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author:("jazayeri, A")
1.  Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Lipocalin 2 and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients 
Serum levels of lipocalin 2 (LCN 2) and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP 4), increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We sought to determine whether serum LCN 2 and RBP 4 change after an intervention with omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in diabetic patients.
Forty-five type 2 diabetic patients from Iranian Diabetic Association in Tehran, Iran in 2013 were randomly recruited into two groups: one group received 4 g/d omega-3 for 10 wk; and the control group received placebo. Blood samples, food intake records, anthropometric measurements were obtained from all participants at the beginning and end of the study.
Fasting RBP 4 plasma levels significantly changed after 10 wk supplementation (P = 0.01). The LCN 2 concentrations decreased in omega-3 group, but the changes were not statistically significant. Omega-3 supplementation had no noticeable effect on anthropometric factors.
These findings provide a rationale for omega-3 supplements aimed at lowering serum RBP 4 levels in T2DM.
PMCID: PMC4822396  PMID: 27057523
Omega-3 fatty acid; Lipocalin; Retinol-binding protein; Diabetes mellitus
2.  Effect of School-based Interventions to Control Childhood Obesity: A Review of Reviews 
Effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight and obesity among school children was reviewed for a 11-year period (January 2001 to December 2011). All English systematic reviews, meta-analyses, reviews of reviews, policy briefs and reports targeting children and adolescents which included interventional studies with a control group and aimed to prevent or control overweight and/or obesity in a school setting were searched. Four systematic reviews and four meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Results of the review indicated that implementation of multi-component interventions did not necessarily improve the anthropometric outcomes. Although intervention duration is a crucial determinant of effectiveness, studies to assess the length of time required are lacking. Due to existing differences between girls and boys in responding to the elements of the programs in tailoring of school-based interventions, the differences should be taken into consideration. While nontargeted interventions may have an impact on a large population, intervention specifically aiming at children will be more effective for at-risk ones. Intervention programs for children were required to report any unwanted psychological or physical adverse effects originating from the intervention. Body mass index was the most popular indicator used for evaluating the childhood obesity prevention or treatment trials; nonetheless, relying on it as the only indicator for adiposity outcomes could be misleading. Few studies mentioned the psychological theories of behavior change they applied. Recommendations for further studies on school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight/obesity are made at the end of this review.
PMCID: PMC4542333  PMID: 26330984
Child; intervention studies; obesity; review; school
3.  Graduate Level Training in Nutrition: An Integrated Model for Capacity Building- A National Report 
Iranian Journal of Public Health  2015;44(3):388-395.
Iran has been active in human nutrition training for the past five decades, but the existing curricular programs do not equip the graduates with the knowledge and skills required for solving food security and nutritional problems of the country. Given this, the Nutrition Department (ND) of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) initiated a curricular reform to develop responsive graduate programs in key areas of nutrition that fill the existing gaps in nutrition training with the goal of improving nutrition policy-making and program development, implementation and evaluation. ND called for a request for proposals for a project entitled “Graduate Level Training in Nutrition”. Specifically, with technical assistance from leading academic institutions in Asia, North America and UK, seven new graduate programs were housed in three separate institutions, but coordinated so that together they form a broad multidisciplinary resource for graduate education and research. These seven-degree programs are MSc and PhD in Molecular/Cellular Nutrition, MSc and PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, MSc and PhD in Food Policy and Nutrition Intervention, and MSc in Community Nutrition. The programs were prepared in collaboration and active participation of selected faculty members of the three Iranian universities, International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the University of Philippines at Los Baños. The development of these programs was made possible through a loan from the World Bank, under the Second Primary Health and Nutrition Project in the MOHME.
PMCID: PMC4402418  PMID: 25905083
Nutrition; Graduate Level Training; Iran
4.  Identification and Prioritization of Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Indices in Iran 
Iranian Journal of Public Health  2015;44(2):244-253.
Food security is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize major indices for determining food insecurity in Iran.
Descriptive study using the Delphi method was conducted through an email-delivered questionnaire. Forty-three senior experts at national or provincial level were selected based on their work experience and educational background through study panel consultation and snowballing from Tehran and other cities of Iran. During two rounds of Delphi, participants were asked to identify priority indicators for food security at provincial level in Iran.
