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1.  Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature 
Heart  1999;81(3):308-312.
Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma.

 Keywords: catheterisation; angiography; radiation; radiodermatitis; skin injury
PMCID: PMC1728981  PMID: 10026359
2.  Langerhans' cells are depleted in chronic graft versus host disease. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1997;50(4):305-309.
AIMS: To measure Langerhans' cells in skin of patients treated by bone marrow transplantation who developed chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD); to determine whether the reduction in Langerhans' cells resulted directly from the GvHD or from other factors, such as the immunosuppressive regimens used in bone marrow transplant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Lesional and nonlesional skin specimens from nine patients with lichen planus-like lesions and three patients with sclerodermoid lesions were studied. Control skin specimens were taken from three patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. The number of Langerhans' cells/mm2 and the area of Langerhans' cells as a percentage of total epidermis were measured by counting cells labelled with antihuman CD1a. RESULTS: A significant reduction in Langerhans' cell area and number were found in specimens with lesions (area 3.5%; number 507/mm2) compared with specimens without lesions (8.42%; 2375/mm2). In contrast, Langerhans' cell area and number in skin without lesions were similar to controls (10.26%; 2968/mm2). CONCLUSIONS: Langerhans' cells were significantly reduced in skin with lesions of chronic GvHD but not in skin without lesions from the same patient, suggesting that the reduction is a direct consequence of GvHD and not linked to immunosuppressive drugs or late effects of conditioning regimens. In long term bone marrow transplant recipients, Langerhans' cells are derived mainly from the donor cells; therefore, this result suggests the occurrence of autoreactive phenomenon in chronic GvHD.
PMCID: PMC499880  PMID: 9215146
3.  Oligoclonal expansion of HIV-specific cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes in the skin of HIV-1-infected patients with cutaneous pseudolymphoma. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;101(11):2506-2516.
A massive infiltration of the skin by activated CD8+ T lymphocytes involving both the dermis and the epidermis has been found in HIV-1-infected patients presenting with a chronic skin rash. We characterized the T cell receptor (TCR) BV-BJ junctional diversity of the skin-infiltrating lymphocytes (SILs) in four patients. The SILs expressed a limited set of TCRBV gene segments. Complementarity determining region 3 length analysis further emphasized their oligoclonality, suggesting that antigen stimulation might be responsible for the cutaneous T cell expansion. Furthermore, independent skin biopsies obtained from the same individual were shown to harbor distinct T cell repertoires, possibly reflecting the spatial heterogeneity of the antigenic stimuli. The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines isolated from the skin rash in one patient exhibited a specific, class I MHC-restricted cytotoxic activity against HIV-1 Gag- and Pol-expressing target cells, whereas CTL lines derived from the skin lesions of a second patient were shown to be predominantly Env-specific. Taken together, these data demonstrate the infiltration of HIV-specific CTLs in the skin of HIV-infected patients, and suggest that in addition to their known role in controlling the retroviral infection, these CTLs may also be involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous inflammatory disorders occurring during the course of HIV infection.
PMCID: PMC508840  PMID: 9616222
4.  Genetic linkage of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa to the type VII collagen gene. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(3):1032-1036.
Generalized mutilating recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is characterized by extreme skin fragility owing to loss of dermal-epidermal adherence. Immunohistochemical studies have implicated type VII collagen, the major component of anchoring fibrils, in the etiology of RDEB. In this study, we demonstrate genetic linkage of the type VII collagen gene and the generalized mutilating RDEB phenotype. We first identified a Pvull polymorphic site by digestion of an amplified product of the type VII collagen gene, which was shown to reside within the coding region. Genetic linkage analysis between this marker and the RDEB phenotype in 19 affected families which were informative for this polymorphism showed no recombination events, and gave a maximum lod score of 3.97 at a recombination fraction (theta) of 0, demonstrating that this DNA region is involved in this form of RDEB. These data provide strong evidence that the type VII collagen gene, which has also been linked with the dominant form of the disease, harbors the mutation(s) causing the generalized mutilating form of RDEB in these families, thus underscoring the major functional importance of type VII collagen in basement membrane zone stability.
PMCID: PMC329960  PMID: 1355776
5.  Exclusion of linkage between the collagenase gene and generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa phenotype. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;88(5):1716-1721.
Generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe inherited autosomal disease characterized by dermolytic blister formation. Enhanced collagenase and/or abnormal collagenase have been reported in skin from affected patients, suggesting that collagenase could be responsible for the absence of anchoring fibrils in this disorder. We used a genetic linkage approach to test the hypothesis that this disease is due to a defect in the collagenase gene in nine affected families. Analysis of amplified genomic DNA fragments of the collagenase gene by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) allowed us to detect intragenic polymorphisms, which were subsequently characterized by direct genomic sequencing. Segregation analysis of these polymorphic sites showed exclusion of linkage between the collagenase gene and generalized RDEB phenotype in a family with consanguineous parents and three affected children. However, the possibility of linkage with the collagenase gene in the other eight families tested could not be excluded. The genetic markers described here provide a tool for investigating genetic linkage in other affected families. Overall, our results show that generalized RDEB can be caused by a defect in a gene other than the collagenase gene, and support the hypothesis that the genetic defect lies in abnormal anchoring fibril formation.
PMCID: PMC295711  PMID: 1658051

Results 1-5 (5)