of the Rho protein family, is a key regulator of the cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our group has previously shown that RhoE as a direct target for HIF-1α and mediates hypoxia-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, we assumed that RhoE might play an important role in gastric cancer metastasis. In the present study, we have explored the role of RhoE expression in gastric cancer, cell invasion and metastasis, and the influence of RhoE on regulating the potential expression of down-stream genes. RhoE expression was elevated in gastric cancer tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. We also found a close correlation between the histological grade and the diagnosis of the patient. Up-regulation of RhoE significantly enhanced the migratory and invasive abilities of gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, down-regulation of RhoE diminished the metastatic potential of cancer cells. PCR array and subsequent transwell assay showed that the regulation of gastric cancer metastasis by RhoE was partially mediated by CXCR4. This observation suggested that CXCR4 might be a downstream effector for RhoE. In summary, our study identified RhoE as a novel prognostic biomarker and metastatic-promoting gene of gastric cancer.
This study aimed to determine the suitability of the Chinese version of the Hypomania Symptom Checklist (HCL-32) scale for psychiatric department outpatients with mood disorders in Chinese general hospitals, and provide a theoretical basis for the application of the HCL-32 scale.
Outpatients with mood disorders receiving continuous treatment in the psychiatric medicine department of three top-ranking general hospitals in three cities completed scoring the HCL-32 scale.
A total of 1010 patients were recruited. 417 were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (236 for type I and 181 for type II) and 593 were depression. Four factors with eigenvalues >1 were considered. Factor 1 with an eigenvalue of 5.5 was labeled “active/cheerful”. Factor 2 with an eigenvalue of 2.7 was labeled “adventurous/irritable.” The coefficient of internal consistency reliability of the HCL-32 total scale was 0.84, and the coefficients for factors 1 and 2 were 0.84 and 0.88, respectively. With the total score of HCL-32≥14 as positive standard, the sensitivity of HCL-32 was calculated at 69.30% and the specificity was 97.81%.
Results showed that HCL-32 had a preferable reliability and validity and was suitable as auxiliary means for bipolar disorder screening in general hospitals.
MAP kinase Phosphatase 3 (MKP-3) was recently identified as an important regulator of glucose homeostasis in the liver and its expression can be repressed by insulin at post transcriptional level. In this study, the mechanism underlying insulin promoted decrease of MKP-3 protein was investigated by studying MKP-3 protein stability via immunoblot analysis in the presence of cycloheximide using cultured liver cells. Several pathways were examined and activation of the MEK/ERK pathway was found to mediate reduction of MKP-3 protein expression in response to insulin. MEK inhibitor markedly slowed down MKP-3 protein degradation. Mutation of two ERK phosphorylation sites on MKP-3 rendered it resistant to insulin and constitutively active MEK-induced MKP-3 protein degradation. To understand the biological effect of MKP-3 protein stability on liver cell glucose output, expression level of G6Pase gene, which encodes the key enzyme controlling the last step of de novo glucose synthesis in liver cells, was examined by real time PCR analysis upon manipulation of MEK signaling. Activation of MEK pathway in Fao cells resulted in decreased expression of G6Pase gene and lowered glucose output. Consistent with this result, MEK inhibitor increased expression of G6Pase gene and glucose output in Fao cells. In conclusion, insulin likely promotes MKP-3 protein degradation through activation of MEK/ERK pathway in liver cells and MKP-3 protein level affects the capability of Fao cells to output glucose.
MAP kinase phosphatase; glucose output; protein degradation
A combination of molecular-targeted cancer imaging and therapy is an emerging strategy to improve cancer diagnosis and minimize the side effects of conventional treatments. Here, we generated a recombinant protein, EC1-GLuc-p53C, by fusing EC1 peptide, an artificial ligand of ErbB2, with Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) and a p53-activating peptide, p53C. EC1-GLuc-p53C was expressed and purified from E. coli BL21. In vitro experiments showed that EC1-GLuc-p53c was stable in luminescent activity and selectively targeted ErbB2-overexpressing BT474 cells for bioluminescence imaging. Moreover, the internalized EC1-GLuc-p53C in BT474 cells exerted its function to reactivate p53 and significantly inhibited cellular proliferation. In tumor-bearing mice, the ErbB2-targeted bioluminescence imaging and therapeutic effect of EC1-GLuc-p53C were also observed specifically in BT474 tumors but not in MCF7 tumors, which does not overexpress ErbB2. Thus, the present study demonstrates EC1-GLuc-p53C to be an effective theranostic reagent targeting ErbB2 for bioluminescence imaging and cancer therapy.
