The human central nervous system (CNS) features a network of ∼400 miles of blood vessels that receives >20% of the body’s cardiac output and uses most of its blood glucose. Many human diseases, including stroke, retinopathy, and cancer, are associated with the biology of CNS blood vessels. These vessels originate from extrinsic cell populations, including endothelial cells and pericytes that colonize the CNS and interact with glia and neurons to establish the blood–brain barrier and control cerebrovascular exchanges. Neurovascular interactions also play important roles in adult neurogenic niches, which harbor a unique population of neural stem cells that are intimately associated with blood vessels. We here review the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to establish the CNS vascular network, with a special focus on neurovascular interactions and the functions of vascular endothelial growth factors.
Diseases of the CNS vasculature (e.g., stroke) are a leading cause of death. Defining the molecular players involved in neurovascular interactions (e.g., VEGF family members) has important clinical ramifications.
Molecular mechanisms regulating lymphangiogenesis may be exploited as potential treatments for disorders of lymphatic circulation.
Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type–specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs.
The development of new biological therapeutics such as neutralizing
antibodies and small molecule inhibitors of receptors signaling is
revolutionizing many fields of medicine—and creating new insights into
normal biology. In particular, inhibition of blood vessel growth has been
vigorously pursued in a number of fields, including oncology and ophthalmology.
To date, most experience with this class of drugs centers on anti-vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents such as a neutralizing antibody
bevacizumab and small molecule inhibitors of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2). Anti-VEGF
therapies have been spectacularly successful for treatment of macular
degeneration, and somewhat less so in the treatment of cancer. Hand in hand with
these advances is the emergence of new cardiac illnesses directly related to the
activity of these agents.
contrast echocardiography; VEGF; ventricular hypertrophy
Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial-specific member of the TGF-β/BMP receptor family that is inactivated in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). How ALK1 signaling regulates angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we show that ALK1 inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway. Blocking Alk1 signaling during postnatal development in mice leads to retinal hypervascularization and the appearance of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Combined blockade of Alk1 and Notch signaling further exacerbates hypervascularization, whereas activation of Alk1 by its high-affinity ligand BMP9 rescues hypersprouting induced by Notch inhibition. Mechanistically, ALK1-dependent SMAD signaling synergizes with activated Notch in stalk cells to induce expression of the Notch targets HEY1 and HEY2, thereby repressing VEGF signaling, tip cell formation, and endothelial sprouting. Taken together, these results uncover a direct link between ALK1 and Notch signaling during vascular morpho-genesis that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HHT vascular lesions.
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) has long been recognized as the key regulator of vascular development and function in health and disease. VEGF is a secreted polypeptide that binds to transmembrane tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors on the plasma membrane, inducing their dimerization, activation and assembly of a membrane-proximal signaling complex. Recent studies have revealed that many key events of VEGFR signaling occur inside the endothelial cell and are regulated by endosomal receptor trafficking. Plasma membrane VEGFR interacting molecules, including vascular guidance receptors Neuropilins and Ephrins also regulate VEGFR endocytosis and trafficking. VEGF signaling is increasingly recognized for its roles outside of the vascular system, notably during neural development, and blood vessels regulate epithelial branching morphogenesis. We review here recent advances in our understanding of VEGF signaling and its biological roles.
Notch cell interaction mechanism governs cell fate decisions in many different cell contexts throughout the lifetime of all Metazoan species. It links the fate of one cell to that of its neighbors through cell-to-cell contacts, and binding of Notch receptors expressed on one cell to their membrane bound ligands on an adjacent cell. Environmental cues, such as growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules, superimpose a dynamic regulation on this canonical Notch signaling pathway. In this review, we will focus on Notch signaling in the vertebrate vascular and nervous systems and examine its role in angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neurovascular interactions. We will also highlight the molecular relationships of the Notch pathway with vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their high-affinity tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors, key regulators of both angiogenesis and neurogenesis.
