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author:("truven, Mine")
1.  Combination of imatinib mesylate with lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate is highly active in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma in vitro 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2011;22(4):225-232.
Objective
The aim of the study was to investigate whether lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate can potentiate the cytotoxicity of imatinib mesylate in human endometrial cancer in vitro and the effect of midkine in these therapies.
Methods
Imatinib mesylate (50 µM), lithium chloride (100 µM), medroxyprogesterone acetate (200 µM) and their combination were applied to monolayer and three dimensional cultures of human Ishikawa endometrial cancer for 72 hours. The cell proliferation index, apoptotic index, caspase-3 and midkine levels, cell cycle distributions in monolayer cultures and cell ultrastructure in spheroid cultures were evaluated. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test.
Results
All drug applications inhibited cell proliferation (p<0.05), however the combination were the effective groups for 72 hours (p<0.05). Interestingly, although the loss of efficiency was seen higly seen every 24 hours at single applications, the inhibition rates of the combination groups were almost same for 72 hours. In concordance with these results, the apoptotic index, caspase-3 levels (p<0.05), cell morphology and ultrastructure damages were much higher in the combination groups. Imatinib mesylate induced S-phase arrest, however other groups induced G0+G1-phase arrest at 24 hours and all groups induced G0+G1 arrest at 72 hours (p<0.05). Imatinib mesylate and imatinib mesylate with medroxyprogesterone acetate induced highest decrease in midkine levels, respectively (p<0.05).
Conclusion
The present study showed that the combination of imatinib mesylate with lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate is highly active in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma in vitro and the inhibition of midkine involved in their mechanism of action against endometrium defense.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2011.22.4.225
PMCID: PMC3254840  PMID: 22247798
Endometrial cancer; Imatinib mesylate; Lithium chloride; Medroxyprogesterone acetate; Midkine
2.  Imatinib mesylate decreases the cytotoxic effect of roscovitine on human glioblastoma cells in vitro and the role of midkine 
Oncology Letters  2011;3(1):200-208.
The purpose of the present study was to overcome resistance to imatinib (IM) by combining it with roscovitine (ROSC) and to investigate whether or not midkine (MK) had an effect on this combination in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBL). Human T98 GBL cells were used to evaluate the effects of IM (10 μM), ROSC (200 μM) and their combination on the cell proliferation index, apoptotic index, the apoptotic protein and anti-apoptotic protein levels, and ultrastructure. All applications decreased the cell proliferation index and increased the apoptotic index, but ROSC was the most efficient drug and the second most efficient drug was IM. Notably, ROSC increased anti-apoptotic proteins levels (PDGFR-α, AQP-4, hTERT), COX-1 activity and ribosome numbers. The effects of ROSC on hTERT, MK, AQP-4 and MRP-1 levels and COX-1 activity were reported for the first time. ROSC induced the highest increase in caspase-3 levels. Autophagy was not involved in the activity of ROSC in GBL spheroids. The combination of IM with ROSC showed an antagonist effect in the treatment of human GBL cells. The combination group decreased certain anti-apoptotic protein levels (PDGFR-α, EGFR, p-gp, MRP-1 and MK), cAMP levels, COX-1 activity and apoptotic protein levels (caspase-3). However, it induced the highest increase in hTERT levels and COX-2 activity. Ribosome numbers were much lower than those in the ROSC group and no autophagic vacuole was observed. In conclusion, more investigations are required to identify the key regulatory components that are responsible for this antagonism; however, the determination of this combination therapy as a failure therapy may be precautionary for oncologists in the treatment of GBL patients and potentially may contribute to the efficacy of new therapeutic regimens.
doi:10.3892/ol.2011.434
PMCID: PMC3362508  PMID: 22740881
imatinib mesylate; roscovitine; glioblastoma; midkine; combination chemotherapy
3.  Decreased therapeutic effects of noscapine combined with imatinib mesylate on human glioblastoma in vitro and the effect of midkine 
Background
Glioblastoma (GBM) develops resistance to the advances in chemotherapy leading to poor prognosis and life quality. Consequently, new treatment modalities are needed. Our aims were to investigate the effects of combined noscapine (NOS) and imatinib mesylate (IM) on human GBM in vitro and the role of midkine (MK) in this new combination treatment.
Methods
Monolayer and spheroid cultures of T98G human GBM cell line were used to evaluate the effects of IM (10 μM), Nos (10 μM) and their combination on cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes, cell cycle, the levels of antiapoptotic MK, MRP-1, p170, PFGFR-α, EGFR, bcl-2 proteins, apoptotic caspase-3 levels, morphology (SEM) and ultrastructure (TEM) for 72 hrs. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test.
Results
The combination group induced highest decrease in cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes, caspase-3 levels, MRP-1 and PDGFR-α levels. The decrease in p170 levels were lower than IM but higher that NOS. The highest increases were in EGFR, MK, bcl-2 and cAMP levels in the combination group. The G0+G1 cell cycle arrest at the end of 72nd hr was the lowest in the combination group. Apoptotic appearence was observed rarely both in the morphologic and ultrastructural evaluation of the combination group. In addition, autophagic vacuoles which were frequently observed in the IM group were observed rarely.
Conclusions
The combination of Nos with IM showed antagonist effect in T98G human GBM cells in vitro. This antagonist effect was correlated highly with MK levels. The effects of NOS on MRP-1, MK and receptor tyrosine kinase levels were firstly demonstrated in our report. In addition, we proposed that MK is one of the modulator in the switch of autophagy to cell death or survival/resistance.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-11-18
PMCID: PMC3135492  PMID: 21651812
4.  Evaluation of Light-Emitting Diode (LED-660 Nm) Application over Primary Osteoblast-Like Cells on Titanium Surfaces: An In Vitro Study 
Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells cultured on different implant surfaces and exposed once or three times to a 660-nm light-emitting diode (LED).
Methods: An LED with a 660-nm wavelength was applied once or three times to cultured cells on standard and modified sandblasted acid-etched surfaces (SLA and SLActive; Straumann, Basel, Switzerland). To analyze the effect of the LED on cell proliferation, numbers, and viability, cells were cultured on titanium discs, and measurements were taken after 72 h. Cell proliferation rates were assessed using a bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical technique. Cell morphologies were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Results: Osteoblast-like cells proliferated on all tested surfaces, with differences among groups in cell counts and DNA synthesis values. The application of one LED treatment caused a significant increase in cell count in the SLActive group in comparison with the SLA group (p = 0.001), whereas the application of three LED treatments caused a significant decrease in cell count in the SLA group compared with the SLActive group (p < 0.001). After 72 h, the number of cells was highest in the SLActive group exposed once to the LED.
Conclusions: One LED application in the SLActive group resulted in significantly increased cell numbers. However, these findings were not exactly compatible with the SEM findings, which demonstrated fewer cells and weak attachments between cells and to the surface. Thus, further studies using different LED application times are needed to clarify the reason for the increased number of cells that are apparently incapable of attaching to the titanium surfaces after 72 h.
PMCID: PMC3198254  PMID: 22022211
Light-emitting diode; SLA and SLActive surface; primary osteoblast cell culture

Results 1-4 (4)