To determine the prevalence and distribution of human enteroviruses (HEVs) among healthy children in Shenzhen, China.
Clinical specimens were obtained from 320 healthy children under 5 years old in Shenzhen, China from 2010 to 2011. The specimens were evaluated using real-time PCR and cell cultures. The positive specimens were further tested using reverse transcription-seminested PCR (RT-snPCR). Molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis were based on the sequence determined.
Among the 320 samples, 34 were tested positive for HEVs (10.6%) and 22 different serotypes were identified using RT-snPCR. PV1 and PV2 were also detected. The predominant serotype observed was EV71 (17.6%), followed by CV-B4 (14.7%). HEV-B was detected most frequently, with an overall prevalence of 47.1%. HEV-A and HEV-C were found in 32.3% and 20.6% of the samples, respectively. No HEV-D was identified. Molecular phylogeny indicated that all EV71 strains were of C4 genotype.
Although a variety of HEVs was detected in healthy children, HEV-B was relatively more prevalent than other HEV species. Considering HEV-A is more prevalent than HEV-B among patients with hand-foot-mouth disease, additional long-term surveillance of HEV is warranted in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a form of inherited mental retardation in humans that results from expansion of a CGG repeat in the Fmr1 gene. Recent studies suggest a role of astrocytes in neuronal development. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation process of astrocytes from FXS remain unclear. In this study, we found that astrocytes derived from a Fragile X model, the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse which lacks FMRP expression, inhibited the proper elaboration of dendritic processes of neurons in vitro. Furthermore, astrocytic conditioned medium (ACM) from KO astrocytes inhibited proper dendritic growth of both wild-type (WT) and KO neurons. Inducing expression of FMRP by transfection of FMRP vectors in KO astrocytes restored dendritic morphology and levels of synaptic proteins. Further experiments revealed elevated levels of the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in KO ACM and the prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. However, the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were normal. FMRP has multiple RNA–binding motifs and is involved in translational regulation. RNA–binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) showed the NT-3 mRNA interacted with FMRP in WT astrocytes. Addition of high concentrations of exogenous NT-3 to culture medium reduced the dendrites of neurons and synaptic protein levels, whereas these measures were ameliorated by neutralizing antibody to NT-3 or knockdown of NT-3 expression in KO astrocytes through short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Prefrontal cortex microinjection of WT astrocytes or NT-3 shRNA infected KO astrocytes rescued the deficit of trace fear memory in KO mice, concomitantly decreased the NT-3 levels in the prefrontal cortex. This study indicates that excessive NT-3 from astrocytes contributes to the abnormal neuronal dendritic development and that astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target for FXS.
Fragile X syndrome is a form of inherited mental retardation in humans that results from expansion of a CGG repeat in the Fmr1 gene. Recent studies suggest that astrocytes play a role in neuronal growth. In this study, we find that astrocytes derived from a Fragile X model, the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, inhibit the proper elaboration of dendritic processes of neurons in vitro. Excessive neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is released in the astrocytes from Fmr1 KO mice. Blockage of NT-3 by neutralizing antibodies and knockdown of NT-3 by using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in Fmr1 KO astrocytes can rescue the neuronal dendritic development. In vivo experiments show that prefrontal cortex microinjection of WT astrocytes or NT-3 shRNA–infected KO astrocytes rescues the deficit of trace fear memory in KO mice. This study provides the evidence that a lack of FMRP leads to an overexpression of NT-3, which reduces dendritic growth in neurons.
Coronins are a family of highly evolutionary conserved proteins reportedly involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, although only coronin 3 has been shown to be related to cancer cell migration. In glioblastoma cells, the knockdown of coronin 3 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion. Coronin 3 is also associated with the aggression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this paper, we analyze the migration, invasion and metastasis abilities of gastric cancer cells after up- or down-regulation of coronin 3, and explore the mechanism of coronin 3 in the process of gastric cancer metastasis.
