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author:("Dutt, smith")
1.  Molecular mechanisms of castration-resistant prostate cancer progression 
Future oncology (London, England)  2009;5(9):1403-1413.
Hormone-refractory prostate cancer is the result of regrowth of prostate cancer cells that have adapted to the hormone-deprived environment of the prostate. The process by which castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells are generated appears to be varied. The complex mechanism of hormone resistance has been the topic of research in most laboratories that have analyzed the process from different angles. This review compiles research findings that explain the methods of development of hormone resistance in prostate cancer. Research data show many different processes to be involved in the acquisition of hormone resistance. Interestingly, one observes interdependence between these processes, indicating a complex network at play in the development of hormone resistance. Cytokines such as IL-6 have been shown to initiate an alternative signaling pathway, compared with the androgen receptor signaling pathway, in CRPC. IL-6 has been proposed to be the effector of the intracrine signaling pathway by influencing the levels of metabolic enzymes. Neuroendocrine cells are present at low levels in normal prostate, and signify the transitory phase of normal hormone-sensitive cells to hormone-refractory cells. IL-6 induces growth of neuroendocrine cells or neuroendocrine-like features in cells in CRPC. The increased presence of neuroendocrine cells in CRPC signifies a change in the prostate cell microenvironment. The stromal microenvironment also influences the development of CRPC in the hormone-refractory stage. In addition, intracrine androgen metabolic enzymes play a significant role in the development of the hormone refractory process. Despite hormone ablation, there is a residual level of hormones in cells due to active intracrine metabolic pathways. It is acknowledged that the androgen receptor plays the most influential role in development of prostate cancer. In addition to mutation and amplification, the androgen receptor has been characterized and shown to differ in sequence in CRPC compared with the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. These variants of the androgen receptor through sequence changes may preserve the basic function of the molecule, but have far-reaching consequences on the cell as a whole. A multicombinatorial drug treatment approach has been suggested to target these multiple pathways in an effort to reduce the possibility of recurrence of CRPC.
doi:10.2217/fon.09.117
PMCID: PMC3041149  PMID: 19903068
androgen receptor; AR; AR variant; castration-resistant prostate cancer; CRPC; IL-6; interleukin-6; intracrine signaling
2.  Interleukin-6 Regulates Androgen Synthesis in Prostate Cancer Cells 
Purpose
The standard systemic treatment for prostate cancer patients is androgen deprivation therapy. Although serum testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced after androgen deprivation therapy, levels of intraprostatic androgens are reproducibly measured at concentrations sufficient to activate androgen receptor and stimulate tumor growth, suggesting that prostate cancer cells may survive androgen deprivation therapies by increasing intracrine androgen synthesis within the prostate. However, factors that regulate de novo intracrine androgen synthesis have not been identified. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in the modulation of androgen receptor activation and growth and differentiation in prostate cancer. In this study, we investigate whether IL-6 regulates intraprostatic androgen synthesis in prostate cancer cells.
Experimental Design
Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting were done to detect expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes. AKR1C3 promoter reporter was constructed and analyzed for IL-6–mediated AKR1C3 transcriptional activity. IL-6–mediated signaling was knocked down using small interfering RNA specific to IL-6 receptor and gp130, and the effect on AKR1C3 expression was examined. Intraprostatic androgen levels in prostate cancer cells in culture and in tumors were measured by an enzyme immunoassay (Testosterone EIA kit).
Results
We found that IL-6 increases the expression of genes encoding many steroidogenic enzymes, including HSD3B2 and AKR1C3, involved in androgen biosynthesis. Down-regulation of IL-6 receptor and gp130 expression using specific small interfering RNA abolished IL-6–mediated AKR1C3 expression, suggesting that IL-6 signaling is responsible for AKR1C3 expression. IL-6 increases AKR1C3 promoter activity, indicating that the increase in IL-6–mediated AKR1C3 expression is in part at the transcriptional level. Treatment of IL-6 increased testosterone level in LNCaP cells. The tumor testosterone levels were detected at 378 pg/g in tumors generated from IL-6–overexpressing LNCaP-IL6+ cells inoculated orthotopically into the prostates of castrated male nude mice.
