To develop effective programs for people who are opioid-dependent and to impact the opioid epidemic in New York City, it is crucial that we monitor attitudes about opioid addiction treatments among opioid users who have experienced barriers to engagement and retention in addiction treatment.
We conducted a qualitative study using focus groups.
We conducted six focus groups in three needle exchanges in New York City, which were audio recorded, transcribed, and systematically coded. We report on the main themes related to the study objectives.
Participants of each needle exchange who were opioid-dependent and had some knowledge of both methadone and buprenorphine were eligible.
There were four main findings. Participants felt: (1) buprenorphine is an appropriate option only for those heroin users who are motivated to stop using; (2) they have less control over their addiction treatment with methadone than they would have with buprenorphine; (3) buprenorphine treatment is not accessible to many New York City residents who would benefit from this treatment; and (4) lack of access to buprenorphine treatment is the cause of treatment-related diversion.
Both methadone maintenance and buprenorphine treatment opportunities are necessary to address the diverse treatment needs of opioid-dependent people in New York City. However, the current medical model of buprenorphine treatment may be too restrictive for some opioid-dependent people, and may be contributing to the use of illicit buprenorphine. New models to deliver buprenorphine treatment may address these problems.
heroin dependence; buprenorphine; methadone; qualitative research
Buprenorphine/naloxone allows the integration of opioid dependence and HIV treatment.
We conducted a prospective study in HIV-infected opioid dependent patients to investigate the impact of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment on drug use. Self-report and chart review assessments were conducted every 3 months (Quarters 1 through 4) for one year. Outcomes were buprenorphine/naloxone treatment retention, drug use, and addiction treatment processes.
Among 303 patients enrolled between July 2005 and December 2007, retention in buprenorphine/naloxone treatment was 74%, 67%, 59% and 49% during Quarters 1,2 3, and 4, respectively. Past 30 day illicit opioid use decreased from 84% of patients at baseline to 42% in retained patients over the year. Patients were 52% less likely to use illicit opioids for each quarter in treatment (OR = .66; 95% CI 0.61–0.72). Buprenorphine/naloxone doses and office visits approximated guidelines published by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Urine toxicology monitoring was less frequent than recommended.
Buprenorphine/naloxone provided in HIV treatment settings can decrease opioid use. Strategies are needed to improve retention and address ongoing drug use in this treatment population.
Buprenorphine; heroin dependence; opioid-related disorders; HIV; methadone
Men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 61% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2010. Recent analyses indicate that socio-structural factors are important correlates of HIV infection. NYCM2M was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics within the urban environment that influence sexual risk behaviors, substance use and depression among MSM living in New York City. The sample was recruited using a modified venue-based time-space sampling methodology and through select websites and mobile applications.
This paper describes novel methodological approaches used to improve the quality of data collected for analysis of the impact of neighborhoods on MSM health. Previous research has focused predominately on residential neighborhoods and used pre-determined administrative boundaries (e.g., census tracts) that often do not reflect authentic and meaningful neighborhoods. This study included the definition and assessment of multiple neighborhoods of influence including where men live (home neighborhood), socialize (social neighborhood) and have sex (sexual neighborhood). Furthermore, making use of technological advances in mapping, we collected geo-points of reference for each type of neighborhood and identified and constructed self-identified neighborhood boundary definitions. Finally, this study collected both perceived neighborhood characteristics and objective neighborhood conditions to create a comprehensive, flexible and rich neighborhood-level set of covariates. This research revealed that men perceived their home, social and sexual neighborhoods in different ways. Few men (15%) had the same home, social and sexual neighborhoods; for 31%, none of the neighborhoods was the same. Of the three types of neighborhoods, the number of unique social neighborhoods was the lowest; the size of sexual neighborhoods was the smallest. The resultant dataset offers the opportunity to conduct analyses that will yield context-specific and nuanced understandings of the relations among neighborhood space, and the well-being and health of urban MSM.
The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to compare sociodemographic and risk behavior characteristics between black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) and those who have sex with men only (MSMO) and assess factors associated with having any unprotected vaginal and/or anal intercourse (UVAI) with women in the last 3 months. Data from 326 black men who reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a man in an HIV behavioral intervention study in New York City were analyzed. Baseline characteristics were compared between MSMW and MSMO, and factors associated with having any UVAI in the past 3 months with women among MSMW were evaluated. In total, 26.8% reported having sex with both men and women in the last 3 months. MSMW were less likely to be HIV-infected, use amyl nitrates, and have unprotected receptive anal sex with most recent male partner. MSMW were more likely to be over 40 years old and use heroin. 55.6% of MSMW reported having UVAI with women in the last 3 months. Compared to MSMW having only protected sex, MSMW having any UVAI with women were less likely to be HIV-infected and to disclose having sex with men to female partners; they were more likely to have greater than 4 male sex partners in the last 3 months. In conclusion, HIV prevention interventions among black MSMW should directly address the risk of HIV transmission to both their female and male partners. Disclosure of bisexuality to female partners may be an important component of future prevention efforts.