Angiogenesis; Neurogenesis; Neurovascular interactions; Notch; VEGFs; VEGFRs
Background. Recently antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab has shown a high but transient efficacy in glioblastoma (GBM). Indeed, GBM is one of the most angiogenic human tumors and endothelial proliferation is a hallmark of the disease. We therefore hypothesized that tumor cells may participate in endothelial proliferation of GBM. Materials and Methods. We used EGFR FISH Probe to detect EGFR amplification and anti-CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF to identify endothelial cells. Endothelial and GBM cells were grown separately, labeled with GFP and DsRed lentiviruses, and then cocultured with or without contact. Results. In a subset of GBM tissues, we found that several tumor endothelial cells carry EGFR amplification, characteristic of GBM tumor cells. This observation was reproduced in vitro: when tumor stem cells derived from GBM were grown in the presence of human endothelial cells, a fraction of them acquired endothelial markers (CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF). By transduction with GFP and DsRed expressing lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to cell fusion and not transdifferentiation. Conclusion. A fraction of GBM stem cells thus has the capacity to fuse with endothelial cells and the resulting hybrids may participate in tumor microvascular proliferation and in treatment resistance.
The lymphatic vasculature plays a major role in fluid homeostasis, absorption of dietary lipids, and immune surveillance. Fluid transport depends on the presence of intraluminal valves within lymphatic collectors. Defective formation of lymphatic valves leads to lymphedema, a progressive and debilitating condition for which curative treatments are currently unavailable. How lymphatic valve formation is regulated remains largely unknown.
We investigated if the repulsive axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) plays a role in lymphatic valve formation.
Methods and Results
We show that Sema3A mRNA is expressed in lymphatic vessels and that Sema3A protein binds to lymphatic valves expressing the Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) and PlexinA1 receptors. Using mouse knockout models, we show that Sema3A is selectively required for lymphatic valve formation, via interaction with Nrp1 and PlexinA1. Sema3a−/− mice exhibit defects in lymphatic valve formation, which are not due to abnormal lymphatic patterning or sprouting, and mice carrying a mutation in the Sema3A binding site of Nrp1, or deficient for Plxna1, develop lymphatic valve defects similar to those seen in Sema3a−/− mice.
Our data demonstrate an essential direct function of Sema3A-Nrp1-PlexinA1 signaling in lymphatic valve formation.
valve; guidance; development; lymphatic vessel; vascular biology; vascular smooth muscle
Arteriogenesis and collateral formation are complex processes requiring integration of multiple inputs to coordinate vessel branching, growth, maturation and network size. Factors regulating these processes have not been determined.
Methods and Results
We used a dominant-negative IκBαSR construct under control of an endothelial-specific inducible promoter to selectively suppress endothelial NFκB activation during development or in the adult vasculature or in vitro. Inhibition of NFκB activation resulted in formation of an excessively branched arterial network that was composed of immature vessels and provided poor distal tissue perfusion. Molecular analysis demonstrated reduced adhesion molecules expression leading to decreased monocyte influx, reduced HIF-1α levels and a marked decrease in Dll4 expression with a consequent decrease in Notch signaling. The latter was the principal cause of increased vascular branching, as treatment with Jagged-1 peptide reduced the size of arterial network to baseline levels.
These findings identify NFκB as a key regulator of adult and developmental arteriogenesis and collateral formation. NFkB achieves this by regulating HIF1α-dependent expression of VEGF-A and PDGF-BB that are necessary for development and maturation of the arterial collateral network and by regulating Dll4 expression that in turn determines the network’s size and complexity.
arteriogenesis; NFκB; HIF; Dll4
Aberrant blood vessel formation contributes to a wide variety of pathologies, and factors that regulate angiogenesis are attractive therapeutic targets. Endothelial and smooth muscle cell–derived neuropilin-like protein (ESDN) is a neuropilin-related transmembrane protein expressed in ECs; however, its potential effect on VEGF responses remains undefined. Here, we generated global and EC-specific Esdn knockout mice and demonstrated that ESDN promotes VEGF-induced human and murine EC proliferation and migration. Deletion of Esdn in the mouse interfered with adult and developmental angiogenesis, and knockdown of the Esdn homolog (dcbld2) in zebrafish impaired normal vascular development. Loss of ESDN in ECs blunted VEGF responses in vivo and attenuated VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 signaling without altering VEGF receptor or neuropilin expression. Finally, we found that ESDN associates with VEGFR-2 and regulates its complex formation with negative regulators of VEGF signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP1B and TC-PTP, and VE-cadherin. These findings establish ESDN as a regulator of VEGF responses in ECs that acts through a mechanism distinct from neuropilins. As such, ESDN may serve as a therapeutic target for angiogenesis regulation.
angiogenesis; glycolysis; metabolism
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) have diverse functions during development in vertebrates. We have recently shown that BMP2 signaling promotes venous specific angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos. However, factors that confer a context dependent pro-angiogenic function of BMP2 signaling within endothelial cells need to be identified. Here, we report that Disabled homolog 2 (Dab2), a cargo specific adaptor protein for Clathrin, is essential to mediate the pro-angiogenic function of BMP2 signaling. We find that inhibition of Dab2 attenuates internalization of BMP receptors and abrogates the pro-angiogenic effects of BMP signaling in endothelial cells. Moreover, inhibition of Dab2 decreases phosphorylation of SMAD-1, 5, and 8, indicating that Dab2 plays an essential role in determining the outcome of BMP signaling within endothelial cells, and may provide a molecular basis for a context dependent pro-angiogenic function of BMP2 signaling.