Sixty five percent of Delphi panel participated in the first round and eighty-nine percent of them participated in the second round of Delphi. Initially, 243 indices were identified through review of literature; after excluding indictors, which was not available or measurable at provincial level in Iran, 103 indictors remained. The results of study showed that experts identified “percentage of individuals receiving less than 70% of daily energy requirement” with a median score of 90, as the most influential index for determining food insecurity. “Food expenses as a proportion of the overall expenses of the family”, “per capita of dietary energy supply”, and “provision of micro-nutrient supply requirement per capita” with median of 80 were in the second rank of food security priority indicators.
Out of 243 identified indicators for food security, 38 indicators were selected as the most priority indicators for food security at provincial level in Iran.
PMCID: PMC4401883  PMID: 25905059
Food security; Food vulnerability; Delphi technique
5.  Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Vitamin E, Alone or Combined on Immunity and Inflammatory Parameters in Adults with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Little information about the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) on inflammation and immune function in humans is available. This study investigated the effects of CLAs, with and without Vitamin E on immunity and inflammatory parameters in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
In a double-blind clinical trial, 78 patients were randomly divided into four groups, each group receiving one of the following daily supplement for 3 months; group C: 2.5 g CLAs, group E: 400 mg Vitamin E, group CE: CLAs plus Vitamin E, group P: Placebo. Cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and citrullinated antibody (CCP-A) were measured by ELISA method and Vitamin E by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Consider statistical methods there were no significant differences between groups in cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-2/IL-4, CCP-A white blood cells and neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocytes, and eosinophils numbers. TNF-α decreased in all groups, but its reduction was significant in group CE. IL-1β increased in groups P (P = 0.004) and E (P = 0.041) but the difference between group P and CE was significant. IL-4 decreased in groups C, CE and E (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P = 0.07 respectively). IL2 did not change significantly within groups. CCP-A increased in groups P (P = 0.035) and E (P = 0.05), while it decreased in groups CE (P = 0.034). CCP-A and MMP-3 decrease were significant between groups P and CE. MMP-3 reduction was significant in group CE.
Co-supplementation CLAs and Vitamin E may be effective in the level of inflammatory markers in RA patients.
PMCID: PMC4336987  PMID: 25709792
Conjugated linoleic acids; immunity; inflammatory markers; rheumatoid arthritis; Vitamin E
6.  Children with Obesity Prioritize Social Support against Stigma: A Qualitative Study for Development of an Obesity Prevention Intervention 
Childhood obesity is a world-wide health problem and development of interventions to prevent or control it is a priority. Obesity is prevalent and on the increase among school-students in Iran, too. As the first step for development of an intervention, the current study was designed to complete our understanding of ideas, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of primary school children in Tehran, Iran.
Twenty-seven primary school-students (11 boys, 16 girls) in grade-five, most of whom were overweight or obese, participated in four focus-group discussions (FGDs). All FGD notes were analyzed to find the main themes.
Nine themes in three main categories emerged after analysis. The themes in the category of barriers of losing weight included environmental, psychological and physiological barriers. Category of intervention components included nutrition improvement, physical activity promotion, social support and education. Setting and deliverer of the intervention were included in the intervention conditions category. The children proposed a multi-component approach for development of an intervention. They mentioned nutrition and physical activity improvement, social support and education as the main elements of an effective intervention.
The findings indicate that obese children need to be supported against different barriers of losing weight, mainly social barriers, especially humiliation by the community.
PMCID: PMC4258668  PMID: 25489443
Child; obesity; qualitative research; social support
7.  Vitamin D Receptor Fok-I Polymorphism Modulates Diabetic Host Response to Vitamin D Intake 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(3):550-556.
Interpopulation as well as interindividual variations in response to vitamin D intake commonly observed in subjects with type 2 diabetes may be related to genetic makeup. One of the candidate genes potentially responsible for this diversity is vitamin D receptor (VDR). This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of VDR Fok-I polymorphism and vitamin D intake on diverse aspects of diabetic host response.
Glycemic status, lipid profiles, inflammatory biomarkers, and VDR Fok-I genotypes were determined in diabetic subjects (n = 140) who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Participants consumed two 250-mL bottles per day of yogurt drink (doogh) fortified with 500 IU vitamin D/250 mL for 12 weeks.
