OBJECTIVE: To conduct a mineralogical study on the particles retained in the necropsied lungs of a homogenous group of asbestos miners and millers from Asbestos township (and a local reference population) and to consider the hypothesis that there is a difference in size between fibres retained in the lungs of patients with asbestosis with and without lung cancer. METHODS: Samples of lung tissue were obtained from 38 patients with asbestosis without lung cancer, 25 with asbestosis and lung cancer, and 12 with mesothelioma, from necropsied Quebec chrysotile miners and millers from Asbestos township. Fibre concentrations in the lungs of these patients were compared with those in tissue from necropsies carried out on a local reference population: men who had died of either accidental death or acute myocardial infarction between 1990 and 1992. 23 were born before 1940 and 26 after 1940. RESULTS: Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were higher in cases than in the controls for chrysotile fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis with or without lung cancer; for tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in all patients; for crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma; for chrysotile and tremolite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis; and crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma. However, median concentrations of each type of fibre in the lungs did not show any significant differences between the three disease groups. Average length to diameter ratios of the fibres were calculated to be larger in patients with asbestosis and lung cancer than in those without lung cancer for crocidolite fibres > or = 10 microns long, for chrysotile, amosite, and tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long, and for chrysotile and crocidolite fibres < 5 microns long. However, there was no statistical difference in the median length to diameter ratios for any type of fibres across the disease groups when they were calculated in each patient. Cumulative smoking index (pack-years) was higher in the group with asbestosis and lung cancer but was not statistically different from the two other disease groups. CONCLUSION: Lung cancers occurred in workers with asbestosis from Asbestos township who had an equal concentration of retained fibres but a tendency to a higher length to diameter ratio of amphiboles. These workers had a 29% higher average cumulative smoking index.
The concept of individual burden, associated with disease, has been introduced recently to determine the “disability” caused by the pathology in the broadest sense of the word (psychological, social, economic, physical). Inherited ichthyosis belong to a large heterogeneous group of Mendelian Disorders of Cornification. Skin symptoms have a major impact on patients’ Quality of Life but little is known about the burden of the disease on the families of patients.
To develop and validate a specific burden questionnaire for the families of patients affected by ichthyosis.
Two steps were required. First, the creation of the questionnaire which followed a strict methodological process involving a multidisciplinary team and families. Secondarily, the validation of the questionnaire, including the assessment of its reliability, external validity, reproducibility and sensitivity, was carried out on a population of patients affected by autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. A population of parents of patients affected by ichthyosis was enrolled to answer the new questionnaire in association with the Short Form Q12 questionnaire (SF-12) and a clinical severity score was filled for each patient.
Ninety four families were interviewed to construct the verbatim in order to create the questionnaire and a cognitive debriefing was realized. The concept of burden could be structured around five components: “economic”, “daily life”, “familial and personal relationship”, “work”, and “psychological impact”. As a result, “Family Burden Ichthyosis” (FBI) reproducible questionnaire of 25 items was created.
Forty two questionnaires were analyzable for psychometric validation. Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.89), reflected the good homogeneity of the questionnaire. The correlation between mental dimensions of the SF-12 and the FBI questionnaire was statistically significant which confirmed the external validity. The mean FBI score was 71.7 ± 18.8 and a significant difference in the FBI score was shown between two groups of severity underlining a good sensitivity of the questionnaire.
The internal and external validity of the “FBI” questionnaire was confirmed and it is correlated to the severity of ichtyosis. Ichthyoses, and other chronic pathologies, are difficult to assess by clinical or Quality of Life aspects alone as their impact can be multidimensional. “FBI” takes them all into consideration in order to explain every angle of the handicap generated.
