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1.  Epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men in England and Wales 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2005;81(4):345-350.
Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic (BME) men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales (E&W).
Methods: Ethnicity data from two national HIV/AIDS surveillance systems were reviewed (1997–2002 inclusive), providing information on new HIV diagnoses and those accessing NHS HIV treatment and care services. In addition, undiagnosed HIV prevalence among MSM attending 14 genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics participating in the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme and having routine syphilis serology was examined by world region of birth.
Results: Between 1997 and 2002, 1040 BME MSM were newly diagnosed with HIV in E&W, representing 12% of all new diagnoses reported among MSM. Of the 1040 BME MSM, 27% were black Caribbean, 12% black African, 10% black other, 8% Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, and 44% other/mixed. Where reported (n = 395), 58% of BME MSM were probably infected in the United Kingdom. An estimated 7.4% (approximate 95% CI: 4.4% to 12.5%) of BME MSM aged 16–44 in E&W were living with diagnosed HIV in 2002 compared with 3.2% (approximate 95% CI: 2.6% to 3.9%) of white MSM (p<0.001). Of Caribbean born MSM attending GUM clinics between 1997 and 2002, the proportion with undiagnosed HIV infection was 15.8% (95% CI: 11.7% to 20.8%), while among MSM born in other regions it remained below 6.0%.
Conclusions: Between 1997–2002, BME MSM accounted for just over one in 10 new HIV diagnoses among MSM in E&W; more than half probably acquired their infection in the United Kingdom. In 2002, the proportion of BME MSM living with diagnosed HIV in E&W was significantly higher than white MSM. Undiagnosed HIV prevalence in Caribbean born MSM was high. These data confirm the need to remain alert to the sexual health needs and evolving epidemiology of HIV among BME MSM in E&W.
doi:10.1136/sti.2004.012328
PMCID: PMC1745025  PMID: 16061545
2.  Trends in sexual behaviour among London homosexual men 1998–2003: implications for HIV prevention and sexual health promotion 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2004;80(6):451-454.
Objectives: To examine changes in sexual behaviour among London homosexual men between 1998 and 2003 by type and HIV status of partner.
Methods: Homosexual men (n = 4264) using London gyms were surveyed annually between 1998 and 2003 (range 498–834 per year). Information was collected on HIV status, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the previous 3 months, and type of partner for UAI. High risk sexual behaviour was defined as UAI with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status.
Results: Between 1998 and 2003, the percentage of men reporting high risk sexual behaviour with a casual partner increased from 6.7% to 16.1% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.36 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 1.46, p <0.001). There was no significant change in the percentage of men reporting high risk sexual behaviour with a main partner alone (7.8%, 5.6%, p = 0.7). These patterns were seen for HIV positive, negative and never tested men alike regardless of age. The percentage of HIV positive men reporting UAI with a casual partner who was also HIV positive increased from 6.8% to 10.3% (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.58, p <0.05).
Conclusion: The increase in high risk sexual behaviour among London homosexual men between 1998 and 2003 was seen only with casual and not with main partners. STI/HIV prevention campaigns among London homosexual men should target high risk practices with casual partners since these appear to account entirely for the recent increase in high risk behaviour.
doi:10.1136/sti.2004.010785
PMCID: PMC1744925  PMID: 15572612
3.  Peer led HIV prevention among homosexual men in Britain 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2002;78(3):158-159.
doi:10.1136/sti.78.3.158
PMCID: PMC1744459  PMID: 12238643
5.  Acute hospital admissions from nursing homes: some may be avoidable 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2001;77(903):40-42.
A retrospective survey of acute hospital admissions from nursing homes over a year to a district hospital revealed high overall hospital admission rates and wide variations of admission rates from similar homes. Medical admissions dominated, infections and poorly controlled heart failure being notably common. A significant proportion of admissions may have been avoided by active chronic disease management, together with better information for doctors responding to emergency calls and specialist support programmes facilitating in situ treatment. 


Keywords: nursing homes; acute hospital admission; geriatric patients
doi:10.1136/pmj.77.903.40
PMCID: PMC1741862  PMID: 11123394
6.  Five cases of sarcoidosis in one family: a new immunological link? 
Thorax  2000;55(4):343-344.
