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1.  Pharmaceutical care and medication adherence in management of psychosis in a Nigerian tertiary hospital 
Objective:
The primary objective of this study is to examine the medication adherence levels (as a function of pharmaceutical care) and its contributing factors in schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic drugs.
Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study administering a structured questionnaire to 231 patients. Adherence was measured through patient self-reporting. Association between independent variables and adherence to antipsychotics were measured through odds ratios (OR) in the univariate analysis while the best predictors of adherence were determined through the multiple logistic regressions.
Findings:
Adherence level was found to be 65.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.3-71.9%). The following factors were identified to be associated with adherence in the univariate analysis: age (OR 1.088), sex (OR 1.231), employment (OR 0.366), marital status (singles, OR 0.022), drug adherence counseling (OR 11.641), twice a day frequency (OR 8.434), alcohol non-intake (OR 1.469), educational level (primary OR 1.9312, secondary OR 11.022, tertiary OR 4.771), occupation (public servant 6.273). In the multivariate analysis, age, three times a day frequency of drug intake, singles and educational levels such as primary, secondary or tertiary school, strongly affected adherence (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
Although patients adherence level was high (65.8%), there is a need to emphasize that pharmacists spend more time in counseling and educating patients, especially younger ones on drug adherence before any antipsychotic medications are dispensed. Furthermore, patients should be taught the use of adherence devices such as reminders so that adherence to antipsychotic medications can be optimized.
doi:10.4103/2279-042X.117388
PMCID: PMC4076905  PMID: 24991609
Antipsychotic drugs; drug adherence; pharmaceutical care; schizophrenia
2.  Patient factors impacting antiretroviral drug adherence in a Nigerian tertiary hospital 
Objective:
To study the adherence levels and explore factors impacting them in out-patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria antiretroviral clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital.
Materials and Methods:
We administered a structured questionnaire to 461 patients presenting to the clinic. Adherence was measured using the patient self-report. The association between independent variables and adherence to ART was measured through odd ratios (OR) in the univariate analysis. The best predictors of adherence were determined through multiple logistic regression models with backward elimination.
Results:
The adherence level was found to be 87.9%. The following factors were found to have strong impact on adherence in the univariate analysis: age (OR 1.04), sex (OR 1.14), employment (OR 1.29), knowledge of HIV (OR 1.11), thrice daily frequency of drug intake (OR 1.68), twice daily frequency (OR 2.18), alcohol nonintake (OR 0.29), knowledge of ARVs (OR 1.23), pill burden (OR 1.20), and HIV status disclosure (OR 1.08). In the multivariate analysis, only age, alcohol nonintake and twice daily, frequency of drug intake affected adherence (P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
To increase adherence and the effectiveness of ART, there is need to continuously emphasize the use of adherence devices and reminders. Counseling and adherence education should also be emphasized especially for younger patients and those with low educational levels.
doi:10.4103/0976-500X.95511
PMCID: PMC3356954  PMID: 22629088
Adherence; antiretroviral; HIV/AIDS; patients
3.  Pharmaceutical care outcomes in an outpatient human immunodeficiency virus treatment center in Jos, Nigeria 
Rationale:
Pharmacotherapy for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is complex and increases the potential for drug therapy problems (DTPs). We described the frequency and type of DTPs in a Nigerian cohort of HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as the changes in HIV clinical outcomes after pharmacists’ intervention.
Methods:
A prospective 1-year descriptive study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2011, at the adult HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. DTPs and the associated pharmacist-initiated interventions were documented. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used as appropriate, to compare the main outcome measures of pre- and post-intervention levels of viral load and CD+ cell count.
Results:
A total of 64,839 prescriptions were dispensed to 9320 patients. Interventions were documented for 85 unique patients (incidence of 1.31 interventions/1000 prescriptions), of which 62 (73%) and 3 (3.5%) were on first- and second-line ART, respectively, while 20 (23.5%) were yet to commence ART. Reasons for pharmacist intervention included failure to initiate therapy for HIV or hepatitis B infection; therapeutic failure (25.9%); and drug toxicity (24.7%). After intervention, the percentage of patients with HIV ribonucleic acid level <400 copies/mL rose from 29.4% to 67.1% (P < 0.001), while median (interquartile range) CD4+ cell count increased from 200 (123–351) to 361 (221–470) cells/mm3 (P < 0.001).
Conclusion:
Pharmacist intervention resulted in clinically significant improvements in patients HIV virological and immunological outcomes. This highlights an important role for the pharmacist in the treatment and care of HIV-infected patients, in a multidisciplinary team.
doi:10.4103/0976-0105.139727
PMCID: PMC4160720  PMID: 25278667
Antiretroviral therapy; drug therapy problem; pharmacist intervention
4.  Predictors of impaired renal function among HIV infected patients commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy in Jos, Nigeria 
Background:
Kidney disease is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection even in the era of antiretroviral therapy, with kidney function being abnormal in up to 30% of HIV-infected patients. We determined the predictors of impaired renal function in HIV-infected adults initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
This was a retrospective study among HIV-1 infected patients attending the antiretroviral clinic at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), between November 2005 and November 2007. Data were analysed for age, gender, weight, WHO clinical stage, CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody status. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info 3.5.1.
Results:
Data for 491 (294 females and 197 males) eligible patients were abstracted. The mean age of this population was 38.8±8.87 years. One hundred and seventeen patients (23.8%; 95% CI, 20.2-27.9%) had a reduced eGFR (defined as <60 mL/min), with more females than males (28.6% vs. 16.8%; P=0.02) having reduced eGFR. Age and female sex were found to have significant associations with reduced eGFR. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04, 1.10) and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.23, 3.12) for age and female sex, respectively.
Conclusions:
Older age and female sex are independently associated with a higher likelihood of having lower eGFRs at initiation of HAART among our study population. We recommend assessment of renal function of HIV-infected patients prior to initiation of HAART to guide the choice and dosing of antiretroviral drugs.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.86133
PMCID: PMC3213750  PMID: 22083208
Highly active antiretroviral therapy; human immunodeficiency virus; predictors; renal function; serum creatinine

Results 1-4 (4)