Global burden disease; Quality of life; Ichthyosis; Burden questionnaire
Antiviral resistance in influenza is rampant and has the possibility of causing major morbidity and mortality. Previous models have identified treatment regimes to minimize total infections and keep resistance low. However, the bulk of these studies have ignored stochasticity and heterogeneous contact structures. Here we develop a network model of influenza transmission with treatment and resistance, and present both standard mean-field approximations as well as simulated dynamics. We find differences in the final epidemic sizes for identical transmission parameters (bistability) leading to different optimal treatment timing depending on the number initially infected. We also find, contrary to previous results, that treatment targeted by number of contacts per individual (node degree) gives rise to more resistance at lower levels of treatment than non-targeted treatment. Finally we highlight important differences between the two methods of analysis (mean-field versus stochastic simulations), and show where traditional mean-field approximations fail. Our results have important implications not only for the timing and distribution of influenza chemotherapy, but also for mathematical epidemiological modeling in general. Antiviral resistance in influenza may carry large consequences for pandemic mitigation efforts, and models ignoring contact heterogeneity and stochasticity may provide misleading policy recommendations.
Resistance of influenza to common antiviral agents carries the possibility of causing large morbidity and mortality through failure of treatment and should be taken into account when planning public health interventions focused on stopping transmission. Here we present a mathematical model of influenza transmission which incorporates heterogeneous contact structure and stochastic transmission events. We find scenarios when treatment either induces large levels of resistance or no resistance at identical values of transmission rates depending on the number initially infected. We also find, contrary to previous results, that targeted treatment causes more resistance at lower treatment levels than non-targeted treatment. Our results have important implications for the timing and distribution of antivirals in epidemics and highlight important differences in how transmission is modeled and where assumptions made in previous models cause them to lead to erroneous conclusions.
Transposable elements play a major role in genome evolution. Their capacity to move and/or multiply in the genome of their host may have profound impacts on phenotypes, and may have dramatic consequences on genome structure. Hybrid and polyploid clones have arisen multiple times in the Daphnia pulex complex and are thought to reproduce by obligate parthenogenesis. Our study examines the evolution of a DNA transposable element named Pokey in the D. pulex complex.
Portions of Pokey elements inserted in the 28S rRNA genes from various Daphnia hybrids (diploids and polyploids) were sequenced and compared to sequences from a previous study to understand the evolutionary history of the elements. Pokey sequences show a complex phylogenetic pattern. We found evidence of recombination events in numerous Pokey alleles from diploid and polyploid hybrids and also from non-hybrid diploids. The recombination rate in Pokey elements is comparable to recombination rates previously estimated for 28S rRNA genes in the congener, Daphnia obtusa. Some recombinant Pokey alleles were encountered in Daphnia isolates from multiple locations and habitats.
Phylogenetic and recombination analyses showed that recombination is a major force that shapes Pokey evolution. Based on Pokey phylogenies, reticulation has played and still plays an important role in shaping the diversity of the D. pulex complex. Horizontal transfer of Pokey seems to be rare and hybrids often possess Pokey elements derived from recombination among alleles encountered in the putative parental species. The insertion of Pokey in hotspots of recombination may have important impacts on the diversity and fitness of this transposable element.
Daphnia pulex; Transposable element; Pokey; Hybrids; Recombination
Little is known about how neutrophils and other cells establish a single zone of actin assembly during migration. A widespread assumption is that the leading edge prevents formation of additional fronts by generating long-range diffusible inhibitors or by sequestering essential polarity components. We use morphological perturbations, cell severing experiments, and computational simulations to show that diffusion-based mechanisms are not sufficient for long-range inhibition by the pseudopod. Instead, plasma membrane tension could serve as a long-range inhibitor in neutrophils. We find that membrane tension doubles during leading edge protrusion, and increasing tension is sufficient for long-range inhibition of actin assembly and Rac activation. Furthermore, reducing membrane tension causes uniform actin assembly. We suggest that tension, rather than diffusible molecules generated or sequestered at the leading edge, is the dominant source of long-range inhibition that constrains the spread of the existing front and prevents the formation of secondary fronts.
