Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase gene have recently been described in a subset of non–small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Because little is known about these tumors, we examined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with NSCLC with ROS1 rearrangement.
Patients and Methods
Using a ROS1 fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, we screened 1,073 patients with NSCLC and correlated ROS1 rearrangement status with clinical characteristics, overall survival, and when available, ALK rearrangement status. In vitro studies assessed the responsiveness of cells with ROS1 rearrangement to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. The clinical response of one patient with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC to crizotinib was investigated as part of an expanded phase I cohort.
Of 1,073 tumors screened, 18 (1.7%) were ROS1 rearranged by FISH, and 31 (2.9%) were ALK rearranged. Compared with the ROS1-negative group, patients with ROS1 rearrangements were significantly younger and more likely to be never-smokers (each P < .001). All of the ROS1-positive tumors were adenocarcinomas, with a tendency toward higher grade. ROS1-positive and -negative groups showed no difference in overall survival. The HCC78 ROS1-rearranged NSCLC cell line and 293 cells transfected with CD74-ROS1 showed evidence of sensitivity to crizotinib. The patient treated with crizotinib showed tumor shrinkage, with a near complete response.
ROS1 rearrangement defines a molecular subset of NSCLC with distinct clinical characteristics that are similar to those observed in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Crizotinib shows in vitro activity and early evidence of clinical activity in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. Using an in vitro cell-based HCV replicon and JFH-1 infection system, we demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) concentration-dependently inhibited HCV replication at nontoxic concentrations. AEGT synergistically enhanced interferon-α (IFN-α) anti-HCV activity in a combination treatment. We found that AEGT also significantly suppressed virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression at promoter transactivation and protein levels. Notably, addition of exogenous COX-2 expression in AEGT-treated HCV replicon cells gradually abolished AEGT anti-HCV activity, suggesting that COX-2 down-regulation was responsible for AEGT antiviral effects. Furthermore, we highlighted the inhibitory effect of AEGT in HCV-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression such as the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitrite oxide synthase and COX-2 in a concentration-dependent manner to evaluate the potential therapeutic supplement in the management of patients with chronic HCV infections.
The opportunistic enterobacterium, Morganella morganii, which can cause bacteraemia, is the ninth most prevalent cause of clinical infections in patients at Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan. The KT strain of M. morganii was isolated during postoperative care of a cancer patient with a gallbladder stone who developed sepsis caused by bacteraemia. M. morganii is sometimes encountered in nosocomial settings and has been causally linked to catheter-associated bacteriuria, complex infections of the urinary and/or hepatobiliary tracts, wound infection, and septicaemia. M. morganii infection is associated with a high mortality rate, although most patients respond well to appropriate antibiotic therapy. To obtain insights into the genome biology of M. morganii and the mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity, we used Illumina technology to sequence the genome of the KT strain and compared its sequence with the genome sequences of related bacteria.
The 3,826,919-bp sequence contained in 58 contigs has a GC content of 51.15% and includes 3,565 protein-coding sequences, 72 tRNA genes, and 10 rRNA genes. The pathogenicity-related genes encode determinants of drug resistance, fimbrial adhesins, an IgA protease, haemolysins, ureases, and insecticidal and apoptotic toxins as well as proteins found in flagellae, the iron acquisition system, a type-3 secretion system (T3SS), and several two-component systems. Comparison with 14 genome sequences from other members of Enterobacteriaceae revealed different degrees of similarity to several systems found in M. morganii. The most striking similarities were found in the IS4 family of transposases, insecticidal toxins, T3SS components, and proteins required for ethanolamine use (eut operon) and cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthesis. The eut operon and the gene cluster for cobalamin biosynthesis are not present in the other Proteeae genomes analysed. Moreover, organisation of the 19 genes of the eut operon differs from that found in the other non-Proteeae enterobacterial genomes.
This is the first genome sequence of M. morganii, which is a clinically relevant pathogen. Comparative genome analysis revealed several pathogenicity-related genes and novel genes not found in the genomes of other members of Proteeae. Thus, the genome sequence of M. morganii provides important information concerning virulence and determinants of fitness in this pathogen.
Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment(CI) and the associated risk factors among elderly people in Shanghai urban area, China.
A population-based survey was conducted among people aged 55 years or older in urban areas of Shanghai. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to collect information including demographic characteristics, medical history, and medication use, etc. The validated Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE) was used to screen subjects with CI, and the criteria of CI were adjusted for education levels.
A total of 3,176 home-living residents (≥55 years old) were included in the study. Among them, 266 people (102 men and 164 women) were identified as cognition impaired, with a prevalence of 8.38% (266/3,176, 95% CI: (8.26, 8.49)) for both genders, 9.21% (102/1,107,95% CI: (9.18, 9.33)) for men and 7.93% (164/2,069, 95% CI: (7.80, 8.09)) for women, respectively. Furthermore, we found that several significant risk factors, including social factors(education, number of children, marriage status, and family structure), physiological factors (age, blood glucose level, and obesity), factors on living styles(physical exercise, diet & chronic diseases), and genetic factor(ApoE), associated with CI onset.
This study confirms the high prevalence of CI among the elderly population in the Shanghai urban in China, similar to previous epidemiologic studies in Western countries. The putative risk factors associated with CI merit further investigated.
Cognitive impairment; Prevalence; Risk factors
Methanolic extracts of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (MEGT) were obtained from the edible red algae. Previously, we found that water extract of G. tenuistipitata was able to modulate oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and its related cellular responses.
In this study, the methanol extraction product MEGT was used to evaluate the cell growth inhibition in oral cancer cells and its possible mechanism was investigated.
The cell viability of MEGT treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cell line was significantly decreased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05). The sub-G1 population and annexin V intensity of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 cancer cells were significantly increased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.001, respectively). The γH2AX intensities of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 cancer cells were significantly increased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH)-positive intensities of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05). The DiOC2(3) intensity for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 cancer cells was significantly decreased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05).
These results indicated that MEGT had apoptosis-based cytotoxicity against oral cancer cells through the DNA damage, ROS induction, and mitochondrial depolarization. Therefore, MEGT derived from the edible algae may have potential therapeutic effects against oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Red algae; Oral cancer; Apoptosis; γ-H2AX; ROS; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Glutathione
The binding of IL-18 to IL-18Rα induces both pro-inflammatory and protective functions during infection, depending on the context in which it occurs. IL-18 is highly expressed in the liver of wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice following lethal infection with highly virulent Ixodes Ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE), an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute fatal toxic shock-like syndrome. In this study, we found that IOE infection of IL-18Rα-/- mice resulted in significantly less host cell apoptosis, decreased hepatic leukocyte recruitment, enhanced bacterial clearance and prolonged survival compared to infected WT mice, suggesting a pathogenic role of IL-18/IL-18Rα in Ehrlichia-induced toxic shock. Although lack of IL-18R decreases the magnitude of IFN-γ producing type-1 immune response, enhanced resistance of the IL-18Rα-/- mice against Ehrlichia correlated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at sites of infection, decreased systemic IL-10 production, increased frequency of protective natural killer T (NKT) cells producing TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased frequency of pathogenic TNF-α-producing CD8+ T cells. Adoptive transfer of immune wild type CD8+ T cells increased bacterial burden in IL-18Rα-/- mice following IOE infection. Furthermore, rIL-18 treatment of WT mice infected with mildly virulent Ehrlichia muris (EM) impaired bacterial clearance and enhanced liver injury. Finally, lack of IL-18R signal reduced dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and their TNF-α production, suggesting that IL-18 possibly promote the adaptive pathogenic immune responses against Ehrlichia via influencing T cell priming functions of DCs Together, these results suggest that the presence or absence of IL-18R signals governs the pathogenic versus protective immunity in a model of Ehrlichia-induced immunopathology.
