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2.  Dose effect and benefits of glycopyrrolate in the treatment of bradycardia in anesthetized dogs. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1999;40(5):327-331.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of glycopyrrolate (0.005 or 0.01 mg/kg body weight (BW)) in anesthetized dogs (n = 40) for reversal of bradycardia (< 65 beats/min). Following random intravenous (i.v.) treatment, heart rate was determined at 5 min and, if it was < or = 70 beats/min, the lower dose was repeated. A 2-way analysis of variance considered dose and animal size (< or = 10 kg, > 10 kg) effects (P < 0.05). Glycopyrrolate produced a significant increase in heart rate and infrequent tachycardia (< or = 150 beats/min), which was not dose-related. The size of the dog produced a significant effect on baseline heart rate (higher in small), rate following the first dose (lower in small), and requirement for retreatment (47% in small, 13% in large). In a separate group of anesthetized dogs (n = 20), the blood pressure effect of glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg BW, i.v.) treatment of bradycardia (65-85 beats/min, weight-adjusted) was studied. A significant increase in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure was produced. In conclusion, the effective dose of glycopyrrolate treatment is size-related and produces a beneficial effect on blood pressure.
PMCID: PMC1539804  PMID: 10340093
3.  Effects of intravenously administered glycopyrrolate in anesthetized horses. 
The purpose of this study was to determine the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) effect of glycopyrrolate in anesthetized horses with low HR (< or = 30 beats/min). The horses were randomly treated with glycopyrrolate (2.5 micrograms/kg body weight (BW)) or saline, intravenously (i.v.) (n = 17). If HR failed to increase (by > 5 beats/min within 10 min), glycopyrrolate (same dose) was administered. Heart rate increased by > 5 beats/min in 3 out of 9 horses following the initial glycopyrrolate treatment. Overall changes in HR and mean BP were not significantly different, while systolic and diastolic BP increased significantly (P < 0.025 using a Bonferroni corrected paired t-test). On the 2nd treatment, 3 out of 7 horses given 2.5 micrograms/kg BW glycopyrrolate, and 4 out of 5 horses given 5.0 micrograms/kg BW (total dose) showed an increase in heart rate of > 5 beats/min, which was significant. A significant increase in BP was produced following treatment with 2.5 micrograms/kg BW, but not following 5.0 micrograms/kg BW. A final increase in HR, of > 5 beats/min, was associated with a significant rise in BP (P < 0.05 using an unpaired t-test). In conclusion, an increase in HR can occur with 2.5 to 5.0 micrograms of glycopyrrolate/kg BW, i.v., and results in improvement in BP in anesthetized horses.
PMCID: PMC1539646  PMID: 9919364
4.  End tidal halothane concentration and postoperative analgesia requirements in dogs: a comparison between intravenous oxymorphone and epidural bupivacaine alone and in combination with oxymorphone. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1998;39(6):361-369.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of epidural bupivacaine (BUP) and oxymorphone/bupivacaine (O/B) and intravenous (i.v.) oxymorphone (IVO) on halothane requirements during hind end surgery and postoperative analgesia in 24 dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment groups: O/B--oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg) in 0.75% bupivacaine (1 mg/kg for a total volume of 0.2 ml/kg); BUP--0.5% bupivacaine (1 mg/kg for a total volume of 0.2 ml/kg) with i.v. oxymorphone (0.05 mg/kg) postoperatively; and IVO--oxymorphone (0.05 mg/kg) pre- and postoperatively. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide and halothane, and arterial blood gases were recorded prior to treatment and every 15 minutes thereafter. Once surgery had begun, end-tidal halothane concentrations were decreased as low as possible while still maintaining a stable anesthetic plane. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with P < 0.05 considered significant. End-tidal halothane requirements did not differ significantly among treatments. Respiratory depression was increased and HR was decreased in the O/B and IVO groups. Postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly less in dogs receiving O/B.