Pazopanib is a multikinase inhibitor which potently inhibits the activity of major receptor tyrosine kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-a, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-a, and c-Kit. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 in the United States for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, pazopanib has been tested in advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. Unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, a statistically significant efficacy in phase II but also in randomized phase III studies has been shown. In comparison with sunitinib or sorafenib, pazopanib has a similar toxicity profile and is generally well tolerated. This review details the development of this new therapeutic class in the treatment of metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas.
soft-tissue sarcoma; pazopanib; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Nicotine prominently mediates the behavioral effects of tobacco consumption, either through smoking or when taking tobacco by snuff or chew. However, many studies question the exclusive role of nicotine in these effects. The use of preparations containing all the components of tobacco, such as tobacco and smoke extracts, may be more suitable than nicotine alone to investigate the behavioral effects of smoking and tobacco intake. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of tobacco and smoke on ventral tegmental area dopaminergic (DA) neurons were examined in vivo in anesthetized wild-type (WT), β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockout (β2−/−), α4−/−, and α6−/− mice and compared with those of nicotine alone. In WT mice, smoke and nicotine had similar potentiating effects on DA cell activity, but the action of tobacco on neuronal firing was weak and often inhibitory. In particular, nicotine triggered strong bursting activity, whereas no bursting activity was observed after tobacco extract (ToE) administration. In β2−/− mice, nicotine or extract elicited no modification of the firing patterns of DA cells, indicating that extract acts predominantly through nAChRs. The differences between DA cell activation profiles induced by tobacco and nicotine alone observed in WT persisted in α6−/− mice but not in α4−/− mice. These results would suggest that tobacco has lower addiction-generating properties compared with either nicotine alone or smoke. The weak activation and prominent inhibition obtained with ToEs suggest that tobacco contains compounds that counteract some of the activating effects of nicotine and promote inhibition on DA cell acting through α4β2*-nAChRs. The nature of these compounds remains to be elucidated. It nevertheless confirms that nicotine is the main substance involved in the tobacco addiction-related activation of mesolimbic DA neurons.
nicotine; VTA; dopaminergic cell; tobacco addiction; in vivo; nicotinic receptor; addiction & substance abuse; dopamine; neurophysiology; neuropharmacology; nicotinic receptor; smoke; tobacco; nicotine; ventral tegmental area
The triage of women with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive smears for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) to colposcopy is now an integrated option in clinical guidelines. The performance of cobas 4800 HPV and that of Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) for HR HPV DNA detection in cervical samples in PreservCyt were compared in 396 women referred to colposcopy for ASC-US. Of these, 316 did not have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 47 had CIN1, 29 had CIN2 or CIN3 (CIN2+), and 4 had CIN of unknown grade. HR HPV was detected in 129 (32.6%) and 149 (37.6%) samples with HC2 and cobas 4800 HPV, respectively (P = 0.15). The clinical sensitivities and specificities for detecting CIN2+ were 89.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.8 to 97.2%) and 66.7% (95% CI, 61.7 to 71.3%) with cobas 4800 HPV and 93.1% (95% CI, 77.0 to 99.2%) and 72.2% (95% CI 67.4 to 76.5%) with HC2. The performance of cobas 4800 HPV was similar to that of HC2 for identifying women with ASC-US who would benefit the most from colposcopy.
In environmental sequencing studies, fungi can be identified based on nucleic acid sequences, using either highly variable sequences as species barcodes or conserved sequences containing a high-quality phylogenetic signal. For the latter, identification relies on phylogenetic analyses and the adoption of the phylogenetic species concept.
Such analysis requires that the reference sequences are well identified and deposited in public-access databases. However, many entries in the public sequence databases are problematic in terms of quality and reliability and these data require screening to ensure correct phylogenetic interpretation.
Methods and Principal Findings
To facilitate phylogenetic inferences and phylogenetic assignment, we introduce a fungal sequence database. The database PHYMYCO-DB comprises fungal sequences from GenBank that have been filtered to satisfy stringent sequence quality criteria. For the first release, two widely used molecular taxonomic markers were chosen: the nuclear SSU rRNA and EF1-α gene sequences. Following the automatic extraction and filtration, a manual curation is performed to remove problematic sequences while preserving relevant sequences useful for phylogenetic studies. As a result of curation, ∼20% of the automatically filtered sequences have been removed from the database. To demonstrate how PHYMYCO-DB can be employed, we test a set of environmental Chytridiomycota sequences obtained from deep sea samples.
