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1.  Association of TNF-α –308G/A, SP-B 1580 C/T, IL-13 –1055 C/T gene polymorphisms and latent adenoviral infection with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in an Egyptian population 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability and death. The most common cause of COPD is smoking. There is evidence suggesting that genetic factors influence COPD susceptibility and variants in several candidate genes have been significantly associated with COPD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible association of the TNF-α –308, SPB+1580, IL-13 –1055 gene polymorphisms and latent adenovirus C infection with COPD in an Egyptian population.
Material and methods
Our study included 115 subjects (75 smokers with COPD, 25 resistant smokers and 15 non-smokers) who were subjected to spirometric measurements, identification of adenovirus C and genotyping of TNF-α –308G/A, SP-B+1580 C/T and IL-13 –1055 C/T polymorphisms by real-time PCR.
The adenovirus C gene was identified in all subjects. The distribution of TNF-α genotypes showed no significant differences between different groups. However, homozygous A genotype was associated with a significant decrease in FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25/75% of predicted in COPD (p < 0.05). As regards SP-B genotypes, resistant smokers had a significantly higher homozygous T genotype frequency compared to COPD and non smokers (p = 0.005). Interleukin 13 genotypes showed no significant difference between different groups. There was a significant decrease in FEF25/75% of predicted in T allele carriers in COPD patients (p = 0.001).
The COPD is a disease caused by the interaction of combined genes and environmental influences, in the presence of smoking and latent adenovirus C infection, TNF-α –308A, SPB +1580 T and IL-13 –1055 T polymorphisms predispose to the development of COPD.
PMCID: PMC3361041  PMID: 22662002
single nucleotide polymorphism; smoking; adenovirus C; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
2.  Estimation of TGF-β1 genotypes in Egyptian smokers; association with FEV1 in COPD patients 
TGF-β1 is a cytokine with many different effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammation and can protect against the development of COPD. This work aims to study the association between COPD and the TGF-β1 gene genotypes.
Material and methods
The study included 70 males: 25 smokers with COPD, 25 resistant smokers, and 20 normal non-smokers as the control. They were subjected to spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilator (FEV1, FEV1/FVC), estimation of serum level of TGF-β1 gene by PCR and RFLP.
The percent of Pro-Leu was 28% in the COPD group, 84% in the resistant smokers group and 85% in the control group. There was a highly significant statistical difference in FEV1% of predicted associated with the distribution of TGF-β1 gene genotypes: 56.9 ±8.4% with Pro-Leu genotype and 35.5 ±8.8% with Leu-Leu genotype in COPD patients, 93.2 ±6.2% with Pro-Leu genotype and 86.7 ±0.9% with Leu-Leu genotype in the resistant smokers group.
The Pro-allele genotype is associated with increased production of TGF-β1, which has a protective role against the development of COPD and is important in preserving the decline of FEV1 in COPD patients.
PMCID: PMC3278946  PMID: 22371723
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; leucine; proline domains

Results 1-2 (2)