Faced with an increasing number of choices for biologic therapies, rheumatologists have a critical need for better tools to inform rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease management. The ability to identify patients who are unlikely to respond to first-line biologic anti-TNF therapies prior to their treatment would allow these patients to seek alternative therapies, providing faster relief and avoiding complications of disease.
We identified a gene expression classifier to predict, pre-treatment, which RA patients are unlikely to respond to the anti-TNF infliximab. The classifier was trained and independently evaluated using four published whole blood gene expression data sets, in which RA patients (n = 116 = 44 + 15 + 30 + 27) were treated with infliximab, and their response assessed 14–16 months post treatment according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria. For each patient, prior knowledge was used to group gene expression measurements into disease-relevant biological signaling mechanisms that were used as the input features for regularized logistic regression.
The classifier produced a substantial enrichment of non-responders (59 %, given by the cross validated test precision) compared to the full population (27 % non-responders), while identifying nearly a third of non-responders. Given this classifier performance, treatment of predicted non-responders with alternative biologics would decrease their chance of non-response by between a third and a half, substantially improving their odds of effective treatment and stemming further disease progression. The classifier consisted of 18 signaling mechanisms, which together indicated that higher inflammatory signaling mediated by TNF and other cytokines was present pre-treatment in the blood of patients who responded to infliximab treatment. In contrast, non-responders were classified by relatively higher levels of specific metabolic activities in the blood prior to treatment.
We were able to successfully produce a classifier to identify a population of RA patients significantly enriched in anti-TNF non-responders across four different patient cohorts. Additional prospective studies are needed to validate and refine the classifier for clinical use.
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Rheumatoid arthritis; Infliximab; Anti-TNF therapy; Classifier
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in budding yeast requires the regulated recruitment and disassociation of over 60 proteins at discrete plasma membrane punctae. Post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination may play important regulatory roles in this highly processive and ordered process. However, while ubiquitination plays an important role in cargo selection, functions for ubiquitination of the endocytic machinery are not known.
We identified the deubiquitinase (DUB) Ubp7 as a late arriving endocytic protein. Deletion of the DUBs Ubp2 and Ubp7 resulted in elongation of endocytic coat protein lifetimes at the plasma membrane and recruitment of endocytic proteins to internal membranes. These phenotypes could be replicated by expressing a permanently ubiquitinated version of Ede1, the yeast Eps15 homolog, which is implicated in endocytic site initiation, while EDE1 deletion partially suppressed the deubiquitinase deletion phenotype. Both DUBs are capable of deubiquitinating Ede1 in vitro.
Deubiquitination regulates formation of endocytic sites and stability of the endocytic coat. This regulation appears to occur through Ede1, since permanently ubiquitinated Ede1 phenocopies deletion of UBP2 and UBP7. Moreover, incomplete suppression of the ubp2Δ ubp7Δ phenotype by ede1Δ indicates that ubiquitination and deubiquitination are likely to regulate additional components of the endocytic machinery.
Actin assembly influences the precise temporal and quantitative recruitment of dynamin2 to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves the recruitment of numerous proteins to sites on the plasma membrane with prescribed timing to mediate specific stages of the process. However, how choreographed recruitment and function of specific proteins during CME is achieved remains unclear. Using genome editing to express fluorescent fusion proteins at native levels and live-cell imaging with single-molecule sensitivity, we explored dynamin2 stoichiometry, dynamics, and functional interdependency with actin. Our quantitative analyses revealed heterogeneity in the timing of the early phase of CME, with transient recruitment of 2–4 molecules of dynamin2. In contrast, considerable regularity characterized the final 20 s of CME, during which ∼26 molecules of dynamin2, sufficient to make one ring around the vesicle neck, were typically recruited. Actin assembly generally preceded dynamin2 recruitment during the late phases of CME, and promoted dynamin recruitment. Collectively, our results demonstrate precise temporal and quantitative regulation of the dynamin2 recruitment influenced by actin polymerization.
Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the best-studied pathway by which cells selectively internalize molecules from the plasma membrane and surrounding environment. Previous live-cell imaging studies using ectopically overexpressed fluorescent fusions of endocytic proteins indicated that mammalian CME is a highly dynamic but inefficient and heterogeneous process. In contrast, studies of endocytosis in budding yeast using fluorescent protein fusions expressed at physiological levels from native genomic loci have revealed a process that is very regular and efficient. To analyse endocytic dynamics in mammalian cells in which endogenous protein stoichiometry is preserved, we targeted zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to the clathrin light chain A and dynamin-2 genomic loci and generated cell lines expressing fluorescent protein fusions from each locus. The genome-edited cells exhibited enhanced endocytic function, dynamics and efficiency when compared with previously studied cells, indicating that CME is highly sensitive to the levels of its protein components. Our study establishes that ZFN-mediated genome editing is a robust tool for expressing protein fusions at endogenous levels to faithfully report subcellular localization and dynamics.
Defining the ultrastructure of endocytic sites and localization of endocytic proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by immunoelectron microscopy is central in understanding the mechanisms of membrane deformation and scission during endocytosis. We show that an improved sample preparation protocol based on high-pressure freezing, freeze substitution, and low-temperature embedding allows us to maintain the cellular fine structure and to immunolabel green fluorescent protein–tagged endocytic proteins or actin in the same sections. Using this technique we analyzed the stepwise deformation of endocytic membranes and immuno-localized the endocytic proteins Abp1p, Sla1p, Rvs167p, and actin, and were able to draw a clear ultrastructural distinction between endocytic sites and eisosomes by immunolocalizing Pil1p. In addition to defining the geometry and the fine structure of budding yeast endocytic sites, we observed associated actin filaments forming a cage-like meshwork around the endocytic membrane.
yeast; endocytosis; trafficking; high-pressure freezing; freeze substitution; transmission electron microscopy; electron tomography; immunogold labeling; actin filaments; anti-GFP immunolabeling
Spatial and temporal control of actin filament barbed end elongation is crucial for force generation by actin networks. In this study, genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry were used to reveal three complementary mechanisms that regulate actin filament barbed end elongation in Arp2/3-derived networks. Aip1 inhibits elongation of aged ADP-actin filaments decorated with cofilin, and together with capping protein (CP), maintains a high level of assembly-competent actin species. We identified Abp1 and Aim3 as two additional proteins that work together to inhibit barbed end elongation. Abp1/Aim3 collaborates with CP to control elongation of newly assembled ATP-actin filaments to organize filament polarity within actin networks. Thus, three distinct mechanisms control filament elongation in different regions of Arp2/3 networks, maintaining pools of assembly-competent actin species while ensuring proper filament polarity and facilitating force production.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitosis, the protein Slk19 plays an important role in the initial release of Cdc14 phosphatase from the nucleolus to the nucleus in early anaphase, an event that is critical for proper anaphase progression. A role for Slk19 in later mitotic stages of Cdc14 regulation, however, has not been demonstrated. While investigating the role of Slk19 post-translational modification on Cdc14 regulation, we found that a triple point mutant of SLK19, slk193R (three lysine-to-arginine mutations), strongly affects Cdc14 localization during late anaphase and mitotic exit. Using fluorescence live-cell microscopy, we found that, similar to slk19Δ cells, slk193R cells exhibit no defect in spindle stability and only a mild defect in spindle elongation dynamics. Unlike slk19Δcells, however, slk193R cells exhibit no defect in Cdc14 release from the nucleolus to the nucleus. Instead, slk193R cells are defective in the timing of Cdc14 movement from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at the end of anaphase. This mutant has a novel phenotype: slk193R causes premature Cdc14 movement to the cytoplasm prior to, rather than concomitant with, spindle disassembly. One consequence of this premature Cdc14 movement is the inappropriate activation of the mitotic exit network, made evident by the fact that slk193R partially rescues a mutant of the mitotic exit network kinase Cdc15. In conclusion, in addition to its role in regulating Cdc14 release from the nucleolus to the nucleus, we found that Slk19 is also important for regulating Cdc14 movement from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at the end of anaphase.