PHYMYCO-DB offers the tools necessary to: (i) extract high quality fungal sequences for each of the 5 fungal phyla, at all taxonomic levels, (ii) extract already performed alignments, to act as ‘reference alignments’, (iii) launch alignments of personal sequences along with stored data. A total of 9120 SSU rRNA and 672 EF1-α high-quality fungal sequences are now available.
The PHYMYCO-DB is accessible through the URL http://phymycodb.genouest.org/.
Recombinant erythropoietin for the anaemia of patients with advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST) receiving imatinib : an active agent only in non progressive patients.
Imatinib is a standard treatment for advanced/metastatic GIST and in adjuvant setting. Anaemia is frequently observed in patients with advanced GIST, and is one of the most frequent side effects of imatinib with grade 3–4 anaemia in 10% of patients. Whether EPO treatment is useful in the management of GIST patients receiving imatinib treatment is unknown.
A retrospective study of EPO treatment in GIST patients receiving imatinib was undertaken in 4 centres. Thirty four patients received EPO treatment among the 319 GIST patients treated with imatinib in clinical trials or with compassionate use between 2001 and 2003. The efficacy of EPO on the anaemia of patients with GIST treated with imatinib was analyzed.
There were 18 males and 16 females with a median age of 59 years. Median WHO-PS was 1. Primary tumour sites were mainly gastric (32%) and small bowel (29%). Sites of metastases were mainly liver (82%) and peritoneum (79%). The median delay between the initiation of imatinib treatment and EPO was 58 days (range 0–553). Median haemoglobin (Hb) level prior to EPO was 9 g/dL (range 6,9-11,8) and 11,7 g/dL (range 6,8-14,4) after 2 months. An increase of more than 2 g/dL was observed in 18 (53%) of patients. None of the 7 patients who progressed (PD) under imatinib treatment (400 mg/day) experienced HB response, as compared to 66% (18/27) of the remaining patients (PR + SD) (p = 0,002). Primary tumour site, liver metastases, peritoneal metastases, age, gender did not correlate with HB response to EPO. Response to EPO was observed in 2/11 patients receiving high-dose imatinib (800 mg/day) vs 16/23 of others. Using logistic regression, only PD before EPO treatment was retained as a predictive factor for EPO response.
EPO enables to increase Hb in most anaemic GIST patients who do not progress under imatinib, but not in patients with progressive disease.
GIST; Imatinib; Anaemia
Mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains high, partly because of delayed diagnosis. Detection of microbial exoantigens, released in serum and other body fluids during infection, may help timely diagnosis. In course of IA, Aspergillus galactomannan (GM), a well established polysaccharide biomarker, is released in body fluids including urine. Urine is an abundant, safely collected specimen, well-suited for point-of-care (POC) testing, which could play an increasing role in screening for early disease. Our main objective was to demonstrate GM antigenuria as a clinically relevant biological phenomenon in IA and establish proof-of-concept that it could be translated to POC diagnosis. Utilizing a novel IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb476) that recognizes GM-like antigens from Aspergillus and other molds, we demonstrated antigenuria in an experimental animal IA model (guinea pig), as well as in human patients. In addition, we investigated the chemical nature of the urinary excreted antigen in human samples, characterized antigen detection in urine by immunoassays, described a putative assay inhibitor in urine, and indicated means of alleviation of the inhibition. We also designed and used a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay to detect urinary excreted antigen in a limited number of IA patient urine samples. In this study, we establish that POC diagnosis of IA based on urinary GM detection is feasible. Prospective studies will be necessary to establish the performance characteristics of an optimized device and define its optimal clinical use.
TNR encodes Tenascin-R, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is primarily expressed in the central nervous system. Loss of TNR impairs cognition, synaptic plasticity and motor abilities in mice, however its role in human neurodevelopment and cognition is less clear.
Methods and results
The authors present the case of a child with intellectual disability and transient choreoathetosis. Array genomic hybridisation revealed a homozygous deletion involving only two genes, including TNR. Sequencing TNR in a cohort of 219 patients with intellectual disability did not identify any potential pathogenic mutations.