The expression of coronin 3 was higher in the highly metastatic sub-cell line MKN28-M, which we established in our laboratory. We also demonstrated that the expression of coronin 3 was remarkably higher in lymph lode metastases than in primary gastric cancer tissues, and over-expression of coronin 3 was correlated with the increased clinical stage and lymph lode metastasis. Recombinant lentiviral vectors encoding shRNAs were designed to down-regulate coronin 3 expression in gastric cancer cell lines. Stable knockdown of coronin 3 by this lentiviral vector could efficiently inhibit the migration and invasion of MKN45 gastric cancer cells. In contrast, up-regulation of coronin 3 significantly enhanced migration and invasion of MKN28-NM cells. In addition, knockdown of coronin 3 significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after tail vein injection of gastric cancer cells. The Human Tumor Metastasis PCR Array was used to screen the metastasis-associated genes identified by the down-regulation of coronin 3, and the results suggested that, following the knockdown of coronin 3, the tumor cell migration and invasion were inhibited by the reduced expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin K.
Coronin 3 is highly expressed in gastric cancer metastases and can promote the metastatic behaviors of gastric cancer cells, including their migration and invasion.
Coronin 3; Gastric cancer; Metastasis; MMP-9; Cathepsin K
MAP kinase phosphatase 3 (MKP-3) is known to attenuate the ERK signaling pathway. It has been recently demonstrated that MKP-3 is also a player in promoting hepatic glucose output in obese state by interacting and activating FOXO1. Reduction of hepatic MKP-3 expression is sufficient to reduce blood glucose levels in both diet-induced and genetically obese mice.
In current study, the mechanism of MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction and the effects on transcription of gluconeogenic gene and glucose output was investigated in Fao hepatoma cells by using mutated MKP-3 and FOXO1 adenoviral constructs. The results indicate that MKP-3 phosphatase activity is not required for MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction but is essential for FOXO1 nuclear translocation and MKP-3 promoted gluconeogenesis. Compared to GFP control (1±0.38), MKP-3 increased G6Pase gene expression by 242% (3.42±0.62) while inactive MKP-3 does not change G6Pase expression (0.98±0.17). The residues 200–260 of MKP-3 and the residues 360–456 of FOXO1 are essential for mediating MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction. Interestingly, ERK phosphorylation deficient but not Akt phosphorylation deficient FOXO1 mutant lost interaction with MKP-3. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that Akt phosphorylation resistant FOXO1 3A mutant is sufficient to rescue the hypoglycemia caused by MKP-3 knock down in the liver of lean mice (from 141±6.78 to 209±14.64 mg/dL).
1) Critical residues mediating MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction have been identified; 2) ERK phosphorylation deficient FOXO1 mutant is as potent as Akt phosphorylation deficient FOXO1 mutant in activating transcription of gluconeogenic genes; 3) Constitutively active FOXO1 can rescue the hypoglycemic effect caused by reduced hepatic MKP-3 expression in vivo.
Glucocorticoids play a pivotal role in the proliferation of osteoblasts, but the underlying mechanism has not been successfully elucidated. In this report, we have investigated the molecular mechanism which elucidates the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. It was found that the inhibitory effects were largely attributed to apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. Both the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were dependent on glucocorticoid receptor (GR), as they were abolished by GR blocker RU486 pre-treatment and GR interference. G1 phase arrest and apoptosis were accompanied with a p53-dependent up-regulation of p21 and pro-apoptotic genes NOXA and PUMA. We also proved that dexamethasone can’t induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest when p53 was inhibited by p53 RNA interference. These data demonstrate that proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell was significantly and directly inhibited by dexamethasone treatment via aberrant GR activation and subsequently P53 activation.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the absence of the mRNA-binding protein Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), encoded by the Fmr1 gene. Overactive signaling by group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (Grp1 mGluR) could contribute to slowed synaptic development and other symptoms of FXS. Our previous study has identified that facilitation of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) by D1 receptor is impaired in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice. However, the contribution of Grp1 mGluR to the facilitation of synaptic plasticity by D1 receptor stimulation in the prefrontal cortex has been less extensively studied.