IL-18; IL-18 receptor alpha; Ehrlichiosis
RNA silencing provides protection against RNA viruses by targeting both the helper virus and its satellite RNA (satRNA). Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) bound with Argonaute (AGO) proteins are presumed participants in the silencing process. Here, we show that a vsiRNA targeted to virus RNAs triggers the host RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6)-mediated degradation of viral RNAs. We confirmed that satRNA-derived small interfering RNAs (satsiRNAs) could be associated with different AGO proteins in planta. The most frequently cloned satsiRNA, satsiR-12, was predicted to imperfectly match to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) RNAs in the upstream area of the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR). Moreover, an artificial satsiR-12 (asatsiR-12) mediated cleavage of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) sensor construct harboring the satsiR-12 target site. asatsiR-12 also mediated reduction of viral RNAs in 2b-deficient CMV (CMVΔ2b)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana. The reduction was not observed in CMVΔ2b-infected RDR6i plants, in which RDR6 was silenced. Following infection with 2b-containing CMV, the reduction in viral RNAs was not observed in plants of either genotype, indicating that the asatsiR-12-mediated reduction of viral RNAs in the presence of RDR6 was inhibited by the 2b protein. Our results suggest that satsiR-12 targeting the 3′ UTR of CMV RNAs triggered RDR6-dependent antiviral silencing. Competition experiments with wild-type CMV RNAs and anti-satsiR-12 mutant RNA1 in the presence of 2b and satRNA demonstrate the inhibitory effect of the 2b protein on the satsiR-12-related degradation of CMV RNAs, revealing a substantial suppressor function of the 2b protein in native CMV infection. Our data provide evidence for the important biological functions of satsiRNAs in homeostatic interactions among the host, virus, and satRNA in the final outcome of viral infection.
Withanolides are a large group of steroidal lactones found in Solanaceae plants that exhibit potential anticancer activities. We have previously demonstrated that a withanolide, tubocapsenolide A, induced cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, which was associated with the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). To investigate whether other withanolides are also capable of inhibiting Hsp90 and to analyze the structure-activity relationships, nine withanolides with different structural properties were tested in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 in the present study. Our data show that the 2,3-unsaturated double bond-containing withanolides inhibited Hsp90 function, as evidenced by selective depletion of Hsp90 client proteins and induction of Hsp70. The inhibitory effect of the withanolides on Hsp90 chaperone activity was further confirmed using in vivo heat shock luciferase activity recovery assays. Importantly, Hsp90 inhibition by the withanolides was correlated with their ability to induce cancer cell death. In addition, the withanolides reduced constitutive NF-κB activation by depleting IκB kinase complex (IKK) through inhibition of Hsp90. In estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 cells, the withanolides also reduced the expression of ER, and this may be partly due to Hsp90 inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that Hsp90 inhibition is a general feature of cytotoxic withanolides and plays an important role in their anticancer activity.
In a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, 3-methoxy-1,4-phenanthrenequinones, calanquinone A (6a), denbinobin (6b), 5-OAc-calanquinone A (7a) and 5-OAc-denbinobin (7b), have significantly promising cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines (IC50 0.08–1.66 µg/mL). Moreover, we also established a superior pharmacophore model for cytotoxicity (r = 0.931) containing three hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA1, HBA2 and HBA3) and one hydrophobic feature (HYD) against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The pharmacophore model indicates that HBA3 is an essential feature for the oxygen atom of 5-OH in 6a–b and for the carbonyl group of 5-OCOCH3 in 7a–b, important for their cytotoxic properties. The SAR for moderately active 5a–b (5-OCH3), and highly active 6a–b and 7a–b, are also elaborated in a spatial aspect model. Further rational design and synthesis of new cytotoxic phenanthrene analogs can be implemented via this model. Additionally, employing a ChemGPS-NP based model for cytotoxicity mode of action (MOA) provides support for a preliminary classification of compounds 6a–b as topoisomerase II inhibitors.