Lymphatic vessels are thought to arise from PROX1-positive endothelial cells (ECs) in the cardinal vein in response to induction of SOX18 expression; however, the molecular event responsible for increased SOX18 expression has not been established. We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an RAF1 gene with a gain-of-function mutation (RAF1S259A) that is associated with Noonan syndrome. Expression of mutant RAF1S259A in ECs activated ERK and induced SOX18 and PROX1 expression, leading to increased commitment of venous ECs to the lymphatic fate. Excessive production of lymphatic ECs resulted in lymphangiectasia that was highly reminiscent of abnormal lymphatics seen in Noonan syndrome and similar “RASopathies.” Inhibition of ERK signaling during development abrogated the lymphatic differentiation program and rescued the lymphatic phenotypes induced by expression of RAF1S259A. These data suggest that ERK activation plays a key role in lymphatic EC fate specification and that excessive ERK activation is the basis of lymphatic abnormalities seen in Noonan syndrome and related diseases.
Inflammatory neovascularization, such as choroidal neovascularization (CNV), occur in the presence of Notch expressing macrophages. DLL4s anti-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells (EC) has been widely recognized, but its influence on Notch signaling on macrophages and its overall effect in inflammatory neovascularization is not well understood. We identified macrophages and ECs as the main Notch 1 and Notch 4 expressing cells in CNV. A soluble fraction spanning Ser28-Pro525 of the murine extracellular DLL4 domain (sDLL4/28-525) activated the Notch pathway, as it induces Notch target genes in macrophages and ECs and inhibited EC proliferation and vascular sprouting in aortic rings. In contrast, sDLL4/28-525 increased pro-angiogenic VEGF, and IL-1β expression in macrophages responsible for increased vascular sprouting observed in aortic rings incubated in conditioned media from sDLL4/28-525 stimulated macrophages. In vivo, Dll4+/− mice developed significantly more CNV and sDLL4/28-525 injections inhibited CNV in Dll4+/− CD1 mice. Similarly, sDLL4/28-525 inhibited CNV in C57Bl6 and its effect was reversed by a γ-secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch signaling. The inhibition occurred despite increased VEGF, IL-1β expression in infiltrating inflammatory macrophages in sDLL4/28-525 treated mice and might be due to direct inhibition of EC proliferation in laser-induced CNV as demonstrated by EdU labelling in vivo. In conclusion, Notch activation on macrophages and ECs leads to opposing effects in inflammatory neovascularization in situations such as CNV.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10456-012-9290-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Angiogenesis; Notch; DLL4; Eye; Age related macular degeneration; Macrophages
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, involves specification of endothelial cells to tip cells and stalk cells, which is controlled by Notch signalling, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 and VEGFR-3 have been implicated in angiogenic sprouting. Surprisingly, we found that endothelial deletion of Vegfr3, but not VEGFR-3-blocking antibodies, postnatally led to excessive angiogenic sprouting and branching, and decreased the level of Notch signalling, indicating that VEGFR-3 possesses passive and active signalling modalities. Furthermore, macrophages expressing the VEGFR-3 and VEGFR-2 ligand VEGF-C localized to vessel branch points, and Vegfc heterozygous mice exhibited inefficient angiogenesis characterized by decreased vascular branching. FoxC2 is a known regulator of Notch ligand and target gene expression, and Foxc2+/−; Vegfr3+/− compound heterozygosity recapitulated homozygous loss of Vegfr3. These results indicate that macrophage-derived VEGF-C activates VEGFR-3 in tip cells to reinforce Notch signalling, which contributes to the phenotypic conversion of endothelial cells at fusion points of vessel sprouts.
Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to study CEC origin and participation to the developing vasculature. CEC are traced with different markers, in particular the QH1 antibody recognizing only quail endothelial cells. Using yolk-sac chimeras, where quail embryos are grafted onto chick yolk sacs and vice-versa, we show that CEC are generated in the yolk sac. These cells are mobilized during wound healing, demonstrating their participation to angiogenic repair processes. Furthermore, we found that the allantois is also able to give rise to CEC in situ. In contrast to the yolk sac and allantois, the embryo proper does not produce CEC. Our results show that CEC exclusively originate from extra-embryonic territories made with splanchnopleural mesoderm and endoderm, while definitive hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells are of intra-embryonic origin.
If neuropilin-2 and the growth factor VEGF-C don’t come together, lymphatic vessels don’t branch apart.
Vascular sprouting is a key process-driving development of the vascular system. In this study, we show that neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), a transmembrane receptor for the lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), plays an important role in lymphatic vessel sprouting. Blocking VEGF-C binding to Nrp2 using antibodies specifically inhibits sprouting of developing lymphatic endothelial tip cells in vivo. In vitro analyses show that Nrp2 modulates lymphatic endothelial tip cell extension and prevents tip cell stalling and retraction during vascular sprout formation. Genetic deletion of Nrp2 reproduces the sprouting defects seen after antibody treatment. To investigate whether this defect depends on Nrp2 interaction with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and/or 3, we intercrossed heterozygous mice lacking one allele of these receptors. Double-heterozygous nrp2vegfr2 mice develop normally without detectable lymphatic sprouting defects. In contrast, double-heterozygote nrp2vegfr3 mice show a reduction of lymphatic vessel sprouting and decreased lymph vessel branching in adult organs. Thus, interaction between Nrp2 and VEGFR3 mediates proper lymphatic vessel sprouting in response to VEGF-C.
Endothelial cells (ECs) form extensive, highly branched and hierarchically organized tubular networks in vertebrates to ensure the proper distribution of molecular and cellular cargo in the vertebrate body. The growth of this vascular system during development, tissue repair or in disease conditions involves the sprouting, migration and proliferation of endothelial cells in a process termed angiogenesis. Surprisingly, specialized ECs, so-called tip cells, which lead and guide endothelial sprouts, share many feature with another guidance structure, the axonal growth cone. Tip cells are motile, invasive and extend numerous filopodial protrusions sensing growth factors, extracellular matrix and other attractive or repulsive cues in their tissue environment. Axonal growth cones and endothelial tip cells also respond to signals belonging to the same molecular families, such as Slits and Roundabouts, Netrins and UNC5 receptors, Semaphorins, Plexins and Neuropilins, and Eph receptors and ephrin ligands. Here we summarize fundamental principles of angiogenic growth, the selection and function of tip cells and the underlying regulation by guidance cues, the Notch pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.
“Tip cells” guide branching of blood vessels during development and tissue repair. These are surprisingly similar to axon growth cones, using many of the same guidance molecules.
To describe the occurrence of common medical and psychological conditions in individuals with Down syndrome during their life span, and to measure the use of the Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group’s health care guidelines by family physicians across Canada, as reported by parents or caregivers.
The Down Syndrome Research Foundation sent a questionnaire to 314 families across Canada who were part of the Canadian Voluntary Registry on Down Syndrome. This questionnaire was designed to collect information from parents about physical examinations, laboratory tests, referrals and discussions with family physicians that are listed in the health care guidelines.
Two hundred twenty-three families responded to the survey. The highest response rates were in families with children in the five- to 12-year-old age range (41.7%) and the 13- to 18-year-old age range (19.7%). The most common medical conditions reported were visual, hearing and cardiac related. A high percentage of sleep-, gastrointestinal- and thyroid-related conditions were also reported. In the adult group (ie, 30 years of age and older), there was a high proportion of depression and/or anxiety disorders reported. The percentage of those reporting physical examinations and medical referrals by family physicians were highest in the five- to 12-year-old age range and dropped below 50% in those aged 19 years and older. In the one- to four-year-old and five- to 12-year-old age groups, the percentages of those with Down syndrome referred for hearing tests and celiac screens were reported to be below 30%. The percentages of those reporting discussions on behavioural issues were below 50% in all age groups.
Physical examinations, as per the recommended guidelines, were followed only in the five- to 12-year-old age group. Many of the recommendations regarding discussion of behavioural problems, transition planning, diet, exercise and issues around puberty or sexual health were followed infrequently in all age groups. Further physician education about the guidelines is necessary.
Down syndrome; Practice guidelines; Voluntary registry