We report a family in which five members have been affected with sarcoidosis. The radiological findings of all cases are presented, together with HLA typing, T cell subset and cytokine analysis in four cases. A new HLA association in the presentation of sarcoidosis is suggested.


doi:10.1136/thorax.55.4.343
PMCID: PMC1745732  PMID: 10722776
7.  Ultrasound guided percutaneous thrombin injection for the treatment of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms 
Heart  1999;82(4):526-527.
Iatrogenic aneurysms are usually postcatheterisation pseudoaneurysms of the femoral artery. Until recently, the treatment of choice was ultrasound guided compression repair. A case of pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery, arising as a complication of pacemaker insertion in an 83 year old man is reported. Compression repair was not possible in this case, and so the aneurysm was occluded by percutaneous ultrasound guided thrombin injection directly into the aneurysm sac. Percutaneous ultrasound guided thrombin injection is a promising new minimally invasive technique for the treatment of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms.


Keywords: pseudoaneurysm; ultrasound guided thrombin injection
PMCID: PMC1760292  PMID: 10490575
8.  Women with HIV disease attending a London clinic. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1997;73(4):274-279.
OBJECTIVE: To examine ethnic, relationship, health, and mental health factors for a cohort of women with HIV infection attending an inner London clinic. DESIGN AND METHODS: Structured schedules were utilised to analyse ethnic group, family, and reproduction issues, mental and physical health for 100 women drawn consecutively from attenders at an inner London HIV clinic RESULTS: 51% of the women were non-ethnic minority groups and 49% were from ethnic groups. HIV testing was often as a result of symptoms or partner illness. One in five had disclosed their status to one person only or no one. Ethnic minority women were more likely to restrict disclosure. Forty seven per cent of the women had 100 children with more children reported in ethnic minority families; 28% of the children had been tested for HIV and five were confirmed HIV positive; 9% of children were born after HIV diagnosis. Nineteen women reported one or more termination of pregnancy, the majority before HIV diagnosis. Three quarters had a partner of whom 56 knew the partner's status. Women with HIV positive partners were more likely to have children. Women kept in ignorance of partner status were more likely to be ethnic minority women. Thirty two per cent had an AIDS diagnosis, diagnosed mostly in the UK. Medical and counselling service uptake was high. Gynaecological problems were common (49% had one or more problem) and 34% had at least one hospital admission. A wide range of counselling issues were recorded, with variations over time. Suicidal issues were relevant for 13% of women (69% ideation, 31% attempts). Significant life events were noted for many women with allied coping demands. CONCLUSIONS: There are a wide range of issues for women with HIV and systematic differences between ethnic and non-ethnic women and those with or without children.
PMCID: PMC1195857  PMID: 9389949
9.  Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in an HIV testing clinic; uptake and prevalence. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1996;72(5):347-351.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the acceptability of STD screening among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic. DESIGN: A 9 month period prevalence study conducted between August 1993 and April 1994. SETTING: The Same Day Testing Clinic (SDTC) for HIV antibodies at the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: 242 males and 160 females attending the Same Day Testing Clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of STDs including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis and hepatitis B and the percentage of clinic attenders accepting an STD screen. RESULTS: Of those invited to take part in the study 69% of the males (242/350) and 59% (160/269) of the females agreed to be screened although for a variety of reasons not everyone agreed to a full screen. Two cases of untreated syphilis, no cases of gonorrhoea and six cases of chlamydia were detected. Four people had active, previously undiagnosed herpes while three had genital warts. Evidence of previously unknown hepatitis B infection was found in 26 people. Despite a high level of previous contact with genitourinary medicine services, uptake of hepatitis B vaccination among those homosexual men eligible for immunisation was low (28%; 23/83). Nine (4%) of the males, but none of the females screened for STD were found to be HIV antibody positive. CONCLUSION: Among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic, the prevalence of acute STDs was low. However, evidence of previously undiagnosed hepatitis B infection was found in a number of subjects and uptake of vaccination among those most at risk had been low. While opportunistic screening for STD was acceptable to almost two thirds of HIV testing clinic attenders, a substantial minority nonetheless declined this offer. Selective STD screening could be offered to those people seeking an HIV test who report never having been screened before, as both cases of positive syphilis serology and all those of chlamydia were in people who had not previously been screened. All those at risk for hepatitis B infection should be encouraged to establish their infection status and be immunised where appropriate.