PMCID: PMC1539403  PMID: 9635170
5.  Evaluation of the arrhythmogenicity of a low dose of acepromazine: comparison with xylazine. 
Alteration in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was determined in 6 healthy dogs under halothane anesthesia following the administration of xylazine at 1.1 mg/kg i.v. and acepromazine at 0.025 mg/kg i.v. The order of treatment was randomly assigned with each dog receiving both treatments and testing was carried out on 2 separate occasions with at least a 1 wk interval. The ADE determinations were made prior to drug administration during halothane anesthesia (CNTL) and then 20 min and 4 h following drug treatment. Epinephrine was infused for 3 min at increasing dose rates (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 micrograms/kg/min) until the arrhythmia criterion (4 or more intermittent or continuous premature ventricular contractions) was reached within the 3 min of infusion or the 1 min following cessation. The interinfusion interval was 20 min. There was a significant difference (P = 0.0001) in the ADE determined following acepromazine administration at 20 min (20.95 micrograms/kg +/- 2.28 SEM) compared to CNTL (6.64 micrograms/kg +/- 1.09), xylazine at 20 min (5.82 micrograms/kg +/- 0.95) and 4 h (6.13 micrograms/kg +/- 1.05), and acepromazine at 4 h (7.32 micrograms/kg +/- 0.34). No other significant differences existed (P < 0.05). In this study we were unable to show any sensitization to epinephrine following xylazine administration during halothane anesthesia, while a protective effect was shown with a low dose of acepromazine.
PMCID: PMC1189415  PMID: 9342445
6.  Assessment of 3 audible monitors during hypotension in anesthetized dogs. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1997;38(9):564-566.
Severe hypotension was produced in 8 dogs during halothane anesthesia. Three monitors detecting respiratory rate, Doppler signal and pulse rate were compared to direct blood pressure measurements. Deep anesthesia was most consistently detected using the respiratory monitor. The signal fade of the Doppler device was best at detecting hypotension from blood loss. Changes in heart rate were not useful.
PMCID: PMC1576758  PMID: 9285137
8.  The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in halothane and isoflurane anesthetized dogs: an assessment of repeatability. 
Repeat determinations of the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) were made over two 6 h periods on 2 separate days during halothane and isoflurane anesthesia. Each of 6 dogs underwent 4 trials (2 halothane and 2 isoflurane). During each trial, the ADE was determined at baseline, 3 and 6 h. Epinephrine was infused for 3.0 min at increasing dose rates (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg/min) until the arrhythmia criterion (4 or more intermittent or continuous premature ventricular contractions) was reached. The inter-infusion interval was 20 min. There were no significant differences in the measured cardiovascular parameters (SBP, DBP, MBP, and HR), arterial blood gases, or acid-base status prior to each determination during a single trial. The cardiovascular responses to epinephrine infusion were not significantly different between inhalants or determinations. The range of the ADE determined over both trials during isoflurane anesthesia was 30.12 +/- 12.21 micrograms/kg to 50.83 +/- 9.17 micrograms/kg. The baseline ADE during Day 1 of halothane anesthesia (6.70 +/- 1.36 micrograms/kg) was significantly greater than ADE determinations at 3 (4.65 +/- 0.88 micrograms/kg) and 6 h (4.61 +/- 0.87 micrograms/kg). The reduction in the ADE over time during day 2 of halothane anesthesia was not statistically significant (P = 0.0669). These results suggest that during halothane anesthesia, the ADE is not repeatable over time, and they may influence our interpretation of the results of investigations that measure alterations in the ADE due to pharmacological manipulations without repeated control ADE determinations.
PMCID: PMC1189407  PMID: 9243003
9.  Cardiorespiratory effects of a 5HT2 antagonist (R51703) in awake and anesthetized dogs. 
To investigate cardiorespiratory effects of an experimental 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (R51703) with sedative properties, intramuscular doses of the drug were studied in 6 awake dogs of mixed breed, and in 6 anesthetized beagles. Two doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) of R51703 and a saline control were studied in the awake dogs using a randomized crossover trial. Subsequently, the higher dose of R51703 was included as a component of halothane anesthesia to determine whether the halothane sparing effect of R51703 produced a beneficial alteration of hemodynamic function. Data were obtained at equipotent halothane/R51703 (H/R) and halothane/saline (H/S) doses equivalent to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MAC. In awake dogs, heart rates tended to be lower in dogs sedated with R51703, significantly so at 30 min for both doses, and at 90 and 120 min for the 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg doses, respectively (P < 0.05). The cardiac index (CI) was lower at 60 min with both doses compared to the saline control group. Both doses of R51703 reduced mean blood pressure at 30, 90 and 120 min, and diastolic pressure at 30 and 90 min after administration; however, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was not altered. Overall, the cardiovascular alterations were minimal in conscious dogs and there was no evidence of respiratory depression. In the anesthetized dogs, at equipotent MAC, CI tended to be lower with H/R than with H/S, though the difference was not significant. Heart rate and stroke volume index also tended to be lower in the dogs treated with R51703, while systemic vascular resistance tended to be higher: these changes were not significant. Mean and SBP were higher at each MAC multiple in the H/R group. It was concluded that the halothane sparing effect of R51703 did not substantially improve hemodynamic function compared to the use of halothane alone at equipotent doses.
