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1.  First evidence of a large CHEK2 duplication involved in cancer predisposition in an Italian family with hereditary breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:478.
Background
CHEK2 is a multi-cancer susceptibility gene whose common germline mutations are known to contribute to the risk of developing breast and prostate cancer.
Case presentation
Here, we describe an Italian family with a high number of cases of breast cancer and other types of tumour subjected to the MLPA test to verify the presence of BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 deletions and duplications. We identified a new 23-kb duplication in the CHEK2 gene extending from intron 5 to 13 that was associated with breast cancer in the family. The presence and localisation of the alteration was confirmed by a second analysis by Next-Generation Sequencing.
Conclusions
This finding suggests that CHEK2 mutations are heterogeneous and that techniques other than sequencing, such as MLPA, are needed to identify CHEK2 mutations. It also indicates that CHEK2 rare variants, such as duplications, can confer a high susceptibility to cancer development and should thus be studied in depth as most of our knowledge of CHEK2 concerns common mutations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-478
PMCID: PMC4091954  PMID: 24986639
CHEK2; Duplication; Breast cancer; Hereditary cancer; MLPA; Next-generation sequencing
2.  DNA Methylation profiles as predictors of recurrence in non muscle invasive bladder cancer: an MS-MLPA approach 
Background
Although non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) generally has a good long-term prognosis, up to 80% of patients will nevertheless experience local recurrence after the primary tumor resection. The search for markers capable of accurately identifying patients at high risk of recurrence is ongoing. We retrospectively evaluated the methylation status of a panel of 24 tumor suppressor genes (TIMP3, APC, CDKN2A, MLH1, ATM, RARB, CDKN2B, HIC1, CHFR, BRCA1, CASP8, CDKN1B, PTEN, BRCA2, CD44, RASSF1, DAPK1, FHIT, VHL, ESR1, TP73, IGSF4, GSTP1 and CDH13) in primary lesions to obtain information about their role in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC.
Methods
Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 74 patients operated on for bladder cancer were analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA): 36 patients had relapsed and 38 were disease-free at the 5-year follow up. Methylation status was considered as a dichotomous variable and genes showing methylation ≥20% were defined as “positive”.
Results
Methylation frequencies were higher in non recurring than recurring tumors. A statistically significant difference was observed for HIC1 (P = 0.03), GSTP1 (P = 0.02) and RASSF1 (P = 0.03). The combination of the three genes showed 78% sensitivity and 66% specificity in identifying recurrent patients, with an overall accuracy of 72%.
Conclusions
Our preliminary data suggest a potential role of HIC1, GSTP1 and RASSF1 in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC. Such information could help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of recurrence who require close monitoring during follow up.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-32-94
PMCID: PMC4176288  PMID: 24252461
Non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC); Gene methylation profile; Recurrence
3.  Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:310.
Background
The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age.
Results
A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age <35 years (OR = 1.4, compared to age ≥45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count <200 cells/μl (OR = 1.6). Conversely, when women were advised by a gynecologist rather than other health workers to undergo screening, it significantly increased adherence. Non-significantly higher proportions of lack of Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by mode of HIV-acquisition or AIDS status.
Three hundred five (34%) women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58%) referred for treatment, 97% complied.
Conclusions
In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-310
PMCID: PMC2904281  PMID: 20565935
4.  Incidence, detection, and tumour stage of breast cancer in a cohort of Italian women with negative screening mammography report recommending early (short-interval) rescreen 
BMC Medicine  2010;8:11.
Background
Although poorly described in the literature, the practice of early (short-interval) rescreen after a negative screening mammogram is controversial due to its financial and psychological burden and because it is of no proven benefit.
Methods
The present study targeted an Italian 2-yearly screening programme (Emilia-Romagna Region, 1997-2002). An electronic dataset of 647,876 eligible negative mammography records from 376,257 women aged 50-69 years was record-linked with the regional breast cancer registry. The statistical analysis addressed the following research questions: (1) the prevalence of recommendation for early (<24 months) rescreen (RES) among negative mammography reports; (2) factors associated with the likelihood of a women receiving RES; and (3) whether women receiving RES and women receiving standard negative reports differed in terms of proportional incidence of interval breast cancer, recall rate at the next rescreen, detection rate of breast cancer at the next rescreen and the odds of having late-stage breast cancer during the interscreening interval and at the next rescreen.
