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1.  Illness behaviour in elite middle and long distance runners 
OBJECTIVES: To examine the illness attitudes and beliefs known to be associated with abnormal illness behaviour (where symptoms are present in excess of objective signs and pathology) in elite middle and long distance runners, in comparison with non-athlete controls. METHODS: A total of 150 athletes were surveyed using the illness behaviour questionnaire as an instrument to explore the psychological attributes associated with abnormal illness behaviour. Subjects also completed the general health questionnaire as a measure of psychiatric morbidity. A control group of 150 subjects, matched for age, sex, and social class, were surveyed using the same instruments. RESULTS: A multivariate analysis of illness behaviour questionnaire responses showed that the athletes' group differed significantly from the control group (Hotelling's T: Exact F = 2.68; p = 0.01). In particular, athletes were more somatically focused (difference between means -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.50 to -0.03) and more likely to deny the impact of stresses in their life (difference between means 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 1.25). Athletes were also higher scorers on the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis (difference between means 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 1.48). There were no differences in the levels of psychiatric morbidity between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attitudes and beliefs of athletes differ from those of a well matched control population. The origin of these psychological attributes is not clear but those who treat athletes need to be aware of them. 

PMCID: PMC1756131  PMID: 10027052
2.  Cloning of the nprA gene for neutral protease A of Bacillus thuringiensis and effect of in vivo deletion of nprA on insecticidal crystal protein. 
The nprA gene, encoding Bacillus thuringiensis neutral protease A, was cloned by the use of gene-specific oligonucleotides. The size of neutral protease A deduced from the nprA sequence was 566 amino acids (60,982 Da). The cloned nprA gene was partially deleted in vitro, and the deleted allele, designated nprA3, was used to construct an nprA3 strain (neutral protease A-deficient strain) of B. thuringiensis. Growth and sporulation of the nprA3 strain were similar to those of an isogenic nprA+ strain, although the extracellular proteolytic activity of the nprA3 strain was significantly less than that of the nprA+ strain. The nprA3 strain produced insecticidal crystal proteins that were more stable than those of the isogenic nprA+ strain after solubilization in vitro, and sporulated cultures of the nprA3 strain contained higher concentrations of full-length insecticidal crystal proteins than did those of its isogenic counterpart. The absence of neutral protease A did not affect the insecticidal activity of a lepidopteran-specific crystal protein of B. thuringiensis. These results indicate that crystal protein stability and yield may be improved by deletion of specific proteases from B. thuringiensis.
PMCID: PMC168523  PMID: 9172350
3.  Characterization of two genes encoding Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins toxic to Coleoptera species. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1992;58(12):3921-3927.
Bacillus thuringiensis EG2838 and EG4961 are highly toxic to Colorado potato beetle larvae, and only strain EG4961 is toxic to southern corn rootworm larvae. To investigate the cause of the different insecticidal activities of EG2838 and EG4961, cryIII-type genes toxic to coleopterans were cloned from each strain. The cryIIIB gene, cloned as part of an 8.0-kb EcoRI fragment of EG2838 DNA, encoded a crystal protein (CryIIIB) of 74,237 Da. The cryIIIB2 gene, cloned as part of an 8.3-kb PstI-Asp718 fragment of EG4961 DNA, encoded a crystal protein (CryIIIB2) of 74,393 Da that was 94% identical to CryIIIB. Analysis of the transcriptional start sites showed that cryIIIB and cryIIIB2 were initiated from a conserved region located within 130 nucleotides upstream from the translation start sites of both genes. Although the CryIIIB and CryIIIB2 proteins were similar in sequence, they displayed distinct insecticidal activities: CryIIIB was one-third as toxic as CryIIIB2 to Colorado potato beetle larvae, and CryIIIB2, but not CryIIIB, was toxic to southern corn rootworm larvae. Genes encoding crystal proteins of approximately 32 and 31 kDa were located adjacent to the cryIIIB and cryIIIB2 genes, respectively. The 32- and 31-kDa crystal proteins failed to enhance the insecticidal activities of CryIIIB and CryIIIB2.
PMCID: PMC183205  PMID: 1476436
4.  Two novel strains of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to coleopterans. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1991;57(11):3337-3344.