Due to its strong immune stimulatory effects through TLR9, CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) have been tested in multiple clinical trials as vaccine adjuvant for infectious diseases and cancer. However, immune suppression induced by systemic administration of CpGs has been reported recently. In this study, we evaluated the impact of CpGs in an acute rickettsiosis model. We found that systemic treatment with type B CpG (CpG-B), but not type A CpG (CpG-A), at 2 days after sublethal R. australis infection induced mouse death. Although wild-type (WT) B6 and IDO−/− mice showed similar survival rates with three different doses of R. australis infection, treatment with CpG-B after sublethal infection consistently induced higher mortality with greater tissue bacterial loads in WT but not IDO−/− mice. Also, CpG-B treatment promoted the development of higher serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines through IDO. Furthermore, while T cell-mediated immune responses enhanced by CpG-B were independent of IDO, treatment with CpG-B promoted T cell activation, PD-1 expression and cell apoptosis partially through IDO. A depletion study using anti-mPDCA-1 mAb indicated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were not required for CpG-B-induced death of R. australis-infected mice. Additionally, the results in iNOS−/− mice suggested that nitric oxide (NO) was partially involved in CpG-B-induced death of R. australis-infected mice. Surprisingly, pre-treatment with CpG-B before administration of a lethal dose of R. australis provided effective immunity in WT, IDO−/− and iNOS−/− mice. Taken together, our study provides evidence that CpGs exert complex immunological effects by both IDO-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and that systemic treatment with CpGs before or after infection has a significant and distinct impact on disease outcomes.
This study presents the development of a robust aluminum-based microfluidic chip fabricated by conventional mechanical micromachining (computer numerical control-based micro-milling process). It applied the aluminum-based microfluidic chip to form poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles encapsulating CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). A cross-flow design and flow-focusing system were employed to control the oil-in-water (o/w) emulsification to ensure the generation of uniformly-sized droplets. The size of the droplets could be tuned by adjusting the flow rates of the water and oil phases. The proposed microfluidic platform is easy to fabricate, set up, organize as well as program, and is valuable for further applications under harsh reaction conditions (high temperature and/or strong organic solvent systems). The proposed method has the advantages of actively controlling the droplet diameter, with a narrow size distribution, good sphericity, as well as being a simple process with a high throughput. In addition to the fluorescent PLGA microparticles in this study, this approach can also be applied to many applications in the pharmaceutical and biomedical area.
microfluidic emulsification; poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA); quantum dots (QDs); microsphere
We previously showed that 90% (47 of 52; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96) of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers harbored well-known oncogenic mutations in just four genes: EGFR, HER2, ALK, and KRAS. Here, we sought to extend these findings to more samples and identify driver alterations in tumors negative for these mutations.
We have collected and analyzed 202 resected lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers seen at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Since mutations were mutually exclusive in the first 52 examined, we determined the status of EGFR, KRAS, HER2, ALK, and BRAF in stepwise fashion as previously described. Samples negative for mutations in these 5 genes were subsequently examined for known ROS1 fusions by RT-PCR and direct sequencing.
152 tumors (75.3%) harbored EGFR mutations, 12 (6%) had HER2 mutations, 10 (5%) had ALK fusions all involving EML4 as the 5′ partner, 4 (2%) had KRAS mutations, and 2 (1%) harbored ROS1 fusions. No BRAF mutation were detected.
The vast majority (176 of 202; 87.1%, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.91) of lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers harbor mutant kinases sensitive to available TKIs. Interestingly, patients with EGFR mutant patients tend to be older than those without EGFR mutations (58.3 Vs 54.3, P = 0.016) and patient without any known oncogenic driver tend to be diagnosed at a younger age (52.3 Vs 57.9, P = 0.013). Collectively, these data indicate that the majority of never smokers with lung adenocarcinoma could benefit from treatment with a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
Cardiovascular disease is the chief cause of death in Taiwan and many countries, of which myocardial infarction (MI) is the most serious condition. Hyperlipidemia appears to be a significant cause of myocardial infarction, because it causes atherosclerosis directly. In recent years, copy number variation (CNV) has been analyzed in genomewide association studies of complex diseases. In this study, CNV was analyzed in blood samples and SNP arrays from 31 myocardial infarction patients with hyperlipidemia.
We identified seven CNV regions that were associated significantly with hyperlipidemia and myocardial infarction in our patients through multistage analysis (P<0.001), at 1p21.3, 1q31.2 (CDC73), 1q42.2 (DISC1), 3p21.31 (CDCP1), 10q11.21 (RET) 12p12.3 (PIK3C2G) and 16q23.3 (CDH13), respectively. In particular, the CNV region at 10q11.21 was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, the results of which were consistent with microarray findings.
