PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-10 (10)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Moderate Aerobic Exercise Alters Migration Patterns of Antigen Specific T helper Cells within an Asthmatic Lung 
Brain, behavior, and immunity  2013;34:10.1016/j.bbi.2013.07.011.
Studies show that an escalation in both incidence and severity of allergic asthmatic symptoms can largely be due to increased sedentary lifestyles. In addition, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce the severity of asthma; albeit by an unknown mechanism. Studies do implicate the re-distribution of T helper (Th) cells as a means of moderate aerobic exercise altering an immune response. We have previously reported that exercise decreases T helper 2 (Th2) responses within the lungs of an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized murine allergic asthma model. Therefore, we hypothesized that exercise alters the migration of OVA-specific Th cells in an OVA-challenged lung. To test this hypothesis, wild type mice received OVA-specific Th cells expressing a luciferase-reporter construct and were OVA-sensitized and exercised. OVA-specific Th cell migration was decreased in OVA-challenged lungs of exercised mice when compared to their sedentary controls. Surface expression levels of lung-homing chemokine receptors, CCR4 and CCR8, on Th cells and their cognate lung-homing chemokine gradients revealed no difference between exercised and sedentary OVA-sensitized mice. However, transwell migration experiments demonstrated that lung-derived Th cells from exercised OVA-sensitized mice exhibited decreased migratory function versus controls. These data suggest that Th cells from exercised mice are less responsive to lung-homing chemokines. Together, these studies show that moderate aerobic exercise training can reduce the accumulation of antigen-specific Th cell migration into an asthmatic lung by decreasing chemokine receptor responsiveness.
doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2013.07.011
PMCID: PMC3826814  PMID: 23928286
Bioluminescence; exercise; asthma; T cell migration; Th2 response
2.  Free Radical-Producing Myeloid-Derived Regulatory Cells: Potent Activators and Suppressors of Lung Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Mucosal immunology  2011;4(5):503-518.
Levels of reactive free radicals are elevated in the airway during asthmatic exacerbations, but their roles in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. We have identified subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells as key sources of nitric oxide and superoxide in the lungs of mice with evolving experimental allergic airway inflammation and established these cells as master regulators of the airway inflammatory response. The profiles of free radicals they produced depended on expression of iNOS, arginase, and NADPH oxidase. These radicals controlled the pro- and anti-inflammatory potential of these cells, and also regulated the reciprocal pattern of their infiltration into the lung. The nitric oxide-producing cells were Ly-6C+Ly-6G− and down-modulated T cell activation, recruited Treg cells, and dramatically down-regulated antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. The superoxide-producing cells were Ly-6C−Ly-6G+ and expressed proinflammatory activities, exacerbating airway hyperresponsiveness in a superoxide-dependent fashion. A smaller population of Ly-6C+Ly-6G+ cells also suppressed T cell responses, but in an iNOS- and arginase-independent fashion. These regulatory myeloid cells represent important targets for asthma therapy.
doi:10.1038/mi.2011.16
PMCID: PMC3694614  PMID: 21471960
3.  Feasibility of exercising adults with asthma: a randomized pilot study 
Background
Aerobic exercise appears to have clinical benefits for many asthmatics, yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these benefits has not been elucidated at this time.
Purpose
The objective of this study was to determine feasibility for a larger, future study that will define the effect of aerobic exercise on cellular, molecular, and functional measures in adults with mild-moderate asthma.
Design
Recruited subjects were randomized into usual care (sedentary) or usual care with moderate intensity aerobic exercise treatment groups.
Setting / Participants
Nineteen adults with mild-moderate asthma but without a recent history of exercise were recruited at the UAB Lung Health Center, Birmingham, AL.
Intervention
The exercise group underwent a 12 week walking program exercising at 60 – 75% of maximum heart rate (HRmax). Subjects self-monitored HRmax levels using heart rate monitors; exercise diaries and recreation center sign-in logs were also used.
Main outcome measures
Functional measures, including lung function and asthma control scores, were evaluated for all subjects at pre- and post-study time-points; fitness measures were also assessed for subjects in the exercise group. Peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid were collected from all subjects at pre- and post-study visits in order to evaluate cellular and molecular measures, including cell differentials and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP).
Results
Sixteen subjects completed the prescribed protocol. Results show that subjects randomized to the exercise group adhered well (80%) to the exercise prescription and exhibited a trend toward improved fitness levels upon study completion. Both groups exhibited improvements in ACQ scores. No changes were observed in lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC), cell differentials, or ECP between groups.