The spatial and temporal regulation of actin polymerization is crucial for various cellular processes. Members of the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family activate the Arp2/3-complex leading to actin polymerization. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains only one WASP homolog, Las17, that requires additional factors for its regulation. Lsb1 and Lsb2/Pin3 are two yeast homologous proteins bearing an SH3 domain that were identified as Las17-binding proteins. Lsb2/Pin3 that promotes prion induction was suggested to link this prion formation to the actin cytoskeleton. However, the cellular role of Lsb1 and the molecular function of both Lsb1 and Lsb2 remain unknown. In this study, we show that Lsb1 and/or Lsb2 full-length proteins inhibit Las17-mediated actin polymerization in vitro, Lsb2 being a less potent inhibitor of Las17 activity compared to Lsb1. Addition of Lsb1 or Lsb2 to the corresponding full-length Lsb1/2 further inhibits Las17 activity. Lsb1 and Lsb2 form homo- and hetero-oligomeric complexes suggesting that these two proteins could regulate Las17 activity via dimerization or cooperative binding. In vivo, overexpressed Lsb1 and Lsb2 proteins cluster Las17-CFP in few cytoplasmic punctate structures that are also positive for other Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization effectors like Sla1 or Abp1. But, only Lsb1 overexpression blocks the internalization step of receptor-mediated endocytosis. This shows a specific function of Lsb1 in endocytosis.
The Caenorhabditis elegans SH3 domain interactome was mapped and compared with the yeast SH3 interactome. Orthologous SH3 domain-mediated interactions are highly rewired, but the general function of the SH3 domain network is conserved between the two species
C. elegans Src homology 3 (SH3) domain interactome was mapped using stringent yeast two-hybrid, resulting in a total of 1070 interactions among 79 out of 84 worm SH3 domains and 475 proteins.SH3 domain binding specificities were profiled for 36 worm SH3 domains using peptide phage display.The yeast and worm SH3 domain interactomes are significantly enriched in endocytosis proteins, but the specific interactions mediated by orthologous SH3 domains are highly rewired.Using the worm SH3 interactome, we identified new endocytosis proteins in worm and human.
Src homology 3 (SH3) domains bind peptides to mediate protein–protein interactions that assemble and regulate dynamic biological processes. We surveyed the repertoire of SH3 binding specificity using peptide phage display in a metazoan, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, and discovered that it structurally mirrors that of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then mapped the worm SH3 interactome using stringent yeast two-hybrid and compared it with the equivalent map for yeast. We found that the worm SH3 interactome resembles the analogous yeast network because it is significantly enriched for proteins with roles in endocytosis. Nevertheless, orthologous SH3 domain-mediated interactions are highly rewired. Our results suggest a model of network evolution where general function of the SH3 domain network is conserved over its specific form.
network evolution; phage display; protein interaction conservation; SH3 domains; yeast two-hybrid
Endocytosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves the ordered recruitment, activity and disassembly of nearly 60 proteins at distinct sites on the plasma membrane. Two-color live-cell fluorescence microscopy has proven to be invaluable for in vivo analysis of endocytic proteins: identifying new components, determining the order of protein arrival and dissociation, and revealing even very subtle mutant phenotypes. Yeast genetics and functional genomics facilitate identification of complex interaction networks between endocytic proteins and their regulators. Quantitive datasets produced by these analyses have made theoretical modeling possible. Here, we discuss recent findings on budding yeast endocytosis that have advanced our knowledge of how ~60 endocytic proteins are recruited, regulated by lipid and protein modifications, and disassembled with remarkable regularity.
An actin-dependent role is shown for Myo1E in the trafficking of newly internalized cargo to early endosomes during CME. The results establish for mammalian cells, similar to budding yeast, interdependence in the recruitment of type I myosins, WIP/WIRE, and N-WASP to endocytic sites to assemble F-actin as endocytic vesicles are being formed.