Our preliminary results constitute an alternative method of evaluating the relationship between CNV regions and cardiovascular disease. These susceptibility CNV regions may be used as biomarkers for early-stage diagnosis of hyperlipidemia and myocardial infarction, rendering them valuable for further research and discussion.
To determine the proportion of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers who harbor known oncogenic driver mutations.
Patients and Methods
In this surgical series, 52 resected lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers (< 100 cigarettes in a lifetime) at a single institution (Fudan University, Shanghai, China) were analyzed concurrently for mutations in EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, HER2, BRAF, ALK, PIK3CA, TP53 and LKB1.
Forty-one tumors harbored EGFR mutations, three harbored EML4-ALK fusions, two harbored HER2 insertions, and one harbored a KRAS mutation. All mutations were mutually exclusive. Thus, 90% (47 of 52; 95% CI, 0.7896 to 0.9625) of lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers were found to harbor well-known oncogenic mutations in just four genes. No BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, or LKB1 mutations were detected, while 15 had TP53 mutations. Four tumors contained PIK3CA mutations, always together with EGFR mutations.
To our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive and concurrent analysis of major recurrent oncogenic mutations found in a large cohort of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers. Since drugs are now available that target mutant EGFR, HER2, and ALK, respectively, this result indicates that prospective mutation testing in these patients should successfully assign a targeted therapy in the majority of cases.
Morphological dynamics of mitochondria is associated with key cellular processes related to aging and neuronal degenerative diseases, but the lack of standard quantification of mitochondrial morphology impedes systematic investigation. This paper presents an automated system for the quantification and classification of mitochondrial morphology. We discovered six morphological subtypes of mitochondria for objective quantification of mitochondrial morphology. These six subtypes are small globules, swollen globules, straight tubules, twisted tubules, branched tubules and loops. The subtyping was derived by applying consensus clustering to a huge collection of more than 200 thousand mitochondrial images extracted from 1422 micrographs of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells treated with different drugs, and was validated by evidence of functional similarity reported in the literature. Quantitative statistics of subtype compositions in cells is useful for correlating drug response and mitochondrial dynamics. Combining the quantitative results with our biochemical studies about the effects of squamocin on CHO cells reveals new roles of Caspases in the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial dynamics. This system is not only of value to the mitochondrial field, but also applicable to the investigation of other subcellular organelle morphology.
Mitochondria are “cellular power plants” that synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from degradation of nutrients, providing chemical energy for cellular activities. In addition, mitochondria are involved in a range of other cellular processes, such as signaling, cell differentiation, cell death, cell cycle and cell growth. Dysfunctional mitochondrial dynamics have been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, and may play a role in the aging process. Previous studies on the correlation between mitochondrial morphological changes and pathological processes involve mostly manual or semi-automated classification and quantification of morphological features, which introduces biases and inconsistency, and are labor intensive. In this work we have developed an automated quantification system for mitochondrial morphology, which is able to extract and distinguish six representative morphological subtypes within cells. Using this system, we have analyzed 1422 cells and extracted more than 200 thousand individual mitochondrion, and calculated morphological statistics for each cell. From the numerical results we were able to derive new biological conclusions about mitochondrial morphological dynamics. With this new system, investigations of mitochondrial morphology can be scaled up and objectively quantified, allowing standardization of morphological distinctions and replicability between experiments. This system will facilitate future research on the relation between subcellular morphology and various physiological processes.
1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (PGG) is an active ingredient in plants that are commonly used in Chinese medicine to treat inflammation. We demonstrate here that PGG, at 6.25 μM, does not inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and yet it prevents biofilm formation on polystyrene and polycarbonate surfaces. At the same concentration, PGG is not toxic to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. PGG has an IB50 value, i.e., the PGG concentration that inhibits 50% biofilm formation, of 3.6 μM. The value is substantially lower than that of N-acetylcysteine, iodoacetamide, and N-phenyl maleimide, which are known to inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus. Biochemical and scanning electron microscopy results also reveal that PGG inhibits initial attachment of the bacteria to solid surface and the synthesis of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, explaining how PGG inhibits biofilm formation. The results of this study demonstrate that coating PGG on polystyrene and silicon rubber surfaces with polyaniline prevents biofilm formation, indicating that PGG is highly promising for clinical use in preventing biofilm formation by S. aureus.
