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author:("airman, Jeff")
1.  The Adjuvant CLDC Increases Protection of a Herpes Simplex Type 2 Glycoprotein D Vaccine in Guinea Pigs 
Vaccine  2009;28(21):3748-3753.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but there is no vaccine available. We evaluated cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant for an HSV gD2 vaccine and compared it to an MPL/Alum adjuvant in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. The addition of CLDC to the gD2 vaccine significantly decreased acute and recurrent disease and most importantly the number of days with recurrent virus shedding compared to gD2 alone. Reductions in these outcomes were also detected when gD2+CLDC was compared to gD2+MPL/Alum. When the vaccine and adjuvants were evaluated as therapeutic vaccines, they were ineffective. CLDC enhanced protection compared to MPL/Alum and is the first vaccine to reduce recurrent virus shedding, a key to decreasing the spread of HSV-2.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.025
PMCID: PMC2862079  PMID: 19857450
HSV vaccine; adjuvant; genital herpes; guinea pig; CLDC
2.  A Novel Vaccine Adjuvant for Recombinant Flu Antigens 
Many new vaccines under development consist of rationally designed recombinant proteins that are relatively poor immunogens unless combined with potent adjuvants. There is only one adjuvant in common use in the U.S., aluminum phosphate or hydroxide (e.g. alum). This adjuvant, however, has significant limitations, particularly regarding the generation of strong cell-mediated (T cell) immune responses. A novel adjuvant, JVRS-100, composed of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) has been evaluated for immune enhancing activity. The JVRS-100 adjuvant has been shown to elicit robust immune responses compared to CpG oligonucleotides, alum, and MPL adjuvants, and efficiently enhances both humoral and cellular immune responses. Safety has been evaluated in preclinical studies, and the adjuvant is now in early-stage clinical development. One application of this novel adjuvant is to augment the immune responses to recombinant subunit antigens, which are often poorly immunogenic. The JVRS-100 adjuvant, when combined with a recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (H1), elicited increased specific antibody and T-cell responses in mice. Single-dose vaccination and prime/boost vaccinations with JVRS-100-H1 were both shown to be protective (i.e., survival, reduced weight loss) following H1N1 (PR/8/34) virus challenge. Enhanced immunological responses could be critically important for improved efficacy and dose-sparing of a recombinant influenza vaccine.
doi:10.1016/j.biologicals.2009.02.019
PMCID: PMC2693274  PMID: 19285425
Adjuvant; vaccine; influenza
3.  Mucosal immunotherapy for protection from pneumonic infection with Francisella tularensis 
Vaccine  2009;27(33):4424-4433.
Previous studies have demonstrated that systemically administered immunotherapy can protect mice from systemic challenge with the bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis. However, for protection from inhalational challenge with this bacterium, we wondered if mucosally administered immunotherapy might be more effective. Therefore, we administered cationic liposome–DNA complexes (CLDC), which are potent activators of innate immunity, intranasally (i.n.) and assessed the effectiveness of protection from lethal inhalational challenge with F. tularensis. We found that pretreatment by i.n. administration of CLDC 24 h prior to bacterial challenge elicited nearly complete protection of BALB/c mice from lethal challenge with F. tularensis LVS strain. We also observed that mucosal CLDC immunotherapy provided a statistically significant increase in survival time in mice challenged with the highly virulent F. tularensis Schu4 strain. Protection was associated with a significant reduction in bacterial burden in the lungs, liver, and spleen. Mucosal administration of CLDC elicited significantly increased expression of IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α genes in the lung as detected by real-time quantitative PCR. In vitro treatment of F. tularensis infected macrophages with CLDC-elicited cytokines also significantly suppressed intracellular replication of F. tularensis in infected macrophages. In vivo, depletion of NK cells prior to administration of CLDC completely abolished the protective effects of CLDC immunotherapy. CLDC-elicited protection was also dependent on induction of IFN-γ production in vivo. We conclude therefore that activation of local pulmonary innate immune responses is capable of eliciting significant protection from inhalational exposure to a virulent bacterial pathogen.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.041
PMCID: PMC2878839  PMID: 19490961
Bacterial; Mucosa; Lung; Cytokines; Rodent
4.  Prophylaxis with cationic liposome-DNA complexes protects hamsters from phleboviral disease: importance of liposomal delivery and CpG motifs 
Antiviral research  2008;81(1):37-46.
