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1.  Blurry Boundaries: Do Epithelial Borderline Lesions of the Breast and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Have Similar Rates of Subsequent Invasive Cancer? 
Annals of surgical oncology  2012;20(4):10.1245/s10434-012-2719-2.
Background
The histology of epithelial “borderline lesions” of the breast, which have features in between atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is well described, but the clinical behavior is not. This study reports subsequent ipsilateral breast events (IBE) in patients with borderline lesions compared with those with DCIS.
Methods
Patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery for borderline lesions or DCIS from 1997 to 2010 were identified from a prospective database. IBE was defined as the diagnosis of subsequent ipsilateral DCIS or invasive ductal carcinoma.
Results
A total of 143 borderline-lesion patients and 2,328 DCIS patients were identified. Median follow-up was 2.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. 7 borderline-lesion and 172 DCIS patients experienced an IBE. 5 year IBE rates were 7.7 % for borderline lesions and 7.2 % for DCIS (p = .80). 5 year invasive IBE rates were 6.5 and 2.8 %, respectively (p = .25). Similarly, when analyses were restricted to patients who did not receive radiotherapy, or endocrine therapy, or both, borderline-lesion and DCIS patients did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in rates of IBE or invasive IBE.
Conclusions
When compared with DCIS, borderline lesions do not demonstrate lower rates of IBE or invasive IBE. Despite “borderline” histology, a 5 year IBE rate of 7.7 % and an invasive IBE rate of 6.5 % suggest that the risk of future carcinoma is significant and similar to that of DCIS.
doi:10.1245/s10434-012-2719-2
PMCID: PMC3833840  PMID: 23161115
2.  A 10-Year Trend Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node Frozen Section and Completion Axillary Dissection for Breast Cancer: Are These Procedures Becoming Obsolete? 
Annals of surgical oncology  2011;19(1):225-232.
Background
Recent results from the ACOSOG Z0011 trial question the use of intraoperative frozen section (FS) during sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and the role of axillary dissection (ALND) for SLN-positive breast cancer patients. Here we present a 10-year trend analysis of SLN-FS and ALND in our practice.
Methods
We reviewed our prospective SLN database over 10 years (1997–2006, 7509 SLN procedures) for time trends and variation between surgeons in the use of SLN-FS and ALND in patients with cN0 invasive breast cancer.
Results
Use of SLN-FS decreased from 100% to 62% (P < 0.0001) and varied widely by surgeon (66% to 95%). There were no statistically significant trends in the performance of ALND for patients with SLN metastases detected by FS (n = 1370, 99–99%) or routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) (n = 333; 69–77%), but only for those detected by serial section H&E with or without immunohistochemistry (n = 438; 73–48%; P = 0.0054) or immunohistochemistry only (n = 294; 48–28%; P < 0.0001). These trends coincided with an increase in the proportion of completion versus immediate ALND (30–40%; P = 0.0710).
Conclusions
Over 10 years, we have observed a diminishing rate of SLN-FS and, for patients with low-volume SLN metastases, fewer ALND, trends that suggest a more nuanced approach to axillary management. If the Z0011 selection criteria had been applied to our cohort, 66% of SLN-FS (4159 of 6327) and 48% of ALND (939 of 1953) would have been avoided, sparing 13% of all patients the morbidity of ALND.
doi:10.1245/s10434-011-1823-z
PMCID: PMC3788632  PMID: 21647763
3.  Prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose measurements in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer 
Cancer Medicine  2013;2(5):725-733.
The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measurements (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) from 1/02 to 12/08 within 60 days of diagnosis MBC. Patients with FDG-avid lesions without receiving chemotherapy in the prior 30 days were included. Target lesions in bone, lymph node (LN), liver, and lung were analyzed for SUVmax, MTV, and TLG. Medical records were reviewed for patient characteristics and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to test associations between quantitative FDG measurements and OS. A total of 253 patients were identified with disease in bone (n = 150), LN (n = 162), liver (n = 48), and lung (n = 66) at the time of metastatic diagnosis. Higher SUVmax tertile was associated with worse OS in bone metastases (highest vs. lowest tertile hazard ratio [HR] = 3.1, P < 0.01), but not in LN, liver or lung (all P > 0.1). Higher MTV tertile was associated with worse OS in LN (HR = 2.4, P < 0.01) and liver (HR = 3.0, P = 0.02) metastases, but not in bone (P = 0.22) or lung (P = 0.14). Higher TLG tertile was associated with worse OS in bone (HR = 2.2, P = 0.02), LN (HR = 2.3, P < 0.01), and liver (HR = 4.9, P < 0.01) metastases, but not in lung (P = 0.19). We conclude measures of FDG avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed MBC. SUVmax and TLG were both predictors of survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. TLG may be a more informative biomarker of OS than SUVmax for patients with LN and liver metastases.
Measures of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer. Volumetric measurements, such as total lesion glycolysis (TLG), may be more informative biomarkers for survival than the more commonly used standardized uptake value (SUV).
doi:10.1002/cam4.119
PMCID: PMC3892804  PMID: 24403238
Breast cancer; FDG PET/CT; mean tumor volume; SUV max; total lesion glycolysis
4.  Clinical, demographic and laboratory parameters at HAART initiation associated with decreased post-HAART survival in a U.S. military prospective HIV cohort 
Background
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved HIV survival, some patients receiving therapy are still dying. This analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with increased risk of post-HAART mortality.
Methods
We evaluated baseline (prior to HAART initiation) clinical, demographic and laboratory factors (including CD4+ count and HIV RNA level) for associations with subsequent mortality in 1,600 patients who began HAART in a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected U.S. military personnel.
Results
Cumulative mortality was 5%, 10% and 18% at 4, 8 and 12 years post-HAART. Mortality was highest (6.23 deaths/100 person-years [PY]) in those with ≤ 50 CD4+ cells/mm3 before HAART initiation, and became progressively lower as CD4+ counts increased (0.70/100 PY with ≥ 500 CD4+ cells/mm3). In multivariate analysis, factors significantly (p < 0.05) associated with post-HAART mortality included: increasing age among those ≥ 40 years (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32 per 5 year increase), clinical AIDS events before HAART (HR = 1.93), ≤ 50 CD4+ cells/mm3 (vs. CD4+ ≥ 500, HR = 2.97), greater HIV RNA level (HR = 1.36 per one log10 increase), hepatitis C antibody or chronic hepatitis B (HR = 1.96), and HIV diagnosis before 1996 (HR = 2.44). Baseline CD4+ = 51-200 cells (HR = 1.74, p = 0.06), and hemoglobin < 12 gm/dL for women or < 13.5 for men (HR = 1.36, p = 0.07) were borderline significant.
Conclusions
Although treatment has improved HIV survival, defining those at greatest risk for death after HAART initiation, including demographic, clinical and laboratory correlates of poorer prognoses, can help identify a subset of patients for whom more intensive monitoring, counseling, and care interventions may improve clinical outcomes and post-HAART survival.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-9-4
PMCID: PMC3320559  PMID: 22339893
Highly active antiretroviral therapy; mortality; CD4+ lymphocyte count

Results 1-4 (4)