Mean serum 25(OH)D increased by ~30 nmol/L (P < 0.001). The time × intervention effect was significant for 25(OH)D (P = 0.030), HDL (P = 0.011), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-4 (P = 0.008), and IL-6 (P = 0.017) among the genotypic groups. The alleles were defined as ‘‘F’’ or ‘‘f’’ depending on the absence or presence of the restriction site, respectively. The least increment in 25(OH)D was in ff (23.0 ± 3.8 nmol/L) compared with Ff (31.2 ± 3.4 nmol/L) and FF (35.6 ± 2.7 nmol/L) (P for trend = 0.009), but only the difference between ff and FF was significant (P = 0.023). FF group had the largest decrement of both hsCRP and IL-6 compared with Ff (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038) and ff (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048), respectively.
We concluded that those of VDR ff genotype may be regarded as “low responders” to vitamin D intake in terms of response of circulating 25(OH)D and certain inflammatory biomarkers. A nutrigenetic approach may, therefore, be needed to protect diabetic patients from vitamin D deficiency.
PMCID: PMC3579338  PMID: 23160722
8.  Effect of omega-3 supplementation versus placebo on acylation stimulating protein receptor gene expression in type 2 diabetics 
This randomized controlled trial investigated the role of omega-3 supplementation on C5L2 gene expression in type 2 diabetics.
Subjects in the omega-3 group received 4 g omega-3 per day and subjects in the placebo group took four capsules of placebo per day for 10 weeks. Gene expression was measured by RT- PCR at the beginning and end of the study.
The results of this study show depletion in the omega-3 group, but the mean difference between two groups was not significant.
Understanding the effect of the omega-3 pathway could contribute to targeting treatment of diabetes and its comorbidities.
PMCID: PMC3937173  PMID: 24393631
Omega-3; Acylation stimulating protein receptor (C5L2); Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Gene expression
9.  Brewer's Yeast Improves Glycemic Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Brewer's yeast may have beneficial effects on insulin receptors because of itsglucose tolerance factor in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer's yeast supplementation on glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 84 adults (21 men and 63 women) aged 46.3 ± 6.1 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: Supplement group receiving brewer's yeast (six 300mg tablets/day, total 1800 mg) and control group receiving placebo (six 300mg tablets/day) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, body mass index, food consumption (based on 24h food record), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance were measured before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0).
The changes in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity were significantly different between the two groups during the study (respectively P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.02 independent sample t-test). There was a significant difference in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity at the end of the study between the two groups after removing the effects of baseline values (respectively P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, analysis of covariance). Changes in body mass index, 24h food record, insulin resistance were not significant.
Dietary supplementation with brewer›s yeast besides the usual treatment of diabetes can ameliorate blood glucose variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC3843299  PMID: 24319552
Brewer's yeast; HbA1c; type 2 diabetes
10.  Brewer’s Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Iranian Journal of Public Health  2013;42(6):602-609.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer’s yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer’s yeast (1800 mg/day) and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall), fasting serum lipoproteins (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c), systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after the intervention. Data analyses were performed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 18.0, and the statistical tests included Independent t-test, Paired t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and analysis of covariance. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), No.IRCT138807062513N1.
Eighty-four subjects (21 men and 63 women) aged 46.3±6.1 years completed the study. After 12 weeks supplementation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the group receiving brewer’s yeast (4.1±1.5, P=0.007 and 5.7±0.6, P=0.001 respectively). No-significant changes in LDL-c, HDL-c, Triglyceride and Cholesterol were shown.
Supplementation with Brewer’s yeast besides the usual treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures in diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC3744257  PMID: 23967428
Diabetes; Brewer’s yeast; Blood pressure
11.  Serum Zinc Levels in Children and Adolescents with Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus 
There have been very few studies, with contradictory results, on the zinc status of children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine zinc status based on the serum zinc concentration in type-1 diabetic children and adolescents and compare it with that of healthy controls.
Thirty children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes mellitus, aged 6 to 18 years, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum zinc, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and serum albumin were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, enzymatic colorimetry, ion-exchange chromatography and colorimetry using bromocresol green methods, respectively.
No statistically significant difference was found in the mean serum zinc concentration between diabetic patients and healthy controls (111.0 ± 3.1 and 107.1 ± 3.8 mg/dl respectively, P= 0.4). No correlations were found between the serum zinc levels and fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, or the duration of the disease in the patients.
The zinc levels of diabetic children and adolescents are not noticeably different compared to those of healthy controls and are independent of glycemic control and the duration of the disease.