Myosin 1E (Myo1E) is recruited to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis coincident with a burst of actin assembly. The recruitment dynamics and lifetime of Myo1E are similar to those of tagged actin polymerization regulatory proteins. Like inhibition of actin assembly, depletion of Myo1E causes reduced transferrin endocytosis and a significant delay in transferrin trafficking to perinuclear compartments, demonstrating an integral role for Myo1E in these actin-mediated steps. Mistargeting of GFP-Myo1E or its src-homology 3 domain to mitochondria results in appearance of WIP, WIRE, N-WASP, and actin filaments at the mitochondria, providing evidence for Myo1E's role in actin assembly regulation. These results suggest for mammalian cells, similar to budding yeast, interdependence in the recruitment of type I myosins, WIP/WIRE, and N-WASP to endocytic sites for Arp2/3 complex activation to assemble F-actin as endocytic vesicles are being formed.
This study reveals the basis for how temporal phosphoregulation of Orm protein controls sphingolipid production in response to stress. Orm protein phosphorylation is highly responsive to sphingoid bases, and Ypk1 protein kinase transmits heat stress signals to the sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway via Orm phosphorylation.
Sphingoid intermediates accumulate in response to a variety of stresses, including heat, and trigger cellular responses. However, the mechanism by which stress affects sphingolipid biosynthesis has yet to be identified. Recent studies in yeast suggest that sphingolipid biosynthesis is regulated through phosphorylation of the Orm proteins, which in humans are potential risk factors for childhood asthma. Here we demonstrate that Orm phosphorylation status is highly responsive to sphingoid bases. We also demonstrate, by monitoring temporal changes in Orm phosphorylation and sphingoid base production in cells inhibited for yeast protein kinase 1 (Ypk1) activity, that Ypk1 transmits heat stress signals to the sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway via Orm phosphorylation. Our data indicate that heat-induced sphingolipid biosynthesis in turn triggers Orm protein dephosphorylation, making the induction transient. We identified Cdc55–protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a key phosphatase that counteracts Ypk1 activity in Orm-mediated sphingolipid biosynthesis regulation. In total, our study reveals a mechanism through which the conserved Pkh-Ypk kinase cascade and Cdc55-PP2A facilitate rapid, transient sphingolipid production in response to heat stress through Orm protein phosphoregulation. We propose that this mechanism serves as the basis for how Orm phosphoregulation controls sphingolipid biosynthesis in response to stress in a kinetically coupled manner.
Eukaryotic cells generate a diversity of actin filament networks in a common cytoplasm to optimally perform functions such as cell motility, cell adhesion, endocytosis and cytokinesis. Each of these networks maintains precise mechanical and dynamic properties by autonomously controlling the composition of its interacting proteins and spatial organization of its actin filaments. In this review, we discuss the chemical and physical mechanisms that target distinct sets of actin-binding proteins to distinct actin filament populations after nucleation, resulting in the assembly of actin filament networks that are optimized for specific functions.
We used soft x-ray tomography (SXT) – a high-resolution, quantitative imaging technique – to measure cell size and organelle volumes in yeasts. Cell size is a key factor in initiating cell division in yeasts, whereas the number and volume of the organelles has a profound impact on the function and viability of a cell. Consequently, determining these cell parameters is fundamentally important in understanding yeast biology. SXT is well suited to this type of analysis. Specimens are imaged in a near-native state, and relatively large numbers of cells can be readily analyzed. In this study, we characterized haploid and diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at each of the key stages in the cell cycle, and determined if there were relationships between cellular and organelle volumes. We then compared these results with SXT data obtained from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the three main phenotypes displayed by the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida albicans, and from a coff1-22 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This comparison revealed that volumetric ratios were invariant irrespective of yeast strain, ploidy or morphology, leading to the conclusion these volumetric ratios are common in all yeasts.
High-throughput measurement technologies produce data sets that have the potential to elucidate the biological impact of disease, drug treatment, and environmental agents on humans. The scientific community faces an ongoing challenge in the analysis of these rich data sources to more accurately characterize biological processes that have been perturbed at the mechanistic level. Here, a new approach is built on previous methodologies in which high-throughput data was interpreted using prior biological knowledge of cause and effect relationships. These relationships are structured into network models that describe specific biological processes, such as inflammatory signaling or cell cycle progression. This enables quantitative assessment of network perturbation in response to a given stimulus.