Black MSMW; men who have sex with men and women; bisexuality; HIV/AIDS
IRX-2, a primary cell-derived biologic with pleotropic immune activity, was shown to induce increased lymphocyte infiltrations into the tumor of patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) after 10 days of neoadjuvant therapy (Berinstein et al. 2011). In the same patients enrolled in the Phase II study, peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were monitored pre- and post-IRX-2 therapy to evaluate changes induced by IRX-2.
Absolute lymphocyte numbers were determined in whole blood using the TetraONE System. Lymphocytes were further separated on Ficoll—Hypaque gradients and evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry. Lymphocyte numbers, including regulatory T cells (Treg) and naïve, memory and effector T cells, were compared in pre- and post-therapy specimens.
Total lymphocyte numbers remained unchanged after IRX-2 therapy. Significant changes occurred in numbers of circulating B cells and NKT cells, which decreased following IRX-2 therapy. The frequency of circulating Treg (CD4+CD25high) remained unaltered (e.g., 6.7 ± 0.6% vs. 7.5 ± 0.8%; means ± SEM) as was the CD8+/Treg ratio (6.6 before and 6.7 after IRX-2 therapy). The mean absolute number of CD3+CD45RA+CCR7+ (naïve) T cells was decreased after IRX-2 therapy but numbers of total memory (i.e., central and peripheral) and terminally differentiated T cells were unchanged.
IRX-2-mediated reductions in B and NKT cell numbers in the blood suggest a redistribution of these cells to tissues. A decrease in naïve T cells implies their up-regulated differentiation to memory T cells. Unchanged Treg numbers after IRX-2 therapy indicate that IRX-2 does not expand this compartment, potentially benefiting anti-tumor immune responses.
Cytokines; Lymphocytes; Cancer; Neoadjuvant IRX-2; HNSCC
Opioid dependence and HIV infection are associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nx) provided in HIV care settings may improve HRQOL.
We surveyed 289 HIV-infected opioid-dependent persons treated with clinic-based bup/nx about HRQOL using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) administered at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. We used normalized SF-12 scores which correspond to a mean HRQOL of 50 for the general U.S. population (SD 10, possible range 0–100). We compared mean normalized mental and physical composite and component scores in quarters 1, 2, 3, and 4 with baseline scores using GEE models. We assessed the effect of clinic-based bup/nx prescription on HRQOL composite scores using mixed effects regression with site as random effect and time as repeated effect.
Baseline normalized SF-12 scores were lower than the general U.S. population for all HRQOL domains. Average composite mental HRQOL improved from 38.3 (SE 12.5) to 43.4 (SE 13.2) (β 1.13 [95% CI 0.72, 1.54]) and composite physical HRQOL remained unchanged (β 0.21 [95% CI −0.16, 0.57]) over 12 months follow-up. Continued bup/nx treatment across all four quarters was associated with improvements in both physical (β 2.38 [95% CI 0.63, 4.12]) and mental (β 2.51 [95% CI 0.42, 4.60]) HRQOL after adjusting for other contributors to HRQOL.
Clinic-based bup/nx maintenance therapy is potentially effective in ameliorating some of the adverse effects of opioid dependence on HRQOL for HIV-infected populations.
Quality of life; Buprenorphine; HIV infections; Opioid-related disorders; Substance abuse; intravenous
Implementing integrated HIV and buprenorphine/ naloxone treatment requires cost estimates to plan and obtain funding.
We identified costs incurred at HIV clinical sites participating in a cross-site evaluation of integrated care that followed patients for 1 year. Costs include labor, overhead, and urine toxicology analyses (clinic perspective), buprenorphine/naloxone (payer perspective) and patient time and transportation (patient perspective). Sites provided resource utilization quarterly, and providers estimated time required for each activity. With site as the unit of analysis, results are reported as median (range) of average site costs in 2008 US dollars.
The median number of monthly provider encounters for integrated care patients was 3.2 (1.5–13.3) compared with 1.7 (1.1–4.2) for similar patients not in integrated care, but integrated care patients had fewer physician encounters. Median monthly clinic costs per integrated care patient were $136 ($67–$677) for labor and overhead and $8 ($2–$23) for toxicology analyses, $22 higher than clinic costs for patients not in integrated care. Median monthly costs for buprenorphine/naloxone were $209 ($165–$272), and monthly patient costs in integrated care were $11 ($1–$54) higher.
Integrated HIV and buprenorphine/naloxone treatment requires different resources, including costs that are not third-party reimbursed. Implementing integrated care will require funding for training and for new staff such as buprenorphine coordinators, in addition to reimbursement for buprenorphine/naloxone. Further research is needed to identify potential cost offsets outside of the clinic setting.