Conclusions
These results suggest that IL-6 increases levels of intracrine androgens through enhanced expression of genes mediating androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0640
PMCID: PMC3041150  PMID: 19638459
3.  Uniparentalism in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer is Independent of Imprint Status, and Coordinate for Chromosomes 14 and 18 
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics  2009;189(2):77-86.
Our previous allelotyping studies of 59 sporadic colorectal cancers revealed that loss of heterozygosity is most frequent for regions of chromosomes 14 and 18. Yet subsequent BAC microarray comparative genomic hybridization studies of the same tumor DNAs showed no corresponding pattern of copy number alteration for chromosome 14. To clarify this apparent discrepancy, we utilized hybridization to SNP microarrays; this revealed frequent uniparentalism for chromosome 14 and for chromosome 18. Based on the BAC array results combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization data, it was evident that uniparental disomy was occurring in many colorectal cancers as well as in additional chromosomes, and often coordinately involved chromosomes 14 and 18. Further studies examined the possibility that uniparentalism was directed towards the selection for imprinted genes, but no association with imprinting was observed.
doi:10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2008.10.011
PMCID: PMC2666006  PMID: 19215787
uniparental disomy; imprinting; genomic instability; colorectal cancer
4.  Colorectal Cancers in Patients With the (9A/6A) Polymorphism of TGFBR1 Exhibit Lesser Inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR Genomic Instability and Present Clinically at Greater Age 
Mutation research  2008;645(1-2):27-32.
TGFβ is involved in the response to DNA damage and signaling the cell cycle checkpoint response, in large part achieved by modulating the activity of the ATM kinase. We have investigated if the presence of a common polymorphism in the TGFβ receptor TGFBR1 might impact genomic instability in human colorectal cancer. In order to obtain statistically significant numbers of patients with the lesser polymorphism, one hundred seventy-seven colorectal cancer patients were genotyped for either the major form of the TGFBR1 receptor gene, homozygous for an internal segment of 9 alanines (9A/9A), or the lesser form, heterozygous for the polymorphism containing 6 alanines (9A/6A). Intrachromosomal genomic instability in the tumors was then quantified by the robust inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR method. Tumors from all twenty-six patients heterozygous with the (9A/6A) polymorphism in TGFBR1 exhibited significantly lower genomic instability than from a randomly selected set [the first identified] of thirty-seven patients with the (9A/9A) polymorphism (p=0.0002, Mann-Whitney). The median age of onset for the (9A/6A) patients was 70 years, compared with a median age of onset of 63 years for the patients carrying the (9A/9A) form (p=0.031, Mann-Whitney). These results are consistent with the model wherein genomic instability facilitates tumor progression, with lesser instability associated with later disease presentation. Clinically, our findings may be developed into improved screening guidelines with respect to the age at which colonoscopy is initiated in carriers of the TGFBR1*6A allele.
doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2008.08.003
PMCID: PMC2586303  PMID: 18778720
TGFBR1; 9A/6A polymorphism; genomic instability; colorectal cancer
5.  LIGHT, a member of the TNF superfamily, activates Stat3 mediated by NIK pathway 
Stat3, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family, is a key signal transduction protein activated by numerous cytokines, growth factors and oncoproteins that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, development, survival and inflammation. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has been found frequently in a wide variety of human tumors and induces cellular transformation and tumor formation. In this study, we demonstrated that LIGHT, a member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily, activates Stat3 in cancer cells. LIGHT induces dose dependent activation of Stat3 by phosphorylation at both the tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. The activation of Stat3 by LIGHT appears to be mediated by NIK phosphorylation. Expression of a kinase-inactive NIK mutant abolished LIGHT induced Stat3 activation. Overexpression of an active NIK induces Stat3 activation by phosphorylation at the both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. Activation of Stat3 by NIK requires NIK kinase activity as showed by kinase assays. In addition, LIGHT increases the expression of Stat3 target genes including cyclin D1, survivin, and Bcl-xL, and stimulates human LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth in vitro which can by blocked by expression of a dominant-negative Stat3 mutant. Taken together, these results indicate that in addition to activating NF-κB/p52, LIGHT also activates Stat3. Activation of Stat3 together with activating non-canonical NF-κB/p52 signaling by LIGHT may maximize its effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and inflammation.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.05.119
PMCID: PMC2062522  PMID: 17543278
Stat3; LIGHT; NIK; Prostate

Results 1-5 (5)