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1.  Breast-feeding protects against infection in Indian infants. 
A retrospective study was undertaken at two isolated Manitoba Indian communities to determine whether the type of infant feeding was related to infection during the first year of life. Of 158 infants 28 were fully breast-fed, 58 initially breast-fed and then changed to bottle-feeding and 72 fully bottle-fed. Fully bottle-fed infants were hospitalized with infectious diseases 10 times more often and spent 10 times more days in hospital during the first year of life than fully breast-fed infants. Diagnoses were mainly lower respiratory tract infection and gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis occurred in only one breast-fed infant. Breast-feeding was strongly protective against severe infection requiring hospital admission and also against minor infection. The protective effect, which lasted even after breast-feeding was discontinued, was independent of family size, overcrowding in the home, family income and education of the parents. Measures to achieve breast-feeding for virtually all infants, particularly in northern communities, should be given high priority.
PMCID: PMC1819023  PMID: 106948
2.  Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. I. Descriptive and anthropometric data. 
By sequential random numbering 10 schools in greater Winnipeg were selected for a nutrition survey. Interviews were conducted with 201 grade 3 children and 182 grade 6 children for whom parental consent was obtained. Of these, 48 in grade 3 and 51 in grade 6 were studied in further detail. There were no differences in descriptive data between the general and detailed groups or among the 10 schools. Most fathers were skilled or unskilled labourers and about 50% of the mothers were homemakers without outside employment; parental occupation did not influence eating patterns. Breakfast was the meal most often missed; 8% of the 383 children had come to school without breakfast. Since many children in grade 3 had prepared their own breakfast and since there was a relative lack of physical activity, school health programs should incorporate more than nutritional supplements and nutrition education. On the basis of body weight and height the nutritional status of the 99 children studied in detail was judged to be generally satisfactory; according to the Boston standards the boys were heavy and tall, and the girls were normal in weight but short.
PMCID: PMC1879360  PMID: 837314
3.  Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. II. Dietary intake and biochemical assessment. 
The total dietary intake of energy and of individual nutrients of 99 grades 3 and 6 children from 10 greater Winnipeg shcools were generally comparable to those reported by Nutrition Canada for the Manitoba and national samples, although the percentile distributions of total caloric intake and dietary intake of vitamin A for the Winnipeg children tended to be lower. The median daily intake of protein was 212% of the Canadian Dietary Standard and most came from animal sources. Dietary fat was largely from animal sources as well. Hemoglobin concentrations were marginally low in four children, and urinary riboflavin:creatinine ratios were low in six children. There was no biochemical evidence of thiamin deficiency. The results suggest a need for change in dietary patterns and for education in nutrition, including relative nutrient/cost benefits. A well planned school snack program with an education component is a medium by which change could be introduced. This should preferable be part of a total school health program.
PMCID: PMC1879332  PMID: 837315

Results 1-3 (3)