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author:("Fan, xiaoming")
1.  Anthocyanin accumulation enhanced in Lc-transgenic cotton under light and increased resistance to bollworm 
Breeding of naturally colored cotton fiber has been hampered by the limited germplasm, an alternative way is to use transgenic approach to create more germplasm for breeding. Here, we report our effort to engineer anthocyanin production in cotton. The maize Lc gene, under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter, was introduced into cotton through genetic transformation. Our data showed that the expression of the Lc gene alone is sufficient to trigger the accumulation of anthocyanin in a variety of cell types including fiber cells in cotton. However, the accumulation of colored anthocyanin in cotton fibers requires the participation of light signaling. These data indicate that it is feasible to engineer colored fibers through transgenic approach in cotton. Furthermore, we showed that the Lc-transgenic cotton plants are resistant to cotton bollworm. These transgenic plants are, therefore, potentially useful for cotton breeding against cotton bollworm.
doi:10.1007/s11816-015-0382-3
PMCID: PMC4761005  PMID: 26941851
Lc gene; Gossypium hirsutum; Anthocyanin; Cotton fiber
2.  Evolution and Transmission Patterns of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in China 
The emergence and transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) pose an increasing threat to global TB control. This study aimed to identify the patterns of evolution and transmission dynamics of XDR-TB in populations in a region of China where TB is highly endemic. We analyzed a total of 95 XDR-TB isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 in Chongqing, China. Eight drug resistance genes covering 7 drugs that define XDR-TB were amplified by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Variable-number tandem repeat 16-locus (VNTR-16) genotyping and genotypic drug resistance profiles were used to determine the evolution or transmission patterns of XDR-TB strains. Our results indicated that the Beijing genotype was predominant (85/95 [89.5%]) in XDR-TB strains, and as many as 40.0% (38/95) of the isolates were distributed into 6 clusters based on VNTR-16 genotyping and drug resistance mutation profiles. All isolates of each cluster harbored as many as six identical resistance mutations in the drug resistance genes rpoB, katG, inhA promoter, embB, rpsL, and gidB. Among the nine cases with continuous isolates from multidrug-resistant (MDR) to XDR-TB, 4 cases represented acquired drug resistance, 4 cases were caused by transmission, and 1 case was due to exogenous superinfection. The XDR-TB epidemic in China is mainly caused by a high degree of clonal transmission, but evolution from MDR to XDR and even superinfection with a new XDR strain can also occur.
doi:10.1128/AAC.03504-14
PMCID: PMC4335892  PMID: 25403663
3.  Characterization of Cellulase Secretion and Cre1-Mediated Carbon Source Repression in the Potential Lignocellulose-Degrading Strain Trichoderma asperellum T-1 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0119237.
Trichoderma asperellum, a traditional bio-control species, was demonstrated to be an excellent candidate for lignocellulose degradation in this work. Comparing to the representatively industrial strain of Trichoderma reeseiQM6a, T. asperellum T-1 showed more robust growth, stronger spore production, faster secretion of lignocellulose-decomposing enzymes and better pH tolerance. The reducing sugar released by strain T-1 on the second day of fermentation was 87% higher than that of strain QM6a, although the maximum reducing sugar yield and the cellulase production persistence of the strain T-1 were lower. Our experiment found that the cellulase secretion was strongly inhibited by glucose, suggesting the existence of carbon source repression pathway in T. asperellum T-1. The inhibiting effect was enhanced with an increase in glucose concentration and was closely related to mycelium growth. SDS-PAGE and secondary mass-spectrum identification confirmed that the expression of endo-1,4-β-xylanase I in T. asperellum T-1 was down-regulated when glucose was added. The factor Cre1, which plays an important role in the down-regulation of the endo-1,4-β-xylanase I gene, was investigated by bioinformatics methods. The protein structure of Cre1, analyzed using multiple protein sequence alignment, indicates the existence of the Zn-fingers domain. Then, the binding sites of Cre1 on the endo-1,4-β-xylanase I gene promoter were further elucidated. This study is the first report about Cre1-mediated carbon repression in the bio-control strain T. asperellum T-1. All of the above results provided good references for better understanding T. asperellum T-1 and improving its application for lignocellulose degradation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119237
PMCID: PMC4351060  PMID: 25741694
4.  High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II) in Water 
Graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). RGO/PVB modified GCE was used for fabricating an electrochemical sensor for detecting Cu (II) in water. The analysis results showed that RGO/PVB modified GCE had good analytical results with the linear range of 0.06–2.2 μM, detection limit of 4.10 nM (S/N = 3), and the sensitivity of 103.51 μA·μM−1·cm−2.
doi:10.1155/2015/723276
PMCID: PMC4324952  PMID: 25694783
5.  A Fast Map Merging Algorithm in the Field of Multirobot SLAM 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:169635.
In recent years, the research on single-robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has made a great success. However, multirobot SLAM faces many challenging problems, including unknown robot poses, unshared map, and unstable communication. In this paper, a map merging algorithm based on virtual robot motion is proposed for multi-robot SLAM. The thinning algorithm is used to construct the skeleton of the grid map's empty area, and a mobile robot is simulated in one map. The simulated data is used as information sources in the other map to do partial map Monte Carlo localization; if localization succeeds, the relative pose hypotheses between the two maps can be computed easily. We verify these hypotheses using the rendezvous technique and use them as initial values to optimize the estimation by a heuristic random search algorithm.
doi:10.1155/2013/169635
PMCID: PMC3835812  PMID: 24302855
6.  Prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety among outpatient migraineurs in mainland China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(4):303-310.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety and depression symptoms in outpatient migraineurs in mainland China. In addition, we evaluated whether the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) provided sufficient validity to screen depression and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively at our headache clinic. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS. Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and HADS. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS. 176 outpatients with migraine (81.8 % female) were included. Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively. Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability. The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety. The correlation coefficient of HADS-A and HADS-D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in our mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value. These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0442-9
PMCID: PMC3356469  PMID: 22466285
Anxiety; Cross-sectional study; Depression; Migraine; Risk factor
7.  Molecular Characterization of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates Circulating in China by Multilocus PCR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry ▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(7):2719-2721.
We used multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to determine the genotype and drug resistance profiles for 96 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in regions of high and low tuberculosis (TB) endemicity in China. The dominant principal genetic group (PGG) circulating in China was PGG1, and drug-resistant gene mutations were more diversified in the region of low rather than high TB endemicity.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00317-11
PMCID: PMC3147815  PMID: 21525214
8.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
9.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine

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