Here we demonstrated that DL-AP3, a Grp1 mGluR antagonist, rescued LTP facilitation by D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 in Fmr1KO mice. Grp1 mGluR inhibition restored the GluR1-subtype AMPA receptors surface insertion by D1 activation in the cultured Fmr1KO neurons. Simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist recovered the D1 receptor signaling by reversing the subcellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in the Fmr1KO neurons. Treatment of SKF81297 alone failed to increase the phosphorylation of NR2B-containing N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at Tyr-1472 (p-NR2B-Tyr1472) in the cultures from KO mice. However, simultaneous treatment of DL-AP3 could rescue the level of p-NR2B-Tyr1472 by SKF81297 in the cultures from KO mice. Furthermore, behavioral tests indicated that simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist inhibited hyperactivity and improved the learning ability in the Fmr1KO mice.
The findings demonstrate that mGluR1 inhibition is a useful strategy to recover D1 receptor signaling in the Fmr1KO mice, and combination of Grp1 mGluR antagonist and D1 agonist is a potential drug therapy for the FXS.
Group I mGluRs; Dopamine; Long-term potentiation prefrontal cortex
Baiyangdian (BYD) virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R0 = 21) indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average) for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.
Obesity-related adipose inflammation has been thought to be a causal factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue of obese animals and humans are an important source for inflammatory cytokines. Clodronate liposomes can ablate macrophages by inducing apoptosis. In this study, we aim to determine whether peritoneal injection of clodronate liposomes has any beneficial effect on systemic glucose homeostasis/insulin sensitivity and whether macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue will be reduced in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.
Clodronate liposomes were used to deplete macrophages in lean and DIO mice. Macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue, metabolic parameters, glucose and insulin tolerance, adipose and liver histology, adipokine and cytokine production were examined. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was also performed to assess systemic insulin sensitivity. Peritoneal injection of clodronate liposomes significantly reduced blood glucose and insulin levels in DIO mice. Systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were mildly improved in both lean and DIO mice treated with clodronate liposomes by intraperitoneal (ip) injection. Hepatosteatosis was dramatically alleviated and suppression of hepatic glucose output was markedly increased in DIO mice treated with clodronate liposomes. Macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue of DIO mice was effectively decreased without affecting subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, levels of insulin sensitizing hormone adiponectin, including the high molecular weight form, were significantly elevated in circulation.
Intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes reduces visceral adipose tissue macrophages, improves systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice, which can be partially attributable to increased adiponectin levels.
Background & Aims
Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely discomfort/pain and colorectal hypersensitivity. In mice, we examined the role of P2X3 receptors in colon mechanosensitivity and intracolonic zymosan-produced hypersensitivity, a model of persistent colon hypersensitivity without colon inflammation.
The visceromotor response (VMR) to colon distension (15 – 60 mmHg) was determined before and after intracolonic saline or zymosan (30 mg/mL, 0.1 mL, daily for 3 days) treatment. Colon pathology and intracolonic ATP release was assessed in parallel experiments. To examine P2X3 receptor contributions to colon mechanosensation and hypersensitivity, electrophysiological experiments were performed using an in vitro colon-pelvic nerve preparation.
VMRs to distension were significantly reduced in P2X3+/−and P2X3−/− mice relative to wildtype mice. Colon hypersensitivity produced by zymosan was virtually absent in P2X3−/− relative to wildtype or P2X3+/− mice. Intralumenal release of the endogenous P2X receptor ligand ATP did not differ between wildtype and P2X3−/− mice or change after intracolonic zymosan treatment. Responses of muscular and muscular-mucosal pelvic nerve afferents to mechanical stretch did not differ between P2X3−/− and wildtype mice. Both muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents in wildtype mice sensitized to application of an inflammatory soup, whereas only muscular-mucosal afferents did so in P2X3−/− mice.
These results suggest differential roles for peripheral and central P2X3 receptors in colon mechanosensory transduction and hypersensitivity.