Results
RES was used in eight out of 13 screening centres, where it was found in 4171 out of 313,320 negative reports (average rate 1.33%; range 0.05%-4.33%). Reports with RES were more likely for women aged 50-59 years versus older women (odds ratio (OR) 1.33; 95% CI 1.25-1.42), for the first versus subsequent screening rounds (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.79-2.04) and with a centre-specific recall rate below the average of 6.2% (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.32-1.50). RES predicted a 3.51-fold (95% CI 0.94-9.29) greater proportional incidence of first-year interval cancers, a 1.90-fold (95% CI 1.62-2.22) greater recall rate at the next screen, a 1.72-fold (95% CI 1.01-2.74) greater detection rate of cancer at the next screen and a non-significantly decreased risk of late disease stage (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.23-1.53).
Conclusion
The prevalence of RES was in line with the maximum standard level established by the Italian national guidelines. RES identified a subset of women with greater incidence of interval cancers and greater prevalence of cancers detected at the next screen.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-11
PMCID: PMC2829482  PMID: 20122145
5.  Estimate of overdiagnosis of breast cancer due to mammography after adjustment for lead time. A service screening study in Italy 
Breast Cancer Research  2006;8(6):R68.
Introduction
Excess of incidence rates is the expected consequence of service screening. The aim of this paper is to estimate the quota attributable to overdiagnosis in the breast cancer screening programmes in Northern and Central Italy.
Methods
All patients with breast cancer diagnosed between 50 and 74 years who were resident in screening areas in the six years before and five years after the start of the screening programme were included. We calculated a corrected-for-lead-time number of observed cases for each calendar year. The number of observed incident cases was reduced by the number of screen-detected cases in that year and incremented by the estimated number of screen-detected cases that would have arisen clinically in that year.
Results
In total we included 13,519 and 13,999 breast cancer cases diagnosed in the pre-screening and screening years, respectively. In total, the excess ratio of observed to predicted in situ and invasive cases was 36.2%. After correction for lead time the excess ratio was 4.6% (95% confidence interval 2 to 7%) and for invasive cases only it was 3.2% (95% confidence interval 1 to 6%).
Conclusion
The remaining excess of cancers after individual correction for lead time was lower than 5%.
doi:10.1186/bcr1625
PMCID: PMC1797026  PMID: 17147789
6.  Basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor serum levels in breast cancer patients and healthy women: useful as diagnostic tools? 
Breast Cancer Research  2003;6(1):R38-R45.
Introduction
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in breast cancer cells and the corresponding serum levels in individual patients. The study also evaluated the potential of serum levels of the two growth factors as diagnostic markers in a case–control study.
Methods
VEGF expression and bFGF expression were determined in 62 and 63 tumor samples, respectively. Serum VEGF and bFGF levels were determined in 54 and 65 healthy women and in 69 and 73 breast cancer patients, respectively, using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
Results
A direct correlation was observed between VEGF expression and bFGF expression in individual tumors (P = 0.001) and between serum levels (P = 0.038) in individual patients, but not between tumor cell expression and the corresponding serum level for either growth factor. Median values of serum levels in healthy women and breast cancer patients were not different for VEGF (P = 0.055), but were significantly different for bFGF (P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve identified a serum bFGF concentration of 1.0 pg/ml, with 84.9% sensitivity and 63.1% specificity, as the best cut-off value to discriminate between healthy women and breast cancer patients. An age-based subgroup analysis showed that serum values of patients older than 70 years of age mainly contributed to the high accuracy.
Conclusions
Our data repropose bFGF as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/bcr745
PMCID: PMC314457  PMID: 14680499
breast cancer; diagnostic tool; growth factors; serum levels

Results 1-6 (6)