Cationic lipid DNA complexes (CLDC) are cationic/neutral lipid carriers complexed with plasmid DNA that when administered systemically results in a robust TH1 cytokine response. CLDC have been shown to be effective in prophylaxis and therapeutic treatment of animal models of viral disease. To determine the contribution of liposomal delivery and CpG content of the plasmid DNA to the efficacy of CLDC; plasmid, CpG-free plasmid DNA, or CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with and without liposomes, as well as poly (I:C12U), were evaluated for their ability to elicit protection against lethal Punta Toro virus (PTV, Bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) challenge in hamsters. CLDC containing plasmid significantly improved survival, decreased systemic and liver viral loads, and reduced liver damage due to progression of viral infection. Mouse-reactive ODNs complexed with liposomes failed to protect hamsters, whereas ODNs known to cross-react with human and mouse (CpG 2006) or non-liposomal poly (I:C12U) showed survival benefit but did not limit liver injury. Liposomes complexed with a non-CpG motif-containing plasmid reduced liver viral load and tissue damage, but did not protect hamsters from death. To evaluate the mechanisms of the enhanced activity of CLDC, microarray experiments examined differences in the gene expression profile. The results suggest a broad TH1 response elicited by liposomal delivery of a diverse sequence containing CpG and non-CpG elements may be a more effective antiviral treatment than other nucleic acid based immunotherapeutics.
doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.09.001
PMCID: PMC2631927  PMID: 18840471
Liposomes; Antiviral; CpG; Rift Valley fever; Punta Toro virus; Phlebovirus
5.  Potent Adjuvant Activity of Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes for Genital Herpes Vaccines▿  
Development of a herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine is a priority because these infections are common. It appears that potent adjuvants will be required to augment the immune response to subunit HSV vaccines. Therefore, we evaluated cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant in a mouse model of genital herpes. Using a whole-virus vaccine (HVAC), we showed that the addition of CLDC improved antibody responses compared to vaccine alone. Most important, CLDC increased survival, reduced symptoms, and decreased vaginal virus replication compared to vaccine alone or vaccine administered with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) plus trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM) following intravaginal challenge of mice. When CLDC was added to an HSV gD2 vaccine, it increased the amount of gamma interferon that was produced from splenocytes stimulated with gD2 compared to the amount produced with gD2 alone or with MPL-alum. The addition of CLDC to the gD2 vaccine also improved the outcome following vaginal HSV type 2 challenge compared to vaccine alone and was equivalent to vaccination with an MPL-alum adjuvant. CLDC appears to be a potent adjuvant for HSV vaccines and should be evaluated further.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00370-08
PMCID: PMC2681593  PMID: 19279167
6.  Enhanced in vivo immunogenicity of SIV vaccine candidates with cationic liposome-DNA complexes in a rhesus macaque pilot study 
Human vaccines  2009;5(3):141-150.
This pilot study tested the immunogenicity of a novel cationic liposome-DNA complex (CLDC) immunomodulatory vaccine adjuvant. Combined with a specific antigen, CLDC enhanced anti-SIV immune responses induced by various SIV vaccine candidates. Rhesus macaques immunized in the presence of CLDC developed stronger SIV-specific T and B cell responses compared to animals immunized without CLDC. These differences persisted and resulted in better memory responses after an in-vivo boost of the animals several months later with whole AT-2 inactivated SIVmac239. Thus, CLDC should be explored further as a potential immunomodulatory adjuvant in HIV vaccine design.
PMCID: PMC2728146  PMID: 18690014
HIV; adjuvant; vaccine
7.  Sensitivity and Specificity of the ViroSeq Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Genotyping System for Detection of HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations by Use of an ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(2):813-817.
The ViroSeq human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotyping system is an integrated system for identification of drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT). Reagents are included for sample preparation, reverse transcription, PCR amplification, and sequencing. Software is provided to assemble and edit sequence data and to generate a drug resistance report. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the ViroSeq system for mutation detection using an ABI PRISM 3100 genetic analyzer with a set of clinical samples and recombinant viruses. Twenty clinical plasma samples (viral loads, 1,800 to 10,500 copies/ml) were characterized by cloning and sequencing individual viral variants. Twelve recombinant-virus samples (viral loads, approximately 2,000 to 5,000 copies/ml) were also prepared. Eleven recombinant-virus samples contained drug resistance mutations as 40% mixtures. One recombinant-virus sample contained an insertion at codon 69 in RT (100% mutant). Plasma and recombinant-virus samples were analyzed using the ViroSeq system. Each sample was analyzed on three consecutive days at each of three testing laboratories. The sensitivity of mutation detection was 99.65% for the clinical plasma samples and 99.7% for the recombinant-virus preparations. The specificity of mutation detection was 99.95% for the clinical samples and 100% for the recombinant-virus mixtures. The base calling accuracy of the 3100 instrument was 99.91%. Mutations in clinical plasma samples and recombinant-virus samples were detected with high sensitivity and specificity, including mutations present as mixtures. This report supports the use of the ViroSeq system for identification of drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 protease and RT genes.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.2.813-817.2005
PMCID: PMC548107  PMID: 15695685

Results 1-7 (7)