Insulin resistance results in dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis that contributes to obesity-related hyperglycemia and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies show that MAPK phosphatase–3 (MKP-3) promotes gluconeogenic gene transcription in hepatoma cells, but little is known about the physiological role of MKP-3 in vivo. Here, we have shown that expression of MKP-3 is markedly increased in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. Consistent with this, adenovirus-mediated MKP-3 overexpression in lean mice promoted gluconeogenesis and increased fasting blood glucose levels. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of MKP-3 in both lean and obese mice resulted in decreased fasting blood glucose levels. In vitro experiments identified forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) as a substrate for MKP-3. MKP-3–mediated dephosphorylation of FOXO1 at Ser256 promoted its nuclear translocation and subsequent recruitment to the promoters of key gluconeogenic genes. In addition, we showed that PPARγ coactivator–1α (PGC-1α) acted downstream of FOXO1 to mediate MKP-3–induced gluconeogenesis. These data indicate that MKP-3 is an important regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo and suggest that inhibition of MKP-3 activity may provide new therapies for T2DM.
A cardinal feature of malignant melanoma is its metastatic propensity. An incomplete view of the genetic events driving metastatic progression has been a major barrier to rational development of effective therapeutics and prognostic diagnostics for melanoma patients. In this study, we conducted global genomic characterization of primary and metastatic melanomas to examine the genomic landscape associated with metastatic progression. In addition to uncovering three genomic subclasses of metastastic melanomas, we delineated 39 focal and recurrent regions of amplification and deletions, many of which encompassed resident genes that have not been implicated in cancer or metastasis. To identify progression-associated metastasis gene candidates, we applied a statistical approach, Integrative Genome Comparison (IGC), to define 32 genomic regions of interest that were significantly altered in metastatic relative to primary melanomas, encompassing 30 resident genes with statistically significant expression deregulation. Functional assays on a subset of these candidates, including MET, ASPM, AKAP9, IMP3, PRKCA, RPA3, and SCAP2, validated their pro-invasion activities in human melanoma cells. Validity of the IGC approach was further reinforced by tissue microarray analysis of Survivin showing significant increased protein expression in thick versus thin primary cutaneous melanomas, and a progression correlation with lymph node metastases. Together, these functional validation results and correlative analysis of human tissues support the thesis that integrated genomic and pathological analyses of staged melanomas provide a productive entry point for discovery of melanoma metastases genes.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer with poorly characterized genetics. We performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization on 25 MCC specimens using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. Tumors frequently carried extra copies of chromosomes 1, 3q, 5p, and 6 and lost chromosomes 3p, 4, 5q, 7, 10 and 13. MCC tumors with less genomic aberration were associated with improved survival (p=0.04). Tumors from 13 of 22 MCC patients had detectable Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA, and these tumors had fewer genomic deletions. Three regions of genomic alteration were of particular interest: a deletion of 5q12-21 occurred in 26% of tumors, a deletion of 13q14-21 was recurrent in 26% of tumors and contains the well-characterized tumor suppressor RB1, and a novel focal amplification at 1p34 was present in 39% of tumors and centers on L-Myc (MYCL1). L-Myc is related to the c-Myc proto-oncogene, has transforming activity, and is amplified in the closely related small cell lung cancer. Normal skin showed no L-Myc expression, while 4/4 MCC specimens tested expressed L-Myc RNA in relative proportion to the DNA copy number gain. These findings suggest several genes that may contribute to MCC pathogenesis, most notably L-Myc.
Merkel cell carcinoma; comparative genomic hybridization; L-Myc; Merkel cell polyomavirus; genetics
Highly rearranged and mutated cancer genomes present major challenges in the identification of pathogenetic events driving the neoplastic transformation process. Here we engineered lymphoma-prone mice with chromosomal instability to assess the usefulness of mouse models in cancer gene discovery and the extent of cross-species overlap in cancer-associated copy number aberrations. Along with targeted re-sequencing, our comparative oncogenomic studies identified FBXW7 and PTEN to be commonly deleted both in murine lymphomas and in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). The murine cancers acquire widespread recurrent amplifications and deletions targeting loci syntenic to those not only in human T-ALL but also in diverse human haematopoietic, mesenchymal and epithelial tumours. These results indicate that murine and human tumours experience common biological processes driven by orthologous genetic events in their malignant evolution. The highly concordant nature of genomic events encourages the use of genomically unstable murine cancer models in the discovery of biological driver events in the human oncogenome.
