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1.  Transplantation of Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived 3D Retinal Sheets into Retinal Degenerative Mice 
Stem Cell Reports  2014;2(5):662-674.
Summary
In this article, we show that mouse embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived 3D retinal tissue developed a structured outer nuclear layer (ONL) with complete inner and outer segments even in an advanced retinal degeneration model (rd1) that lacked ONL. We also observed host-graft synaptic connections by immunohistochemistry. This study provides a “proof of concept” for retinal sheet transplantation therapy for advanced retinal degenerative diseases.
Graphical Abstract
Highlights
•3D retina was formed from ESCs/iPSCs using retinoic acid receptor antagonist•ESC/iPSC retina developed a structured layer of photoreceptors in rd1 host mice•Transplanted photoreceptors formed complete inner and outer segments•Transplanted photoreceptors morphologically made synapses with host bipolar cells
In this article, Mandai and colleagues show that mouse embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived 3D retinal tissue developed a structured outer nuclear layer (ONL) with complete inner and outer segments even in an advanced retinal degeneration model (rd1) that lacked ONL. They also observed host-graft synaptic connections by immunohistochemistry. This study provides a “proof of concept” for retinal sheet transplantation therapy for advanced retinal degenerative diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.03.011
PMCID: PMC4050483  PMID: 24936453
2.  Robust Formation and Maintenance of Continuous Stratified Cortical Neuroepithelium by Laminin-Containing Matrix in Mouse ES Cell Culture 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e53024.
In the mammalian cortex, the dorsal telencephalon exhibits a characteristic stratified structure. We previously reported that three-dimensional (3D) culture of mouse ES cells (mESCs) can efficiently generate cortical neuroepithelium (NE) and layer-specific cortical neurons. However, the cortical NE generated in this mESC culture was structurally unstable and broke into small neural rosettes by culture day 7, suggesting that some factors for reinforcing the structural integrity were missing. Here we report substantial supporting effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein laminin on the continuous formation of properly polarized cortical NE in floating aggregate culture of mESCs. The addition of purified laminin and entactin (a laminin-associated protein), even at low concentrations, stabilized the formation of continuous cortical NE as well as the maintenance of basement membrane and prevented rosette formation. Treatment with the neutralizing ß1-integrin antibody impaired the continuous NE formation. The stabilized cortical NE exhibited typical interkinetic nuclear migration of cortical progenitors, as seen in the embryonic cortex. The laminin-treated cortical NE maintained a continuous structure even on culture days 12 and 15, and contained ventricular, basal-progenitor, cortical-plate and Cajal-Retzius cell layers. The cortical NE in this culture was flanked by cortical hem-like tissue. Furthermore, when Shh was added, ventral telencephalic structures such as lateral ganglionic eminence–like tissue formed in the region adjacent to the cortical NE. Thus, our results indicate that laminin-entactin ECM promotes the formation of structurally stable telencephalic tissues in 3D ESC culture, and supports the morphogenetic recapitulation of cortical development.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053024
PMCID: PMC3534089  PMID: 23300850
3.  Remodeling of Monoplanar Purkinje Cell Dendrites during Cerebellar Circuit Formation 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e20108.
Dendrite arborization patterns are critical determinants of neuronal connectivity and integration. Planar and highly branched dendrites of the cerebellar Purkinje cell receive specific topographical projections from two major afferent pathways; a single climbing fiber axon from the inferior olive that extend along Purkinje dendrites, and parallel fiber axons of granule cells that contact vertically to the plane of dendrites. It has been believed that murine Purkinje cell dendrites extend in a single parasagittal plane in the molecular layer after the cell polarity is determined during the early postnatal development. By three-dimensional confocal analysis of growing Purkinje cells, we observed that mouse Purkinje cells underwent dynamic dendritic remodeling during circuit maturation in the third postnatal week. After dendrites were polarized and flattened in the early second postnatal week, dendritic arbors gradually expanded in multiple sagittal planes in the molecular layer by intensive growth and branching by the third postnatal week. Dendrites then became confined to a single plane in the fourth postnatal week. Multiplanar Purkinje cells in the third week were often associated by ectopic climbing fibers innervating nearby Purkinje cells in distinct sagittal planes. The mature monoplanar arborization was disrupted in mutant mice with abnormal Purkinje cell connectivity and motor discoordination. The dendrite remodeling was also impaired by pharmacological disruption of normal afferent activity during the second or third postnatal week. Our results suggest that the monoplanar arborization of Purkinje cells is coupled with functional development of the cerebellar circuitry.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020108
PMCID: PMC3105010  PMID: 21655286
4.  Receptor Type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase ζ-Pleiotrophin Signaling Controls Endocytic Trafficking of DNER That Regulates Neuritogenesis▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2008;28(14):4494-4506.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPζ) is a receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase that uses pleiotrophin as a ligand. Pleiotrophin inactivates the phosphatase activity of PTPζ, resulting in the increase of tyrosine phosphorylation levels of its substrates. We studied the functional interaction between PTPζ and DNER, a Notch-related transmembrane protein highly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PTPζ and DNER displayed patchy colocalization in the dendrites of Purkinje cells, and immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that these proteins formed complexes. Several tyrosine residues in and adjacent to the tyrosine-based and the second C-terminal sorting motifs of DNER were phosphorylated and were dephosphorylated by PTPζ, and phosphorylation of these tyrosine residues resulted in the accumulation of DNER on the plasma membrane. DNER mutants lacking sorting motifs accumulated on the plasma membrane of Purkinje cells and Neuro-2A cells and induced their process extension. While normal DNER was actively endocytosed and inhibited the retinoic-acid-induced neurite outgrowth of Neuro-2A cells, pleiotrophin stimulation increased the tyrosine phosphorylation level of DNER and suppressed the endocytosis of this protein, which led to the reversal of this inhibition, thus allowing neurite extension. These observations suggest that pleiotrophin-PTPζ signaling controls subcellular localization of DNER and thereby regulates neuritogenesis.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00074-08
PMCID: PMC2447117  PMID: 18474614
5.  Relaxation-expansion model for self-driven retinal morphogenesis 
Bioessays  2012;34(1):17-25.
The generation of complex organ structures such as the eye requires the intricate orchestration of multiple cellular interactions. In this paper, early retinal development is discussed with respect to the structure formation of the optic cup. Although recent studies have elucidated molecular mechanisms of retinal differentiation, little is known about how the unique shape of the optic cup is determined. A recent report has demonstrated that optic-cup morphogenesis spontaneously occurs in three-dimensional stem-cell culture without external forces, indicating a latent intrinsic order to generate the structure. Based on this self-organizing phenomenon, we introduce the “relaxation-expansion” model to mechanically interpret the tissue dynamics that enable the spontaneous invagination of the neural retina. This model involves three consecutive local rules (relaxation, apical constriction, and expansion), and its computer simulation recapitulates the optic-cup morphogenesis in silico.
doi:10.1002/bies.201100070
PMCID: PMC3266490  PMID: 22052700
ES cells; internal force; optic cup; retina; self-organization

Results 1-5 (5)