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1.  Perception, attention, and working memory are disproportionately impaired in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease 
OBJECTIVE—To test the hypotheses that visuoperceptual and attentional ability are disproportionately impaired in patients having dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
METHODS—A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to assess working, episodic, and semantic memory, and visuoperceptual and attentional functions was given to groups of patients with DLB (n=10) and AD (n=9), matched for age, education, and mini mental state examination (MMSE), and to normal controls (n=17).
RESULTS—Both patient groups performed equally poorly on tests of episodic and semantic memory with the exception of immediate and delayed story recall, which was worse in the AD group. Digit span was by contrast spared in AD. The most striking differences were on tests of visuoperceptual/spatial ability and attention. Whereas patients with AD performed normally on several subtests of the visual object and space perception battery, the DLB group showed substantial impairments. In keeping with previous studies, the AD group showed deficits in selective attention and set shifting, but patients with DLB were more impaired on virtually every test of attention with deficits in sustained, selective, and divided attention.
CONCLUSIONS—Patients with DLB have substantially greater impairment of attention, working memory, and visuoperceptual ability than patients with AD matched for overall dementia severity. Semantic memory seems to be equally affected in DLB and AD, unlike episodic memory, which is worse in AD. These findings may have relevance for our understanding of the genesis of visual hallucinations, and the differential diagnosis of AD and DLB.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.70.2.157
PMCID: PMC1737215  PMID: 11160462
2.  Ventilatory function and winter fresh fruit consumption in a random sample of British adults. 
Thorax  1991;46(9):624-629.
The relation between ventilatory function and the reported frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and fruit juice was studied among 1502 lifelong non-smokers and 1357 current smokers aged 18-69 with no history of chronic respiratory disease. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was assessed by turbine spirometry. As winter fruit consumption was more widely dispersed than summer consumption and few subjects ate fruit more frequently in the winter, winter fruit consumption was taken as an indicator of habitual (year round) consumption. After adjustment for sex, age, height, cigarette consumption, region of residence, and household socioeconomic group, FEV1 was associated with winter fruit consumption. The mean adjusted FEV1 among those who never drank fresh fruit juice and ate fresh fruit less than once a week during the winter was 78 ml lower (95% confidence interval 24-132 ml) than the mean for the other subjects. A similar difference was found in all age-sex groups and among both current smokers and lifelong non-smokers. Antioxidant and other actions of vitamin C may protect against pulmonary emphysema, or reduce bronchoconstrictor responses to environmental pollutants.
PMCID: PMC463343  PMID: 1948789

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