The photovoltaic properties of solar cell based on the blends of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), fullerene (C60), and ZnCdTe-alloyed nanocrystals were investigated. Comparing the spectral response of photocurrent of the MEH-PPV:C60 (+ZnCdTe) nanocomposite device with that of the devices based on MEH-PPV:C60 and pristine MEH-PPV, one can find that the nanocomposite device exhibits an enhanced photocurrent. In comparing the composite devices with different ZnCdTe:[MEH-PPV + C60] weight ratios of 10 wt% (D1–1), 20 wt% (D1–2), 40 wt% (D1–3), and 70 wt% (D1–4), it was found that the device D1–3 exhibits the best performance. The power conversion efficiency (η) is improved doubly compared with that of the MEH-PPV:C60 device.
ZnCdTe; Alloy; Nanocrystals; Heterojuction; Solar cell
The photovoltaic properties of solar cell based on the blends of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), fullerene (C60), and ZnCdTe-alloyed nanocrystals were investigated. Comparing the spectral response of photocurrent of the MEH-PPV:C60(+ZnCdTe) nanocomposite device with that of the devices based on MEH-PPV:C60and pristine MEH-PPV, one can find that the nanocomposite device exhibits an enhanced photocurrent. In comparing the composite devices with different ZnCdTe:[MEH-PPV + C60] weight ratios of 10 wt% (D1–1), 20 wt% (D1–2), 40 wt% (D1–3), and 70 wt% (D1–4), it was found that the device D1–3exhibits the best performance. The power conversion efficiency (η) is improved doubly compared with that of the MEH-PPV:C60device.
ZnCdTe; Alloy; Nanocrystals; Heterojuction; Solar cell
Globally, about 20% of cultivated land is now affected by salinity. Salt tolerance is a trait of importance to all crops in saline soils. Previous efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants have met with only limited success. Bacteria of the genus Deinococcus are known for their ability to survive highly stressful conditions, and therefore possess a unique pool of genes conferring extreme resistance. In Deinococcus radiodurans, the irrE gene encodes a global regulator responsible for extreme radioresistance.
Using plate assays, we showed that IrrE protected E. coli cells against salt shock and other abiotic stresses such as oxidative, osmotic and thermal shocks. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that IrrE functions as a switch to regulate different sets of proteins such as stress responsive proteins, protein kinases, glycerol-degrading enzymes, detoxification proteins, and growth-related proteins in E. coli. We also used quantitative RT-PCR to investigate expression of nine selected stress-responsive genes in transgenic and wild-type Brassica napus plants. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing the IrrE protein can tolerate 350 mM NaCl, a concentration that inhibits the growth of almost all crop plants.
Expression of IrrE, a global regulator for extreme radiation resistance in D. radiodurans, confers significantly enhanced salt tolerance in both E. coli and B. napus. We thus propose that the irrE gene might be used as a potentially promising transgene to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crop plants.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the MYB oncogene is frequently duplicated in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We find that the human MYB locus is flanked by 257-bp Alu repeats and that the duplication is mediated somatically by homologous recombination between the flanking Alu elements on sister chromatids. Nested long-range PCR analysis indicated a low frequency of homologous recombination leading to MYB tandem duplication in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ∼50% of healthy individuals, none of whom had a MYB duplication in the germline. We conclude that Alu-mediated MYB tandem duplication occurs at low frequency during normal thymocyte development and is clonally selected during the molecular pathogenesis of human T-ALL.
This paper describes the development of the Chinese Quality of Life Instrument (ChQOL) which is a self-report health status instrument. Chinese Medicine relies very much on asking subjective feelings of patients in the process of diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. For thousands of years, Chinese Medicine practitioners have accumulated a good wealth of experiences in asking questions about health of their patients based on the concept of health in Chinese Medicine. These experiences were then transformed into questions for the ChQOL. It is believed that ChQOL can contribute to the existing Patient Report Outcome measures. This paper outlines the concept of health and disease in Traditional Chinese Medicine, the building of the conceptual framework of the ChQOL, the steps of drafting, selecting and validating the items, and the psychometric properties of the ChQOL.