This is the first report of a complete loss of TNR associated with intellectual disability. This study provides evidence of the important role of TNR in brain development and cognition in humans.
Tenascin-R; cognition; intellectual disability; microarray; neurology; genetics; neurosciences
The pediatric population, as well as the adult population, is subject to similar injuries and traumatic events involving the craniofacial skeleton. Although less frequent than adult injuries, the craniofacial injuries sustained by children are considered separately in textbooks and the literature because of the special unique problems associated with their treatment and the effects they might have on growth and development that can arise as a result of their management. Some of the more challenging cases that I have seen involve the very young with cranial bone fractures and cranial base fractures and those that involve the nasal and/or orbital-ethmoidal areas in young children and their secondary reconstruction. Some of these types of cases are not always clearly and thoroughly addressed in textbooks or articles because of their infrequent occurrence. Often, surgeons differ in approaches to treatment because of certain anatomic or physiological factors specifically related to childhood, facial growth, and the timing of treatment. Some of the cranial and facial developmental malformations seen in older children or adults can be attributed to trauma sustained in early childhood. This is because trauma may have a deleterious effect on the growth and development of facial structures in the postnatal life similar to that seen resulting from a genetic mutation.
Pediatric; craniofacial; trauma
The 7BM beamline, a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements at the Advanced Photon Source, is described.
In recent years, X-ray radiography has been used to probe the internal structure of dense sprays with microsecond time resolution and a spatial resolution of 15 µm even in high-pressure environments. Recently, the 7BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been commissioned to focus on the needs of X-ray spray radiography measurements. The spatial resolution and X-ray intensity at this beamline represent a significant improvement over previous time-resolved X-ray radiography measurements at the APS.
time-resolved; radiography; multilayer monochromator; Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive mesenchymal tumor that develops in the abdominal cavity of young men adults. Patients typically present with symptoms of abdominal sarcomatosis. Diagnosis is based on histological analysis of biopsies which typically show small round blue cells in nests separated by an abundant desmoplastic stroma. DSRCT is associated with a unique chromosomal translocation t(11:22) (p 13; q 12) that involves the EWSR1 and WT1 genes. The prognosis is particularly poor; median survival ranges from 17 to 25 months, largely due to the presentation of the majority of patients with metastatic disease. Management of DSRCT remains challenging and current schemes lack a significant cure rate despite the use of aggressive treatments such as polychemotherapy, debulking surgery and whole abdominal radiation. Several methods are being evaluated to improve survival: addition of chemotherapy and targeted therapies to standard neoadjuvant protocol, completion of surgical resection with HIPEC, postoperative IMRT, treatment of hepatic metastases with [90Y]Yttrium microsphere liver embolization.
Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial fish pathogen, possesses a functional Type Three Secretion System (TTSS), which is essential for its virulence. The genes for this system are mainly located in a single region of the large pAsa5 plasmid. Bacteria lose the TTSS region from this plasmid through rearrangements when grown in stressful growth conditions. The A. salmonicida genome is rich in insertion sequences (ISs), which are mobile DNA elements that can cause DNA rearrangements in other bacterial species. pAsa5 possesses numerous ISs. Three IS11s from the IS256 family encircle the rearranged regions. To confirm that these IS11s are involved in pAsa5 rearrangements, 26 strains derived from strain A449 and two Canadian isolates (01-B526 and 01-B516) with a pAsa5 rearrangement were tested using a PCR approach to determine whether the rearrangements were the result of an IS11-dependent process. Nine out of the 26 strains had a positive PCR result, suggesting that the rearrangement in these strains were IS-dependent. The PCR analysis showed that all the rearrangements in the A449-derived strains were IS11-dependent process while the rearrangements in 01-B526 and 01-B516 could only be partially coupled to the action of IS11. Unidentified elements that affect IS-dependent rearrangements may be present in 01-B526 and 01-B516. Our results suggested that pAsa5 rearrangements involve IS11. This is the first study showing that ISs are involved in plasmid instability in A. salmonicida.
