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1.  The anatomy of a comprehensive constrained, restrained refinement program for the modern computing environment – Olex2 dissected 
An in-depth presentation is given of olex2.refine, the new refinement engine integrated in the Olex2 program.
This paper describes the mathematical basis for olex2.refine, the new refinement engine which is integrated within the Olex2 program. Precise and clear equations are provided for every computation performed by this engine, including structure factors and their derivatives, constraints, restraints and twinning; a general overview is also given of the different components of the engine and their relation to each other. A framework for adding multiple general constraints with dependencies on common physical parameters is described. Several new restraints on atomic displacement parameters are also presented.
PMCID: PMC4283469  PMID: 25537389
small molecules; refinement; constraints; restraints; least squares; Olex2
2.  iotbx.cif: a comprehensive CIF toolbox 
Journal of Applied Crystallography  2011;44(Pt 6):1259-1263.
iotbx.cif is a comprehensive toolbox for the development of applications that make use of the CIF format.
iotbx.cif is a new software module for the development of applications that make use of the CIF format. Comprehensive tools are provided for input, output and validation of CIFs, as well as for interconversion with high-level cctbx [Grosse-Kunstleve, Sauter, Moriarty & Adams (2002). J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 126–136] crystallographic objects. The interface to the library is written in Python, whilst parsing is carried out using a compiled parser, combining the performance of a compiled language (C++) with the benefits of using an interpreted language.
PMCID: PMC3236671  PMID: 22199401
iotbx.cif; cctbx; CIF; computer programs
3.  Pseudomerohedrally twinned monoclinic structure of unfolded ‘free’ nona­ctin: comparative analysis of its large conformational change upon encapsulation of alkali metal ions 
The title compound, C40H64O12, crystallizes in a pseudo­merohedrally twinned primitive monoclinic cell with similar contributions of the two twin components. There are two symmetry-independent half-mol­ecules of nona­ctin in the asymmetric unit. Each mol­ecule has a pseudo-S 4 symmetry and resides on a crystallographic twofold axis; the axes pass through the mol­ecular center of mass and are perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. The literature description of the room-temperature structure of nona­ctin as an order–disorder structure in an ortho­rhom­bic unit cell is corrected. We report a low-temperature high-precision ordered structure of ‘free’ nona­ctin that allowed for the first time precise determination of its bond distances and angles. It possesses an unfolded and more planar geometry than its complexes with encapsulated Na+, K+, Cs+, Ca2+ or NH4 + cations that exhibit more isometric overall conformations.
PMCID: PMC2816929  PMID: 19805886

Results 1-3 (3)