buprenorphine/naloxone; cost; HIV; opioid dependency; integrated care; substance abuse
Therapeutic cancer vaccines have the potential to generate a long lasting immune response that will destroy tumor cells with specificity and safety, in contrast to many other current cancer therapies. Clinical success to date has been limited by a number of factors including choice of immunogenic cancer rejection antigens, optimization of vaccine platforms and immune adjuvants to effectively polarize the immune response, and incorporation of strategies to reverse cancer mediated immune suppression by utilization of effective adjuvant/immune modulators. WT-1 (Wilms' tumor gene 1) is a cancer antigen that is required for tumorigenesis, expressed in a high percentage of tumor cells and rarely expressed in adult normal cells. Moreover spontaneous immunity to WT-1 is seen in cancer patients and can be augmented with various therapeutic vaccine approaches. IRX-2 is an immune modulator with demonstrated preclinical and clinical pleiotropic immune activities including enhancement of the immune response to potential tumor antigens. This paper presents the rationale and preclinical data for utilizing the WT-1 tumor antigen in a novel vaccine platform consisting of a synthetic long peptide containing multiple class I and class II epitopes in combination with the IRX-2 immunomodulatory regimen to overcome immuno-suppressive pathways and enhance the anti-tumor response.
IRX-2; synthetic long peptides; Wilms' tumor gene 1; WT-1; cancer vaccine; immunomodulator; adjuvant
IRX-2, a natural cytokine biological with multiple components, has been used in preclinical and clinical studies to promote antitumor activity of T lymphocytes. To define cellular mechanisms responsible for antitumor effects of IRX-2, its ability to induce effector T cells (Teff) was examined in a model simulating the tumor microenvironment. An in vitro model containing conventional CD4+CD25− cells co-cultured with autologous immature dendritic cells, irradiated tumor cells, and cytokines was used to study differentiation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) and Teff in the presence and absence of IRX-2. Phenotype, suppressor function, signaling, and cytokine production were serially measured using flow cytometry, Western blots, CFSE-based suppressor assays, and Luminex-based analyses. The presence of IRX-2 in the co-cultures promoted the induction and expansion of IFN-γ+Tbet+ Teff and significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the induction of inducible IL-10+TGF-β+ Treg. The responsible mechanism involved IFN-γ-driven T cell polarization towards Teff and suppression of Treg differentiation. In an in vitro model simulating the human tumor microenvironment, IRX-2 promoted Teff expansion and antitumor activity without inducing Treg. Thus, IRX-2 could be considered as a promising component of future antitumor therapies.
IRX-2; Immunomodulator; Treg; Teff; Tumor microenvironment; Cytokines; T helper cells; Cancer immunotherapy
Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.
Homosexuality; Male; Urban health; Social environment
Opioid dependence is largely an undertreated medical condition in the United States. The introduction of buprenorphine has created the potential to expand access to and use of opioid agonist treatment in generalist settings. Physicians, however, often have limited training and experience providing this type of care. Some physicians believe having a mentoring relationship with an experienced provider during their initial introduction to the use of buprenorphine would ease implementation. Our goal was to describe the development, implementation, resources, and evaluation of the Physician Clinical Support System-Buprenorphine (PCSS-B), a federally funded program to improve access to and quality of treatment with buprenorphine. We provide a description of the PCSS-B, a national network of 88 trained physician mentors with expertise in buprenorphine treatment and skills in clinical education. We provide information regarding the use the PCSS-B core services including telephone, email and in-person support, a website, clinical guidances, a warmline and outreach to primary care and specialty organizations. Between July 2005 and July 2009, 67 mentors and 4 clinical experts reported providing mentoring services to 632 participants in 48 states, Washington DC and Puerto Rico. A total of 1,455 contacts were provided through email (45%), telephone (34%) and in-person visits (20%). Seventy-six percent of contacts addressed a clinical issue. Eighteen percent of contacts addressed a logistical issue. The number of contacts per participant ranged from 1–125. Between August 2005 and April 2009 there were 72,822 visits to the PCSS-B website with 179,678 pages viewed. Seven guidances were downloaded more than 1000 times. The warmline averaged more than 100 calls per month. The PCSS-B model provides support for a mentorship program to assist non-specialty physicians in the provision of buprenorphine and may serve as a model for dissemination of other types of care.
buprenorphine; opioid-related disorders; primary health care; education, distance
Buprenorphine is an effective long-term opioid agonist treatment. As the only pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence readily available in office-based settings, buprenorphine may facilitate a historic shift in addiction treatment from treatment facilities to general medical practices. Although many patients have benefited from the availability of buprenorphine in the United States, almost half of current prescribers are addiction specialists suggesting that buprenorphine treatment has not yet fully penetrated general practice settings. We examined factors affecting willingness to offer buprenorphine treatment among physicians with different levels of prescribing experience. Based on their prescribing practices, physicians were classified as experienced, novice, or as a nonprescriber and asked to assess the extent to which a list of factors impacted their prescription of buprenorphine. Several factors affected willingness to prescribe buprenorphine for all physicians: staff training; access to counseling and alternate treatment; visit time; buprenorphine availability; and pain medications concerns. Compared with other physicians, experienced prescribers were less concerned about induction logistics and access to expert consultation, clinical guidelines, and mental health services. They were more concerned with reimbursement. These data provide important insight into physician concerns about buprenorphine and have implications for practice, education, and policy change that may effectively support widespread adoption of buprenorphine.
Buprenorphine; Opioid-related disorders; HIV; Physician’s practice patterns; Willingness