Smart-gels have a variety of applications including tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery. Here we present a modular, bottom-up approach that permits the creation of protein-based smart-gels with encoded morphology, functionality, and responsiveness to external stimuli. The properties of these gels are encoded by the proteins from which they are synthesized. In particular, the strength and density of the network of intermolecular cross-links are specified by the interactions of the gel’s constituent protein modules with their cognate peptide ligands. Thus, these gels exhibit stimuli-responsive assembly and disassembly, dissolving (or gelling) under conditions that weaken (or strengthen) the protein-peptide interaction. We further demonstrate that such gels can encapsulate and release both proteins and small molecules and that their rheological properties are well suited for biomedical applications.
Respiratory tract (RT) infections by members of the enterovirus (EV) genus of the Picornaviridae family are the most frequent cause for the common cold and a major factor in the exacerbation of chronic pulmonary diseases. The lack of a practical small-animal model for these infections has obstructed insight into pathogenic mechanisms of the common cold and their role in chronic RT illness and has hampered preclinical evaluation of antiviral strategies. Despite significant efforts, it has been difficult to devise rodent models that exhibit viral replication in the RT. This is due mainly to well-known intracellular host restrictions of EVs with RT tropism in rodent cells. We report the evolution of variants of the common-cold-causing coxsackievirus A21, an EV with tropism for the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (hICAM-1), through serial passage in the lungs of mice transgenic for the hICAM-1 gene. This process was accompanied by multiple changes in the viral genome, suggesting exquisite adaptation of hICAM-1-tropic enteroviruses to the specific growth conditions within the RT. In vivo mouse RT-adapted, variant coxsackievirus A21 exhibited replication competence in the lungs of hICAM-1 transgenic mice, providing a basis for unraveling EV-host interactions in the mouse RT.
Regulator of G protein signaling 9–2 (RGS9–2) is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum, a brain region that mediates motivation, movement and reward responses. We identified a naturally occurring 5 nucleotide deletion polymorphism in the human RGS9 gene and found that the mean body mass index (BMI) of individuals with the deletion was significantly higher than those without. A splicing reporter minigene assay demonstrated that the deletion had the potential to significantly decrease the levels of correctly spliced RGS9 gene product. We measured the weights of rats after virally transduced overexpression of RGS9–2 or the structurally related RGS proteins, RGS7, or RGS11, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and observed a reduction in body weight after overexpression of RGS9–2 but not RGS7 or 11. Conversely, we found that the RGS9 knockout mice were heavier than their wild-type littermates and had significantly higher percentages of abdominal fat. The constituent adipocytes were found to have a mean cross-sectional area that was more than double that of corresponding cells from wild-type mice. However, food intake and locomotion were not significantly different between the two strains. These studies with humans, rats and mice implicate RGS9–2 as a factor in regulating body weight.
The unique 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) unit of the title compound, C24H22N2O8S3·C3H6O, is twisted by 1.9 (3)° relative to the central thiophene ring. The three heterocyclic units are antiperiplanar. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the heterocycles. π–π interactions occur between the central thiophene and the imine bond of the molecule [distance between the ring centroid of the ring and the azomethine bond = 3.413 (3) Å.
The Proteomics Standards Research Group (sPRG) has initiated a study that focuses on development of a standard that can be used in both assessment of a laboratory's ability to detect an array of post-translational modifications in a complex proteomic sample and development of new approaches for characterization of post-translationally modified proteins. The sample that has been generated for the first stage of this study contains a mixture of more than seventy synthetic peptides with a variety of modifications, in a tryptic digest of six proteins. Modifications represented in the sample include acetylation, methylation, nitration, phosphorylation, and sulfation. The individual proteins were purified, digested and analyzed prior to formulation of the sample. The synthetic peptides were each analyzed and then mixed with the digests; the mixture was aliquoted and lyophilized in sufficient quantities that would permit evaluation by several analytical approaches. The sample was fully characterized by members of the sPRG. It is planned that in 2011, the sample will be distributed to requesting laboratories for a larger study focusing on PTM characterization. The sPRG will present results obtained at different stages of preparation and characterization of the sample. Approaches for analysis of complex proteomic samples containing various post-translationally modified proteins will also be discussed. The sPRG is planning to open the study for sample requests at the ABRF 2011 conference. From the responses returned by the participating laboratories, the sPRG will subsequently report on the effectiveness of the approaches used for characterization of posttranslational modifications in protein digests.