Conclusions
Results indicate that a moderate intensity aerobic exercise training program may improve asthma control and fitness levels without causing asthma deterioration in adult asthmatics. As such, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of the study protocol in preparation for a larger, clinical trial that will elucidate the functional consequences of aerobic exercise on asthmatic cellular and molecular responses.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-8-13
PMCID: PMC3511803  PMID: 22863207
4.  Postexposure Administration of a β2-Agonist Decreases Chlorine-Induced Airway Hyperreactivity in Mice 
Exposure to chlorine (Cl2) damages airway and alveolar epithelia, resulting in acute lung injury and reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. We evaluated the efficacy and mechanisms by which arformoterol, a long-term β2-agonist, administered after exposure, mitigated the extent of this injury. Exposure of C57BL/6 mice to 400 ppm Cl2 for 30 minutes increased respiratory system resistance and airway responsiveness to aerosolized methacholine (assessed by FlexiVent) up to 6 days after exposure, and decreased Na+-dependent alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) knockout mice developed similar degrees of airway hyperreactivity as wild-type controls after Cl2 exposure, indicating that reactive intermediates from iNOS do not contribute to Cl2-induced airway dysfunction in our model. Intranasal administration of arformoterol mitigated the Cl2 effects on airway reactivity and AFC, presumably by increasing lung cyclic AMP level. Arformoterol did not modify the inflammatory responses, as evidenced by the number of inflammatory cells and concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage. NF-κB activity (assessed by p65 Western blots and electrophoretic mobility shift assay) remained at control levels up to 24 hours after Cl2 exposure. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the effectiveness of long-term β2-agonists in reversing Cl2-induced reactive airway dysfunction syndrome and injury to distal lung epithelial cells.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2010-0226OC
PMCID: PMC3145072  PMID: 20855648
alveolar fluid clearance; cAMP; iNOS; NF-κB; lung injury
5.  Repeated Bouts of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Reduce Airway Reactivity in a Murine Asthma Model 
We have reported that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation in mice sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The current study determined the effects of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in these mice. Mice were sensitized/challenged with OVA or saline and exercised at a moderate intensity 3 times/week for 4 weeks. At protocol completion, mice were analyzed for changes in AHR via mechanical ventilation. Results show that exercise decreased total lung resistance 60% in OVA-treated mice as compared with controls; exercise also decreased airway smooth muscle (ASM) thickness. In contrast, exercise increased circulating epinephrine levels 3-fold in saline- and OVA-treated mice. Because epinephrine binds β2-adrenergic receptors (AR), which facilitate bronchodilatation, the role of β2-AR in exercise-mediated improvements in AHR was examined. Application of the β2-AR antagonist butoxamine HCl blocked the effects of exercise on lung resistance in OVA-treated mice. In parallel, ASM cells were examined for changes in the protein expression of β2-AR and G-protein receptor kinase-2 (GRK-2); GRK-2 promotes β2-AR desensitization. Exercise had no effect on β2-AR expression in ASM cells of OVA-treated mice; however, exercise decreased GRK-2 expression by 50% as compared with controls. Exercise also decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production 5-fold, but had no effect on E prostanoid-1 (EP1) receptor expression within the lungs of OVA-treated mice; both PGE2 and the EP1 receptor have been implicated in β2-AR desensitization. Together, these data indicate that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates AHR via a mechanism that involves β2-AR.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2009-0038OC
PMCID: PMC2822985  PMID: 19423772
asthma; airway hyperresponsiveness; exercise; β2-adrenergic receptor
6.  Repeated Bouts of Aerobic Exercise Enhance Regulatory T Cell Responses in a Murine Asthma Model 
Brain, behavior, and immunity  2009;24(1):153-159.
We have reported previously that moderate intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. Recent studies implicate regulatory T (Treg) cells in decreasing asthma-related airway inflammation; as such, the current study examined the effect of exercise on Treg cell function in a murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) prior to the start of exercise training at a moderate intensity 3× / week for 4 wks; exercise was performed as treadmill running (13.5 m/min, 0% grade). Mice were OVA challenged repeatedly throughout the exercise protocol. At protocol completion, mice were analyzed for changes in the number and suppressive function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells isolated from lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, and spleens. Results show that exercise increased significantly the number of Foxp3+ cells within the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes, but not the spleens, of OVA-treated mice as compared with sedentary controls. Exercise also enhanced the suppression function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells derived from OVA-treated mice as compared with sedentary controls. Specifically, Treg cells from exercised, OVA-treated mice more effectively suppressed CD4+CD25− cell proliferation and Th2 cytokine production in vitro. Enhanced suppression was associated with increased protein levels of TGF-β and lesser amounts of IL-10 and IL-17; however, blocking TGF-β had no effect on suppressive functions. These data demonstrate that exercise-mediated increases in Treg cell function may play a role in the attenuation of airway inflammation. Further, these results indicate that moderate intensity aerobic exercise training may alter the Treg cell function within the asthmatic airway.
doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2009.09.011
PMCID: PMC2787986  PMID: 19781626
Treg; asthma; aerobic exercise; regulatory T cells
7.  Aerobic Exercise Attenuates Airway Inflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Atopic Asthma 
Recent reports indicate that aerobic exercise improves the overall physical fitness and health of asthmatic patients. The specific exercise-induced improvements in the pathology of asthma and the mechanisms by which these improvements occur, however, are ill-defined; thus, the therapeutic potential of exercise in the treatment of asthma remains unappreciated. Using an OVA-driven mouse model, we examined the role of aerobic exercise in modulating inflammatory responses associated with atopic asthma. Data demonstrate that moderate intensity aerobic exercise training decreased leukocyte infiltration, cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, and structural remodeling within the lungs of OVA-sensitized mice (n = 6–10; p < 0.05). Because the transcription factor NF-κB regulates the expression of a variety of genes that encode inflammatory mediators, we monitored changes in NF-κB activation in the lungs of exercised/sensitized mice. Results show that exercise decreased NF-κB nuclear translocation and IκBα phosphorylation, indicating that exercise decreased NF-κB activation in the lungs of sensitized mice (n = 6). Taken together, these results suggest that aerobic exercise attenuates airway inflammation in a mouse model of atopic asthma via modulation of NF-κB activation. Potential exists, therefore, for the amelioration of asthma-associated chronic airway inflammation through the use of aerobic exercise training as a non-drug therapeutic modality.