PMCID: PMC1263829  PMID: 8809379
10.  An evaluation of the influence of medetomidine hydrochloride and atipamezole hydrochloride on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in dogs during halothane anesthesia. 
Alterations in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) were determined following administration of medetomidine hydrochloride (750 micrograms/M2) and a saline placebo, or medetomidine hydrochloride (750 micrograms/M2), followed by specific medetomidine reversal agent, atipamezole hydrochloride (50 micrograms/kg) 20 min later, in halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 6). ADE determinations were made prior to the administration of either treatment, 20 min and 4 h following medetomidine/saline or medetomidine/atipamezole administration. Epinephrine was infused for 3 min at increasing dose rates (2.5 and 5.0 micrograms/kg/min) until the arrhythmia criterion (4 or more intermittent or continuous premature ventricular contractions) was reached. The interinfusion interval was 20 min. There were no significant differences in the amount of epinephrine required to reach the arrhythmia criterion following the administration of either treatment. In addition, the ADE at each determination was not different between treatment groups. In this study, the administration of medetomidine to halothane-anesthetized dogs did not alter their arrhythmogenic response to infused epinephrine.
PMCID: PMC1263792  PMID: 8825986
11.  Comparison of direct and indirect blood pressure measurements in anesthetized dogs. 
The precision and accuracy of an indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique (Dinamap 8100) was assessed in 11 anesthetized Beagle dogs weighing 8 to 11.5 kg. Direct blood pressure measurements were made by catheterization of the lingual artery, and simultaneous indirect measurements were determined by placing a cuff over the median artery (midradial area). Blood pressure measurements at 2 different planes of anesthesia (light and deep) were recorded in triplicate. At a light plane of anesthesia, the Dinamap 8100 underestimated diastolic and mean arterial pressure, and at a deep anesthetic plane overestimated systolic pressure. The indirect technique had good repeatability of systolic pressures. Regression analysis for the 2 techniques showed excellent correlation (r = 0.93). The results indicate that the indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique provides a good estimate of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure in dogs weighing 8-11.5 kg.
PMCID: PMC1263773  PMID: 8521360
12.  Cardiopulmonary effects of hypercapnia during controlled intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the horse. 
The cardiopulmonary effects of eucapnia (arterial CO2 tension [PaCO2] 40.4 +/- 2.9 mm Hg, mean +/- SD), mild hypercapnia (PaCO2, 59.1 +/- 3.5 mm Hg), moderate hypercapnia (PaCO2, 82.6 +/- 4.9 mm Hg), and severe hypercapnia (PaCO2, 110.3 +/- 12.2 mm Hg) were studied in 8 horses during isoflurane anesthesia with volume controlled intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and neuromuscular blockade. The sequence of changes in PaCO2 was randomized. Mild hypercapnia produced bradycardia resulting in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cardiac index (CI) and oxygen delivery (DO2), while hemoglobin concentration (Hb), the hematocrit (Hct), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and venous admixture (QS/QT) increased significantly. Moderate hypercapnia resulted in a significant rise in CI, stroke index (SI), SBP, MBP, mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), Hct, Hb, arterial oxygen content (CaO2), mixed venous oxygen content (CvO2), and DO2, with heart rate (HR) staying below eucapnic levels. Severe hypercapnia resulted in a marked rise in HR, CI, SI, SBP, PAP, Hct, Hb, CaO2, CvO2, and DO2. Systemic vascular resistance was significantly decreased, while MBP levels were not different from those during moderate hypercapnia. No cardiac arrhythmias were recorded with any of the ranges of PaCO2. Norepinephrine levels increased progressively with each increase in PaCO2, whereas plasma cortisol levels remained unchanged. It was concluded that hypercapnia in isoflurane-anesthetized horses elicits a biphasic cardiopulmonary response, with mild hypercapnia producing a fall in CI and DO2 despite an increase in MBP, while moderate and severe hypercapnia produce an augmentation of the cardiopulmonary performance and DO2.
PMCID: PMC1263768  PMID: 8521355
13.  Comparison of medetomidine and fentanyl-droperidol in dogs: sedation, analgesia, arterial blood gases and lactate levels. 