PMCID: PMC1195703  PMID: 8976852
10.  Use of CD4 lymphocyte count to predict long-term survival free of AIDS after HIV infection. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6950):309-313.
OBJECTIVE--To estimate the probability of remaining free of AIDS for up to 25 years after infection with HIV by extrapolation of changes in CD4 lymphocyte count. DESIGN--Cohort study of subjects followed from time of HIV seroconversion until 1 January 1993. Creation of model by using extrapolated linear regression slopes of CD4 count to predict development of AIDS after 1993. SETTING--Regional haemophilia centre in teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--111 men with haemophilia infected with HIV during 1979-85. Median length of follow up 10.1 years, median number of CD4 counts 17. The model was not fitted for three men because only one CD4 measurement was available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Development of AIDS. INTERVENTIONS--From 1989 prophylaxis against candida and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and antiretroviral drugs when CD4 count fell below 200 x 10(6)/l. RESULTS--44 men developed AIDS up to 1 January 1993. When AIDS was defined as a CD4 count of 50 x 10(6)/l the model predicted that 25% (95% confidence interval 16% to 34%) would survive for 20 years after seroconversion and 18% (11% to 25%) for 25 years. Changing the CD4 count at which AIDS was assumed to occur did not alter the results. Younger patients had a higher chance of 20 year survival than older patients (32% (12% to 52%) for those aged < 15, 26% (14% to 38%) for those aged 15-29, and 15% (0% to 31%) for those aged > or = 30). CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that even with currently available treatment up to a quarter of patients with HIV infection will survive for 20 years after seroconversion without developing AIDS.
PMCID: PMC2540903  PMID: 7916226
11.  Use of general practice by intravenous heroin users on a methadone programme. 
Users of intravenous heroin represent a major challenge for general practice. A study was undertaken in a general practice in central London in 1990 to investigate the use of general practice made by intravenous heroin users who were on a methadone programme. Using information recorded in the patients' notes, 29 intravenous heroin users on a methadone programme were identified; 58 non-drug users (two controls per case) were matched for age, sex and general practitioner. A study of the number of routine consultations, missed appointments, emergency appointments and prescribed items showed that during the study period, those on a methadone programme made a larger number of routine consultations than the control subjects (median number of consultations 14 versus 0). When consultations at which only a prescription was issued were excluded this difference disappeared. Appointments were missed by 14 drug abusers (48%) but by none of the control group (P < 0.001). Emergency appointments were made by seven drug abusers (24%) compared with only two controls (3%) (P < 0.01). Even after prescriptions for methadone hydrochloride had been excluded from the analysis, patients on the methadone programme were prescribed significantly more items than patients in the control group (P < 0.001). This research has shown that intravenous heroin users on a methadone programme used general practice to a greater extent than non-drug users, according to the criteria used in the study. The implications that this may have in discouraging budget holding practices from running such schemes are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1372269  PMID: 1472393
13.  Social care services for patients with HIV at a London teaching hospital; an evaluation. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1992;68(6):382-385.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate outpatients' use of, and satisfaction with social care services in an HIV unit. DESIGN--Survey of patients with HIV infection using self administered questionnaire. SETTING--Outpatient HIV clinics at the Royal Free Hospital, London, March-April 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' social circumstances, use or intended use of social care services and satisfaction with social care services. RESULTS--The greatest demand was for counselling about coping with HIV (38% of respondents), available medical treatment (24%), counselling for the HIV test (33%), psychological support for emotional (24%) or relationship problems (16%), advice about housing (24%) and financial matters (20%). In general, the use of social care services by men and women was similar. Twice as many men, however, sought help with payment of domestic bills, compared with women. Women were more likely to seek advice about financial benefits, obtaining sterile injecting equipment and discuss sleep and relationship problems. Thirty eight percent of patients were unemployed. Overall, 84% thought the service was good or excellent. Although less than 40% of patients currently used any one service, 60% thought they would use these services in the future. CONCLUSION--The greatest demand for social care services was for coping with HIV, housing and financial matters, and HIV test counselling. More than half the patients stated that they would probably need social care services in future.