Two novel strains of Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from native habitats by the use of genes coding for proteins toxic to coleopterans (cryIII genes) as hybridization probes. Strain EG2838 (isolated by the use of the cryIIIA probe) contained a cryIIIA-hybridizing plasmid of approximately 100 MDa and synthesized crystal proteins of approximately 200 (doublet), 74, 70, 32, and 28 kDa. Strain EG4961 (isolated by the use of a cryIIIA-related probe) contained a cryIIIA-hybridizing plasmid of approximately 95 MDa and synthesized crystal proteins of 74, 70, and 30 kDa. Structural relationships among the crystal proteins of strains EG2838 and EG4961 were detected; antibodies to the CryIIIA protein toxic to coleopterans reacted with the 74- and 70-kDa proteins of EG2838 and EG4961, antibodies to the 32-kDa plus 28-kDa proteins of EG2838 reacted with the 30-kDa protein of EG4961, and antibodies to the 200-kDa proteins of EG2838 reacted with the 28-kDa protein of EG2838. Experiments with B. thuringiensis flagella antibody reagents demonstrated that EG2838 belongs to H serotype 9 (reference strain B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi) and that EG4961 belongs to H serotype 18 (reference strain B. thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis). A mixture of spores plus crystal proteins of either EG2838 or EG4961 was toxic to the larvae of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), and significantly, the EG4961 mixture was also toxic to the larvae of southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). DNA restriction blot analysis suggested that strains EG2838 and EG4961 each contained a unique gene coding for a protein toxic to coleopterans.
PMCID: PMC183968  PMID: 1781691
5.  Photoaversion in retinitis pigmentosa. 
Photoaversion, or light-induced interference with visual comfort and performance, has been a recognised but poorly documented symptom in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We found that a majority of our RP patients complained of photoaversion even in the absence of significant cataract. RP patients had reduced contrast sensitivity relative to normal people, but the decrement in their visual performance as a result of glare or photostress was only slight. RP patients had raised short-term adaptation and increment threshold levels, but their rate of short-term or photopic adaptation was normal. Photoaversion in RP may result because a small interference with contrast sensitivity or adaptation can place patients in a range of functional disability, or it may derive from a combination of minor aberrations.
PMCID: PMC1041666  PMID: 2930757
6.  Molecular characterization of a gene encoding a 72-kilodalton mosquito-toxic crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1988;170(10):4732-4738.
A gene encoding a 72,357-dalton (Da) crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was isolated from a native 75-MDa plasmid by the use of a gene-specific oligonucleotide probe. Bacillus megaterium cells harboring the cloned gene (cryD) produced significant amounts of the 72-kDa protein (CryD), and the cells were highly toxic to mosquito larvae. In contrast, cryD-containing Escherichia coli cells did not produce detectable levels of the 72-kDa CryD protein. The sequence of the CryD protein, as deduced from the sequence of the cryD gene, was found to contain regions of homology with two previously described B. thuringiensis crystal proteins: a 73-kDa coleopteran-toxic protein and a 66-kDa lepidopteran- and dipteran-toxic protein of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. A second gene encoding the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 28-kDa crystal protein was located approximately 1.5 kilobases upstream from and in the opposite orientation to the cryD gene.
PMCID: PMC211515  PMID: 2902069
7.  Purification and characterization of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli K-12. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1983;156(2):620-624.
Using blue Sepharose affinity chromatography, we purified orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase over 600-fold, to near homogeneity, from strains of Escherichia coli harboring the cloned pyrF gene on the multicopy plasmid pDK26. The purified enzyme has a subunit molecular weight of 27,000 but appears to be catalytically active as a dimer. In contrast to yeast enzymes, orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase from E. coli is unstable at pH 6.0. The specific activity and Km values were 220 U/mg and 6 microM, respectively.
PMCID: PMC217875  PMID: 6355062
8.  Amplification of ribonuclease II (rnb) activity in Escherichia coli K-12. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1983;11(2):265-275.
A 7.1 kb HindIII-XhoI fragment of E. coli DNA which contains the structural gene for ribonuclease II (rnb) has been cloned in the recombinant plasmid pDK24. At least two constitutively expressed genes are encoded on the fragment as shown by maxicell analysis. On denaturing polyacrylamide gels RNase II appears as a single 72,000 dalton species. The approximate site of transcription initiation of the rnb gene has been mapped. Although derivatives of E. coli harboring pDK24 contained 10-fold more RNase II activity that wild type strains without the plasmid, the degradation rate of mRNA was similar in all strains tested. Strains deficient in both RNase II and polynucleotide phosphorylase appear inviable.
PMCID: PMC325713  PMID: 6338477
10.  Three Testicles 
British Medical Journal  1953;2(4832):395.
PMCID: PMC2029173
12.  Dye Dermatitis 
British Medical Journal  1936;1(3936):1233.
PMCID: PMC2458856
13.  Long Delayed Radiotherapeutic Dermatitis 
PMCID: PMC2075770  PMID: 19990593
15.  Lupus Mutilans Facei 
PMCID: PMC2205712  PMID: 19990351
British Medical Journal  1932;2(3736):292-294.
PMCID: PMC2521398  PMID: 20777005
British Medical Journal  1930;2(3648):956-957.
PMCID: PMC2452849  PMID: 20775873
20.  Keratodermia gravis acuta 
PMCID: PMC2102146  PMID: 19987142
PMCID: PMC1046618  PMID: 21773448
British Medical Journal  1928;2(3538):742-744.
PMCID: PMC2456763  PMID: 20774219

Results 1-25 (54)