Protoapigenone, a natural flavonoid possessing an unusual p-quinol moiety on its B-ring, is a novel prospective anticancer agent with low toxicity that is currently in development. The first economical, one-step synthesis of protoapigenone from apigenin is described on up to gram scale. 13 new 1′-O-alkylflavone analogs were also synthesized, either from apigenin or β-naphthoflavone. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of each compound was tested on six human cancer cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, Ca9-22, A549, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In the case of 1′-O-alkyl-protoapigenone derivatives, structure-activity relationships were found depending on the side-chain, and protoapigenone 1′-O-butyl ether was found to exert significantly stronger activity against three of the cell lines (Hep3B, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) than its non-substituted analog, protoapigenone itself. In contrast to this, all β-naphthoflavone derivatives bearing the same pharmacophore on their B-ring showed decreased cytotoxic activities when substituted with an O-alkyl side-chain at position 1′, comparing to that of the non-substituted compound.
The objective of the present study is to find out the quantitative relationship between progression of liver fibrosis and the levels of certain serum markers using mathematic model. We provide the sparse logistic regression by using smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) penalized function to diagnose the liver fibrosis in rats. Not only does it give a sparse solution with high accuracy, it also provides the users with the precise probabilities of classification with the class information. In the simulative case and the experiment case, the proposed method is comparable to the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) and the sparse logistic regression with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalty, by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with bayesian bootstrap estimating area under the curve (AUC) diagnostic sensitivity for selected variable. Results show that the new approach provides a good correlation between the serum marker levels and the liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. Meanwhile, this approach might also be used in predicting the development of liver cirrhosis.
The first total synthesis of the naturally occurring tetracyclic homoisoflavonoid brazilein (1) and 14 new analogs (1a–n) is reported. Target compounds and intermediates were assayed for anti-inflammatory effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB, and for cytotoxic activity against nasopharyngeal (KB), vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KBvin), lung (A549) and prostate (DU-145) human cancer cell lines. The most active compound 1b showed potent effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.9 µM, respectively, and was 65 times more potent than phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), the positive control, in the latter assay. Additionally, 1b exhibited broad spectrum in vitro anticancer activity with IC50 values of 6–11 µM against the four tested cancer cell lines.
homoisoflavonoid; brazilein; anti-inflammatory; cytotoxic
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are regarded as important regulators in prokaryotes and play essential roles in diverse cellular processes. Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) is an important plant pathogenic bacterium which causes serious bacterial blight of rice. However, little is known about the number, genomic distribution and biological functions of sRNAs in Xoo.
Here, we performed a systematic screen to identify sRNAs in the Xoo strain PXO99. A total of 850 putative non-coding RNA sequences originated from intergenic and gene antisense regions were identified by cloning, of which 63 were also identified as sRNA candidates by computational prediction, thus were considered as Xoo sRNA candidates. Northern blot hybridization confirmed the size and expression of 6 sRNA candidates and other 2 cloned small RNA sequences, which were then added to the sRNA candidate list. We further examined the expression profiles of the eight sRNAs in an hfq deletion mutant and found that two of them showed drastically decreased expression levels, and another exhibited an Hfq-dependent transcript processing pattern. Deletion mutants were obtained for seven of the Northern confirmed sRNAs, but none of them exhibited obvious phenotypes. Comparison of the proteomic differences between three of the ΔsRNA mutants and the wild-type strain by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis showed that these sRNAs are involved in multiple physiological and biochemical processes.
We experimentally verified eight sRNAs in a genome-wide screen and uncovered three Hfq-dependent sRNAs in Xoo. Proteomics analysis revealed Xoo sRNAs may take part in various metabolic processes. Taken together, this work represents the first comprehensive screen and functional analysis of sRNAs in rice pathogenic bacteria and facilitates future studies on sRNA-mediated regulatory networks in this important phytopathogen.