PMCID: PMC1194975  PMID: 1487259
15.  Progression of HIV disease in a haemophilic cohort followed for 11 years and the effect of treatment. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;303(6810):1093-1096.
OBJECTIVE--To describe the progression of HIV disease in a haemophilic cohort and to show the influence of treatment. DESIGN--11 year longitudinal clinical and laboratory study. SETTING--A haemophilia centre. PATIENTS--111 patients infected with HIV during October 1979 to July 1985. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Symptoms of HIV infection, AIDs, and death. INTERVENTIONS--26 asymptomatic patients started taking zidovudine or placebo (1000 mg/day) during November 1988 to February 1990; 10 patients with CD4+ counts of 0.2 x 10(9)/l started zidovudine 500 mg/day during January to November 1990. 35 patients used pentamidine for primary or secondary prophylaxis. RESULTS--At 11 years from seroconversion the estimated rate of progression to AIDS was 42% (95% confidence interval 27% to 57%); to symptoms 85% (75% to 95%); and to death 41% (25% to 57%). Progression to AIDS was significantly faster in patients aged 25 and over than in those aged less than 25 (relative risk 5.0 (2.4 to 10.4); p less than 0.00001) and in those with previous cytomegalovirus infection than in those not infected (relative risk 3.0 (1.4 to 6.8); p = 0.006). 16 of 27 (59%) patients with p24 antigenaemia developed AIDS compared with 17 of 84 (20%) patients without p24 antigen (p less than 0.001). The risk of progression to AIDS before 30 November 1988 in patients with CD4+ counts less than or equal to 0.2 x 10(9)/l was higher than after November 1988 (relative risk 1.9 (0.85 to 4.43); p = 0.1). For 1989 and 1990 the observed cumulative numbers of AIDS cases (among 81 patients with sufficient CD4+ counts) were 22 and 25 compared with 29 and 37 predicted from the rate of fall of CD4+ counts up to the end of 1988 (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION--Treatment seems to be reducing the progression of HIV disease in this haemophilic cohort.
PMCID: PMC1671314  PMID: 1781870
17.  Open access clinic providing HIV-I antibody results on day of testing: the first twelve months. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;302(6789):1383-1386.
OBJECTIVES--To determine the sociodemographic profile, risk category, and prevalence of HIV-I infection among people attending a clinic providing counselling, medical advice, and results of HIV-I antibody testing on the day of consultation; to determine the stage of infection and peripheral blood CD4 cell count among attenders with detectable HIV-I antibodies. DESIGN--Analysis of prospectively collected data for the 12 months from March 1989. SETTING--Same day testing clinic run by the HIV/AIDS team at an urban teaching hospital. PATIENTS--561 consecutive people choosing to attend and proceeding to HIV-I testing. RESULTS--The demand for the service caused it to run to capacity within six months. The median age of those attending was 28 years and 65% (364 patients) were male. The overall prevalence of HIV-I infection was 3.9% (22 patients). The greatest prevalence was in men reporting their primary risk as homosexual contact (11.9%, 13/109). The median CD4 cell count in the 22 patients who had detectable HIV-I antibodies was 0.31 x 10(9) cells/l (normal range 0.5 x 10(9)/l to 1.2 x 10(9)/l). Twenty of these patients were asymptomatic (Centers for Disease Control stages II or III), 14 had CD4 cell counts below 0.5 x 10(9)/l. CONCLUSIONS--There is a recognisable demand for a service providing rapid results of HIV-I antibody testing in this setting. The overall seroprevalence of 3.9% is comparable with the 5.8% reported from freestanding clinics in the United States. Most patients with HIV-I antibodies detected in this way are asymptomatic but could benefit from early medical intervention because of low CD4 cell counts.