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C20H20N4O4S, the azomethine group adopt E conformations. The pyrrole units are twisted by 10.31 (4) and 18.90 (5)° with respect to the central thiophene ring. The three-dimensional network is close packed and involves N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding.
Imatinib induces responses and disease stabilisations in non-resectable patients with aggressive fibromatosis (AF). The precise target of imatinib in AF and predictive factors for response to treatment are unknown.
We investigated factors potentially predictive of response to imatinib in a series of 40 patients with progressive AF included in a phase II trial of imatinib: we tested the presence of KIT exon 10 variant (M541L), the expression of imatinib-sensitive kinases and cell cycle proteins by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and other clinical and biological factors.
Of 10 patients for whom DNA could be extracted, 3 had a KIT exon 10 variant (30%), with no correlation with response or progression-free survival (PFS). The expression of other imatinib targets (PDGFRA/B, macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR)) and of downstream components of the cell cycle, cell proliferation and proliferation pathway (cyclin D1, ERK, MEK 1–2) did not correlate with PFS. Pre-treatment lymphopenia (<1500/μl) and tumour size >120 mm correlated with shorter PFS in univariate and multivariate analyses.
Our findings show that a baseline biological characteristic of the patient is the major parameter influencing response to imatinib in aggressive fibromatosis. Tumour characteristics, including the presence of a KIT exon 10 M541L variant, may influence tumour control but this needs to be confirmed and better explained.
aggressive fibromatosis; imatinib mesylate; predictive factors
Up to 20% of women having a cytology smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and infected with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) have high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3). Results obtained with the Amplicor HPV and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC-2) assays for HR HPV DNA detection in women referred to colposcopy for an ASC-US smear were compared. Cervical samples in PreservCyt were tested for the presence of 13 HR HPV types with HC-2, with Amplicor at three cutoffs for positivity (0.2, 1.0, and 1.5 optical density units), and for 36 genotypes with the Linear Array (LA). Of 396 eligible women, 316 did not have CIN, 47 had CIN 1, 29 had CIN 2/3, and 4 had CIN of unknown grade. HR HPV was detected in 129 (32.6%) and 164 (41.4%) samples with HC-2 and Amplicor HPV (cutoff, 0.2), respectively (P = 0.01). Overall, 112 specimens were positive and 215 were negative with the HC-2 and Amplicor HPV assays (agreement of 82.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78.5 to 86.0). The clinical sensitivity and specificity of Amplicor HPV at cutoffs of 0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 and of HC-2 for detection of CIN 2/3 were 89.7% (95% CI, 72.8 to 97.2) and 62.5% (95% CI, 57.5 to 52.4), 89.7% (95% CI, 72.8 to 97.2) and 64.5% (95% CI, 59.4 to 69.2), 89.7% (95% CI, 72.8 to 97.2) and 64.7% (95% CI, 59.7 to 69.5), and 93.1% (95% CI, 77.0 to 99.2) and 72.2% (95% CI, 67.4 to 76.5), respectively. Both HR HPV detection tests identified women with ASC-US who would benefit the most from colposcopy. Women with persistent HR HPV infection need further investigation despite a first normal colposcopy.
A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng g−1), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g−1), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g−1). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g−1 in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84–2.46 ng g−1 in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g−1), baking powder (0.64 ng g−1), some cheeses (0.68–2.24 ng g−1), breads and some cereals (0.40–1.73 ng g−1), and fast foods (1.1–10.9 ng g−1). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age–sex groups, with 0.17–0.33 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for infants, 0.082–0.23 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052–0.081 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.
total diet; gas chromatography (GC); gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); total diet studies bisphenol A