The development of the ChQOL was based on the concept of health in Traditional Chinese Medicine with a theory driven approach. Based on the results of literature review, the research team developed an initial model of health which encompassed the concept of health in TCM. An expert panel was then invited to comment and give suggestions for improvement of the initial model. According to their suggestions, the model was refined and a set of initial items for the ChQOL was drafted. The refined model, together with the key domains, facets and initial items of the ChQOL were then mailed to a sample of about 100 Chinese medicine practitioners throughout Mainland China for their comments and advice. A revised set of items were developed for linguistic testing by a convenience sample consisting of both healthy people and people who attended Chinese Medicine treatment. After that, an item pool was developed for field-testing. Field test was conducted on a convenience sample of healthy and patient subjects to determine the construct validity and psychometric properties of the ChQOL.
Construct validity was established by various methods, i.e. the internal consistency in all facets and domains were good; the correlation between facets to domain, and domains to overall ChQOL correlation were high; confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structure fitness of all facets, domain and overall structure were good with CFI > 0.9. Test-retest reliability was also good, especially in the domain scores with ICC value ranging from 0.83 to 0.90. No ceiling or floor effect was noted which indicated that ChQOL can be applied to subjects with a wide range of health status. Most facet scores, domain scores and the overall CHQOL scores were able to discriminate groups of subjects with known differences in health status. The ChQOL had mild positive convergence with the other generic health related QOL measures, i.e. the WHOQOL-100 and the SF-36, with moderate correlations.
In conclusion, the study indicated that the ChQOL is conceptually valid with satisfactory psychometric properties. It can provide additional information on health and QOL on top of the existing generic health related QOL measures. Furthermore, it forms basis for further testing and applications in clinical trials.
Quality of life; self-reported health status; theory driven approach; Ying-yang, structure fitness, validation, psychometric properties; the Chinese Quality of Life instrument
1,8-Dihydroxynaphthalene (1,8-DHN) is a fungal polyketide that contributes to virulence when polymerized to 1,8-DHN melanin in the cell walls of Wangiella dermatitidis, an agent of phaeohyphomycosis in humans. To begin a genetic analysis of the initial synthetic steps leading to 1,8-DHN melanin biosynthesis, a 772-bp PCR product was amplified from genomic DNA using primers based on conserved regions of fungal polyketide synthases (Pks) known to produce the first cyclized 1,8-DHN-melanin pathway intermediate, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene. The cloned PCR product was then used as a targeting sequence to disrupt the putative polyketide synthase gene, WdPKS1, in W. dermatitidis. The resulting wdpks1Δ disruptants showed no morphological defects other than an albino phenotype and grew at the same rate as their black wild-type parent. Using a marker rescue approach, the intact WdPKS1 gene was then successfully recovered from two plasmids. The WdPKS1 gene was also isolated independently by complementation of the mel3 mutation in an albino mutant of W. dermatitidis using a cosmid library. Sequence analysis substantiated that WdPKS1 encoded a putative polyketide synthase (WdPks1p) in a single open reading frame consisting of three exons separated by two short introns. This conclusion was supported by the identification of highly conserved Pks domains for a β-ketoacyl synthase, an acetyl-malonyl transferase, two acyl carrier proteins, and a thioesterase in the deduced amino acid sequence. Studies using a neutrophil killing assay and a mouse acute-infection model confirmed that all wdpks1Δ strains were less resistant to killing and less virulent, respectively, than their wild-type parent. Reconstitution of 1,8-DHN melanin biosynthesis in a wdpks1Δ strain reestablished its resistance to killing by neutrophils and its ability to cause fatal mouse infections.
The two types of adipose tissue in humans, white and brown, have distinct developmental origins and functions. Human white adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis by storing triglycerides when energy is in surplus, releasing free fatty acids as a fuel during energy shortage, and secreting adipokines that are important for regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. The size of white adipose mass needs to be kept at a proper set point. Dramatic expansion of white fat mass causes obesity—now become a global epidemic disease—and increases the risk for the development of many life-threatening diseases. The absence of white adipose tissue or abnormal white adipose tissue redistribution leads to lipodystrophy, a condition often associated with metabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ whose mass is inversely correlated with body mass index and age. Therapeutic approaches targeting adipose tissue have been proven to be effective in improving obesity-related metabolic disorders, and promising new therapies could be developed in the near future.
WAT; BAT; obesity; lipodystrophy