Two new phenanthrenequinones, calanquinones B–C (2–3), four new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, calanhydroquinones A–C (4–6), and calanphenanthrene A (7), along with five known compounds (1 and 8–11) were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of Calanthe arisanensis through bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were identified from spectroscopic data, and the compounds were tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity against human lung (A549), prostate (PC-3 and DU145), colon (HCT-8), breast (MCF-7), nasopharyngeal (KB), and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KBVIN) cancer cell lines. Compound 1 showed the highest potency (EC50 < 0.5 μg/mL) against all seven cancer cell lines, with the greatest activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells (EC50 < 0.02 μg/mL). Generally, except for 7, compounds 2–11 also showed significant cytotoxic activity (EC50 < 4μg/mL) against some cell lines (especially PC-3 and MCF-7) in the panel.
To evaluate the combined effect of endometrial thickness and pattern on clinical outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET).
Cycles of IVF/ICSI-ET conducted between January 2003 and December 2008 at a university-based reproductive center were reviewed retrospectively. Endometrial ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded on the day of hCG administration. In the combined analysis, endometrial thickness groups (group 1: equal or <7 mm; group 2: 7-14 mm; group 3: >14 mm) were subdivided into two endometrial patterns (pattern A: triple-line; pattern B: no-triple line). Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and early miscarriage rate in different groups were analyzed.
A total of 2896 cycles were reviewed. Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was 24.4% in group1-A. There were no second trimester pregnancies in group 1-B. Miscarriage rate in group 2-A was significantly lower compared to group 2-B (P < 0.01), although CPR did not show any significant differences between the groups. A no-triple line endometrial pattern with moderate endometrial thickness (7-14 mm) had a detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome, but not the occurrence of pregnancy. In group 3, there was no difference in CPR and miscarriage rates between the two patterns; adequate endometrial thickness (>14 mm) seemed to mitigate the detrimental impact (high miscarriage rate) of pattern B.
Combined analysis of endometrial thickness and pattern on the day of hCG administration was a better predictor of the outcome of IVF/ICSI-ET and may be more helpful for patient counseling than the separate analyses.
Spotted fever group rickettsiae cause life-threatening human infections worldwide. Until now, the immune regulatory mechanisms involved in fatal rickettsial infection have been unknown. C3H/HeN mice infected with 3 × 105 PFU of Rickettsia conorii developed an acute progressive disease, and all mice succumbed to this infection. A sublethal infection induced protective immunity, and mice survived. Compared to splenic T cells from sublethally infected mice, splenic T cells from lethally infected mice produced significantly lower levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and a higher level of IL-10, but not of IL-4 or transforming growth factor β, and there was markedly suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation in response to antigen-specific stimulation with R. conorii. Furthermore, lethal infection induced significant expansion of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3− T cells in infected organs compared to the levels in naïve and sublethally infected mice. In a lethal infection, splenic CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3− T cells, which were CTLA-4high T-bet+ and secreted both IFN-γ and IL-10, suppressed the proliferation of and IL-2 production by splenic CD4+ CD25− Foxp3− T cells in vitro. Interestingly, depletion of CD25+ T cells in vivo did not change the disease progression, but it increased the bacterial load in the lung and liver, significantly reduced the number of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in the spleen, and increased the serum levels of IFN-γ. These results suggested that CD4+ CD25+ T cells generated in acute murine spotted fever rickettsiosis are Th1-cell-related adaptive T-regulatory cells, which substantially contribute to suppressing the systemic immune response, possibly by a mechanism involving IL-10 and/or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4.
The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown.
Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug.
It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h.
In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.
Calanquinone A (1) was isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of Calanthe arisanensis through bioassay-guided fractionation. Its structure was identified by spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxicity (EC50 < 0.5 µg/mL) against lung (A549), prostate (PC-3 and DU145), colon (HCT-8), breast (MCF7), nasopharyngeal (KB), and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KB-VIN) cancer cell lines, and interestingly, showed an improved drug resistance profile compared to paclitaxel. The total synthesis of 1 was also achieved and reported herein.