Medetomidine and fentanyl-droperidol (Innovar-vet) were assessed over a three hour period in 80 healthy dogs. Following physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood sample analysis, and dynamometer pressure threshold (analgesia score), the dogs were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: Miv--medetomidine (750 micrograms/M2) administered intravenously (IV), Mim--medetomidine (1000 micrograms/M2) administered intramuscularly (IM), Iiv--Innovar-vet IV (0.05 mL/kg) or Iim--Innovar-vet IM (0.1 mL/kg). All assessments were carried out by a single individual unaware of the treatment used. Objective assessments included temperature, heart and respiratory rates, analgesia score, arterial blood gases, acid-base and lactate levels. Subjective evaluation included degree of sedation, response to various clinical procedures, noise responsiveness, posture, and the incidence of side effects. Onset and duration of effect were also recorded. The ECG strips were assessed for arrhythmias. Data was analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance for continuous variables and a Chi-square analysis of frequencies. A p value < or = 0.05 was considered significant. Medetomidine-treated animals had a decreased respiratory rate, longer duration of analgesic effect, increased incidence of bradycardia, vomiting and twitching, were less noise responsive and shivered less throughout the study. An increased incidence of second degree heart block with Miv (15 min), a delayed onset and recovery with Mim and increased lactate levels following Iiv (15 min) were observed. No differences were found in other measurements and good to excellent chemical restraint was produced with all treatments in 65% or more cases.
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PMCID: PMC1263601  PMID: 8490814
14.  Analysis of oocyst wall and sporozoite antigens from three Cryptosporidium species. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(4):1509-1513.
A comparison was made of the antigenic composition of oocyst walls and sporozoites from Cryptosporidium baileyi from turkeys, C. muris from rodents, and C. parvum from ruminants, employing immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. In immunoblotting, oocyst antigens were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting (immunoblotting) and detected with rabbit polyclonal anti-C. muris or -C. parvum antibodies or murine monoclonal antibodies developed against C. parvum. Immunofluorescence was used to investigate the reactivity of these monoclonal antibodies with air-dried excystation mixtures of sporozoites and oocysts of the different species. The results from both types of experiment indicated that the three Cryptosporidium species could be differentiated immunologically. In comparison, few antigenic differences were found between a number of isolates of C. parvum in immunoblotting. There was also evidence to suggest that C. parvum and C. baileyi were more closely related antigenically to one another than to C. muris.
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PMCID: PMC257024  PMID: 1548074
15.  Cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination in hypovolemic cats. 
The cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination were studied in eight cats subjected to a 25% whole blood volume loss. Test parameters included cardiac output measured via thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated from these data. Posthemorrhage cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and measurements of arterial blood pressure were significantly decreased (p less than 0.05). Heart rate remained unchanged. Following induction of halothane anesthesia the above parameters experienced a further significant decline (p less than 0.05) from their immediate preanesthetic (i.e. posthemorrhage) values. Heart rate also significantly decreased (p less than 0.05). Thirty minutes following the cessation of halothane anesthesia these values returned to near-hemorrhage levels, being above their respective preanesthetic values. Systemic vascular resistance initially rose, peaking ten minutes into halothane anesthesia, before gradually falling to prehemorrhage values at the end of halothane anesthesia. Following hemorrhage, respiratory rate demonstrated a transient increase, associated with an arterial CO2 tension fall, before returning to initial values at the preanesthetic time. During halothane anesthesia respiratory rate remained unchanged whereas arterial CO2 tension rose significantly (p less than 0.05) and pH declined slightly from preanesthetic readings. These returned to prehemorrhage values 30 minutes following the cessation of halothane anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC1255486  PMID: 3196972
16.  Evaluation of acepromazine/meperidine/atropine premedication followed by thiopental anesthesia in the cat. 
Cardiopulmonary function was assessed in healthy cats premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine, meperidine, atropine combination (premix), followed by induction and maintenance with intravenous thiopental for 30 min. Cardiac output by thermodilution, heart rate, blood pressure and blood gas analysis were evaluated over 120 min. A minor degree of respiratory depression was noted in the cats. Cardiac index (cardiac output/kg) was significantly depressed following thiopental induction and for the entire 120 min studied. Stroke volume was significantly reduced after premix administration and for 90 min posthiopental induction. No significant change in heart rate, systemic vascular resistance or blood pressure was observed. Significant cardiovascular depression was produced by the premedicant, and this persisted following thiopental anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC1255484  PMID: 3196970
17.  Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/acepromazine combination in hypovolemic cats. 
The cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine/ acepromazine combination was studied in ten cats subjected to a 25% whole blood volume loss. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured via thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated from these data. Posthemorrhage, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, heart rate and measurements of arterial blood pressure were significantly decreased (p less than 0.05). Following the induction of ketamine/ acepromazine anesthesia, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and heart rate showed mild but statistically insignificant declines and were above their respective posthemorrhage values 120 min into ketamine/ acepromazine anesthesia. Measurements of arterial blood pressure showed further declines from their respective posthemorrhage values that were statistically significant (p less than 0.05). Following hemorrhage, respiratory rate increased significantly (p less than 0.05), associated with a fall in arterial CO2 tension. During ketamine/ acepromazine anesthesia, respiratory rate showed a dramatic and significant decline (p less than 0.05) with arterial CO2 tension rising to prehemorrhage values. Systemic vascular resistance, arterial O2 tension and pH remained essentially unchanged throughout the experimental period.
PMCID: PMC1255485  PMID: 3196971
18.  Cardiopulmonary effects of a halothane/oxygen combination in healthy cats. 
The effects of a halothane/oxygen combination on the cardiopulmonary function of 11 healthy cats were studied. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured via thermo-dilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and blood gas analysis. Values for systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index and stroke volume were calculated from these data. Cardiac output, cardiac index, heart rate, stroke volume, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and arterial blood pH were significantly decreased (p less than 0.001). Respiratory rate was also significantly decreased (p less than 0.007) with arterial CO2 tension being significantly increased (p less than 0.001). Statistically significant changes, where seen, persisted for the duration of the anesthetic period. Arterial O2 tension and systemic vascular resistance remained unchanged. All parameters returned to near pretest values within 30 minutes following cessation of halothane anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC1255469  PMID: 3139275
19.  Cardiopulmonary effects of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination in healthy cats. 
The effect of a ketamine hydrochloride/acepromazine combination on the cardiopulmonary function of 11 healthy cats was studied. Test parameters included cardiac output, measured by thermodilution, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and arterial blood gas analysis. Values for systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index and stroke volume were calculated. The cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, arterial blood pressure and arterial blood pH decreased significantly (p less than 0.006). The arterial CO2 increased significantly (p less than 0.006). All changes occurred during the five to 45 minute postinduction time period. The heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial O2 and systemic vascular resistance were not significantly altered. The anesthetic regime maintained an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia for 30-45 minutes.
PMCID: PMC1255390  PMID: 3127034
20.  Effects of saffan on cardiopulmonary function in healthy cats. 
The effects of saffan on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in eight healthy adult cats. Measured values were cardiac output by thermodilution, heart rate by electrocardiogram, arterial blood gases, respiratory rate and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures by arterial catheterization. Calculated values included cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance. Statistical analysis employed paired t-tests comparing pre saffan anesthetic induction and post saffan anesthetic parameters over a 120 minute time sequence. Thirty min after saffan induction, significant depression in cardiac output was evident while stroke volume was significantly depressed at 45 and 60 min, systolic blood pressure at 15 min and respiratory rate at 5, 10 and 15 min. No significant changes occurred in cardiac index, heart rate, arterial blood gases, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure or systemic vascular resistance. It was concluded that saffan causes significant depression of cardiopulmonary function in normal adult cats.
PMCID: PMC1255310  PMID: 3111675
21.  Evaluation of a xylazine-ketamine hydrochloride combination in the cat. 
Cardiopulmonary function was assessed in healthy cats given a xylazine-ketamine hydrochloride combination intramuscularly. Cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac index were significantly decreased. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were also significantly decreased. Systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure were significantly increased. Blood gas values remained stable. In conclusion, significant cardiovascular depression was noted in normal cats given the xylazine-ketamine combination at the dosages listed.
PMCID: PMC1255153  PMID: 3742353
22.  Accuracy of thermodilution measurement of cardiac output in low flows applicable to feline and small canine patients. 
A model system of feline or small canine cardiac output was used to produce known liquid flow rates in the range of 100 to 750 mL/min for comparison against a thermodilution technique of flow measurement. Thermal indicator size was decided by the thermal time concentration curve detected by the Edwards 9520A cardiac output computer. Ten consecutive readings for each flow were made. Regression analysis and Student's t-test were used to evaluate the results. The computer was found to give good correlation with the accurate flow measured by a graduated cylinder over a period of time (r = 0.99). An error of less than 7% overestimation of flow by thermodilution was found with flows greater than 200 mL/min (p less than 0.05). A significant error of more than 20% overestimation of the actual flow occurred with flows less than 200 mL/min (p less than 0.05). The Edwards 9520A computer was compared to the older Edwards 9510A model by averaged triplicate measurements at six different cardiac outputs in an anesthetized cat. The measurements were not significantly different (p less than 0.01). Thermodilution using an Edwards computer proves to be a promising tool in the measurement of low flows applicable to feline and small canine cardiac outputs.
PMCID: PMC1236098  PMID: 6509371

Results 1-23 (23)