PMCID: PMC1670043  PMID: 1676319
18.  Changing patterns in the workload of a district HIV/AIDS counselling unit 1987-90. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1991;67(3):235-238.
OBJECTIVES--To describe the changing workload of an HIV/AIDS counselling unit between 1987 and 1990. DESIGN--Retrospective examination of data collected by the HIV/AIDS counselling unit between 1987-90 on the number of counselling sessions with patients, family members and staff. SETTING--An HIV/AIDS counselling unit established in 1987 in a London teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of new referrals to the HIV/AIDS counselling unit and the number of follow-up sessions. Number of counselling sessions with family members, hospital staff and people making telephone contact with the unit. RESULTS--New referrals to the HIV/AIDS counselling unit increased from 117 (1987-88) to 926 (1989-90). Follow-up appointments increased from 403 to 2016 in the same period. Telephone counselling sessions increased five-fold, and counselling sessions with family members nearly ten-fold over the three year period. Staff consultations doubled. CONCLUSION--The increase in the HIV/AIDS counselling unit's workload may be partly attributable to the rising incidence of AIDS in the community, reflecting earlier patterns of HIV infection. In addition, new HIV/AIDS services were developed in the hospital between 1987 and 1990. These included the establishment of a same-day HIV test and result clinic; integrated management of patients with HIV/AIDS, with an emphasis on early intervention in HIV infection; specialist services for families, antenatal clinic attenders and others affected by HIV; and the appointment of a designated HIV/AIDS consultant. New approaches to counselling and training health care providers in counselling skills will assume increasing importance in meeting future demand for HIV/AIDS counselling.
PMCID: PMC1194679  PMID: 2071127
19.  Migration and geographic variations in blood pressure in Britain. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;300(6720):291-295.
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relative contributions of factors acting at different stages in life to regional differences in adult blood pressure. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study (British regional heart study). SETTING--One general practice in each of 24 towns in Britain. SUBJECTS--7735 Men aged 40-59 years when screened in 1978-80 whose geographic zone of birth and zone of examination were classified as south of England, midlands and Wales, north of England, and Scotland. Non-migrants (n = 3144) were born in the town where they were examined; internal migrants (n = 4147) were born in Great Britain but not in the town where they were examined; and international migrants (n = 422) were born outside Great Britain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and height. RESULTS--Regardless of where they were born, men living in the south of England had lower mean blood pressures than men living in Scotland (142.5/80.1 v 148.1/85.2 mm Hg). The effects of the place of birth and place of examination on adult blood pressure were examined in a multiple regression model. For internal migrants the modelled increase in mean systolic blood pressure across adjacent zones of examination was 2.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.9); for adjacent zones of birth the corresponding increase was 0.1 mm Hg (-0.7 to 0.7). The place of examination seemed to be a far more important determinant of mean adult blood pressure than the place of birth. Height is an accepted marker of genetic and early life influences. Regional differences in height were therefore analysed to test whether the multiple regression model could correctly distinguish between the influence of place of birth and place of examination. As expected, men born in Scotland were shorter on average than men born in the south of England irrespective of where they lived in Britain (172.6 cm v 175.1 cm for internal migrants). CONCLUSION--Regional variations in blood pressure were strongly influenced by where the men had lived for most of their adult lives rather than by where they were born and brought up. Among middle aged men, factors acting in adult life seemed to be more important determinants of regional differences in blood pressure than those acting early in life such as genetic inheritance, intrauterine environment, and childhood experience.
PMCID: PMC1661953  PMID: 2106957
20.  Workload of a new district AIDS counselling unit, April 1987 to March 1988. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1989;65(2):113-116.
The Hampstead district AIDS counselling unit in London was opened in January 1987. It is staffed by a clinical psychologist, a social worker, and an administrator. From April 1987 to March 1988, 141 new patients and their relatives were referred from a range of clinical departments and 544 counselling sessions were provided. In addition, 666 staff consultations were organised to help colleagues manage some of the psychosocial problems of patients. An increase in demand during 1988-89 and a need for additional resources are anticipated. A strong case is seen for training other members of health care teams so that they may counsel patients with AIDS without referring them to the unit.
PMCID: PMC1194300  PMID: 2753509

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