Four complementary methods were devised to quantify treatment-induced activity changes in processes described by network models. In addition, companion statistics were developed to qualify significance and specificity of the results. This approach is called Network Perturbation Amplitude (NPA) scoring because the amplitudes of treatment-induced perturbations are computed for biological network models. The NPA methods were tested on two transcriptomic data sets: normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells treated with the pro-inflammatory signaling mediator TNFα, and HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with the CDK cell cycle inhibitor R547. Each data set was scored against network models representing different aspects of inflammatory signaling and cell cycle progression, and these scores were compared with independent measures of pathway activity in NHBE cells to verify the approach. The NPA scoring method successfully quantified the amplitude of TNFα-induced perturbation for each network model when compared against NF-κB nuclear localization and cell number. In addition, the degree and specificity to which CDK-inhibition affected cell cycle and inflammatory signaling were meaningfully determined.
The NPA scoring method leverages high-throughput measurements and a priori literature-derived knowledge in the form of network models to characterize the activity change for a broad collection of biological processes at high-resolution. Applications of this framework include comparative assessment of the biological impact caused by environmental factors, toxic substances, or drug treatments.
ETOC: During yeast endocytic site formation, Ede1p (yeast Eps15), but not clathrin light chain, is important for the recruitment of most other early-arriving proteins to endocytic sites. Cargo and clathrin light chain may play roles in regulating the transition of endocytic sites out of the “intermediate coat” stage of endocytosis.
The earliest stages of endocytic site formation and the regulation of endocytic site maturation are not well understood. Here we analyzed the order in which the earliest proteins are detectable at endocytic sites in budding yeast and found that an uncharacterized protein, Pal1p/Ydr348cp, is also present at the initial stages of endocytosis. Because Ede1p (homologue of Eps15) and clathrin are the early-arriving proteins most important for cargo uptake, their roles during the early stages of endocytosis were examined more comprehensively. Ede1p is necessary for efficient recruitment of most early-arriving proteins, but not for the recruitment of the adaptor protein Yap1802p, to endocytic sites. The early-arriving proteins, as well as the later-arriving proteins Sla2p and Ent1/2p (homologues of Hip1R and epsins), were found to have longer lifetimes in CLC1-knockout yeast, which indicates that clathrin light chain facilitates the transition from the intermediate to late coat stages. Cargo also arrives during the early stages of endocytosis, and therefore its effect on endocytic machinery dynamics was investigated. Our results are consistent with a role for cargo in regulating the transition of endocytic sites from the early stages of formation to the late stages during which vesicle formation occurs.
Incomplete spindle disassembly causes lethality in budding yeast. We propose that spindle disassembly is required to reinitiate the spindle cycle during the subsequent mitosis by regenerating the nuclear pool of assembly-competent tubulin.
Incomplete mitotic spindle disassembly causes lethality in budding yeast. To determine why spindle disassembly is required for cell viability, we used live-cell microscopy to analyze a double mutant strain containing a conditional mutant and a deletion mutant compromised for the kinesin-8 and anaphase-promoting complex-driven spindle-disassembly pathways (td-kip3 and doc1Δ, respectively). Under nonpermissive conditions, spindles in td-kip3 doc1Δ cells could break apart but could not disassemble completely. These cells could exit mitosis and undergo cell division. However, the daughter cells could not assemble functional, bipolar spindles in the ensuing mitosis. During the formation of these dysfunctional spindles, centrosome duplication and separation, as well as recruitment of key midzone-stabilizing proteins all appeared normal, but microtubule polymerization was nevertheless impaired and these spindles often collapsed. Introduction of free tubulin through episomal expression of α- and β-tubulin or introduction of a brief pulse of the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole allowed spindle assembly in these td-kip3 doc1Δ mutants. Therefore we propose that spindle disassembly is essential for regeneration of the intracellular pool of assembly-competent tubulin required for efficient spindle assembly during subsequent mitoses of daughter cells.