PMCID: PMC2892102  PMID: 15034069
8.  RU486 blocks the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation 
Brain, behavior, and immunity  2005;19(5):413-422.
In an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven murine model of allergic pulmonary inflammation, we have shown previously that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates inflammatory responses, disease progression, and NF-κB activation within the sensitized lung. Glucocorticoids (GCs), potent anti-inflammatory agents, have been shown to alter transcriptional events that are important in asthmatic pathogenesis, such as NF-κB activation. Notably, exercise training can alter the production and signaling capacity of endogenous GCs. Because GCs exert their anti-inflammatory effects through binding to intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), we examined the role of the GR in facilitating the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Results show that, in exercised OVA-sensitized mice, treatment with the GR antagonist RU486 blocked the exercise-induced reductions in cellular infiltration of the airways (p < .05), KC and soluble VCAM-1 protein levels in the bronchoalveloar lavage fluid (p < .05), and NF-κB translocation and DNA binding within the lung to levels similar to those observed in sedentary OVA-sensitized mice. Importantly, RU486 treatment also blocked exercise-induced increases in GR nuclear translocation to the levels seen in sensitized control mice. Together, these results suggest that GR nuclear translocation and NF-κ activation play roles in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in allergen-mediated lung pathology.
doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2005.04.004
PMCID: PMC2891236  PMID: 15922554
Exercise; Asthma; Inflammation; Glucocorticoids; RU486; NF-κB
9.  Acute Exercise Decreases Airway Inflammation, but Not Responsiveness, in an Allergic Asthma Model 
Previous studies have suggested that the asthmatic responses of airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperresponsiveness (AHR) are interrelated; in this study, we used exercise to examine the nature of this interrelationship. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA); mice were then exercised via running on a motorized treadmill at a moderate intensity. Data indicate that, within the lungs of OVA-treated mice, exercise attenuated the production of inflammatory mediators, including chemokines KC, RANTES, and MCP-1 and IL-12p40/p80. Coordinately, OVA-treated and exercised mice displayed decreases in leukocyte infiltration, including eosinophils, as compared with sedentary controls. Results also show that a single bout of exercise significantly decreased phosphorylation of the NFκB p65 subunit, which regulates the gene expression of a wide variety of inflammatory mediators. In addition, OVA-treated and exercised mice exhibited decreases in the levels of Th2-derived cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 and the prostaglandin PGE2, as compared with sedentary controls. In contrast, results show that a single bout of exercise had no effect on AHR in OVA-treated mice challenged with increasing doses of aerosolized methacholine (0–50 mg/ml) as compared with sedentary mice. Exercise also had no effect on epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus production, or airway wall thickening in OVA-treated mice as compared with sedentary controls. These findings suggest that a single bout of aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity attenuates airway inflammation but not AHR or airway remodeling in OVA-treated mice. The implication of these findings for the interrelationship between airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and AHR is discussed.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2008-0172OC
PMCID: PMC2606949  PMID: 18635813
asthma; aerobic exercise; airway inflammation; remodeling; hyperresponsiveness
10.  Plasma Membrane CFTR Regulates RANTES Expression via Its C-Terminal PDZ-Interacting Motif 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2003;23(2):594-606.
Despite the identification of 1,000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene product CFTR, there remains discordance between CFTR genotype and lung disease phenotype. The study of CFTR, therefore, has expanded beyond its chloride channel activity into other possible functions, such as its role as a regulator of gene expression. Findings indicate that CFTR plays a role in the expression of RANTES in airway epithelia. RANTES is a chemokine that has been implicated in the regulation of mucosal immunity and the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases. Results demonstrate that CFTR triggers RANTES expression via a mechanism that is independent of CFTR's chloride channel activity. Neither pharmacological inhibition of CFTR nor activation of alternative chloride channels, including hClC-2, modulated RANTES expression. Through the use of CFTR disease-associated and truncation mutants, experiments suggest that CFTR-mediated transcription factor activation and RANTES expression require (i) insertion of CFTR into the plasma membrane and (ii) an intact CFTR C-terminal PDZ-interacting domain. Expression of constructs encoding wild-type or dominant-negative forms of the PDZ-binding protein EBP50 suggests that EBP50 may be involved in CFTR-dependent RANTES expression. Together, these data suggest that CFTR modulates gene expression in airway epithelial cells while located in a macromolecular signaling complex at the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1128/MCB.23.2.594-606.2003
PMCID: PMC151526  PMID: 12509457

Results 1-10 (10)