PMCID: PMC3481736  PMID: 23113106
Zinc; Type-1 diabetes mellitus; Children; Adolescents; Hemoglobin A1c
12.  Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial 
BMC Medicine  2011;9:125.
Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed as the underlying cause of diabetic angiopathy that eventually leads to cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in diabetes. We recently demonstrated the ameliorating effect of regular vitamin D intake on the glycemic status of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, the effects of improvement of vitamin D status on glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects were investigated.
Subjects with T2D were randomly allocated to one of the two groups to receive either plain yogurt drink (PYD; containing 170 mg calcium and no vitamin D/250 mL, n1 = 50) or vitamin D3-fortified yogurt drink (FYD; containing 170 mg calcium and 500 IU/250 mL, n2 = 50) twice a day for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures, glycemic status, lipid profile, body fat mass (FM) and endothelial biomarkers including serum endothelin-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were evaluated at the beginning and after the 12-week intervention period.
The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in fasting glucose, the Quantitative Insulin Check Index (QUICKI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 in FYD compared to PYD (P < 0.05, for all). Interestingly, difference in changes of endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 concentrations in FYD compared to PYD (-0.35 ± 0.63 versus -0.03 ± 0.55, P = 0.028; -3.8 ± 7.3 versus 0.95 ± 8.3, P = 0.003 and -2.3 ± 3.7 versus 0.44 ± 7.1 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05 for all), even after controlling for changes of QUICKI, FM and waist circumference, remained significant for endothelin-1 and MMP-9 (P = 0.009 and P = 0.005, respectively) but disappeared for E-selectin (P = 0.092). On the contrary, after controlling for serum 25(OH)D, the differences disappeared for endothelin-1(P = 0.066) and MMP-9 (P = 0.277) but still remained significant for E-selectin (P = 0.011).
Ameliorated vitamin D status was accompanied by improved glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects. Our findings suggest both direct and indirect ameliorating effects of vitamin D on the endothelial biomarkers.
Trial registration NCT01236846
PMCID: PMC3239240  PMID: 22114787
13.  The effect of Omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase activity, vitamins A, E, and C in type 2 diabetic patients 
Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Studies showed paraoxonase activity, and vitamin C and A levels are decreased in diabetes. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase activity and vitamins A, E, C in patients with type 2 diabetes is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on paraoxonase activity, vitamins C, A and E levels in type 2 diabetic patients.
In a double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 80 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly enrolled into the study. Study subjects received daily 2714 mg of omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 8 weeks. Ten milliliter fasting blood was collected before and after treatments. Serum paraoxonase activity and vitamin C levels were measured by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A and vitamin E were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient intake was estimated using 24-hours dietary recall questionnaire (for 2 days) before and after treatments. Dietary data were analyzed using FPII. To compare the means of variables between the two groups, independent t-test was employed. Differences between variables before and after interventions were calculated using paired t-test.
Serum levels of paraoxonase activity were significantly increased after omega-3 intake (126.47 IU/ml vs. 180.13 IU/ml). However, omega-3 intake caused no significant change in serum vitamin A, C, and E.
Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids was found to increase paraoxonase activity in diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC3263099  PMID: 22279454
Paraoxonase; Diabetes mellitus; Vitamin C; Vitamin A; Vitamin E
14.  Efficacy of vitamin D3-fortified-yogurt drink on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers according to vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetic patients: a study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial 
Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by the interactions of genetic and environmental factors. This study was designed to evaluate the possible role of VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on different aspects of diabetic host response (anthropometric, metabolic, oxidative stress and inflammatory) to daily intake of vitamin D through fortified yogurt drink for 12 weeks.
This study comprises two parts: (i) a case-control study; and (ii) an intervention trial. In the first part, VDR polymorphisms (Taq1, FokI, Apa1, Bsm1, and Cdx2) are determined in 350 T2DM patients and 350 non-diabetic subjects. In the second part, the possible effects of daily intake of two servings of vitamin D3-fortified yogurt drink (FYD; 500 IU vitamin D/250 mL) on some selected metabolic (including insulin resistance), inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in 135 T2DM patients are assessed. To relate the resulted changes in the biomarkers to vitamin D replenishment, another group of diabetic patients (n = 45) are also included in the study who receive 2 servings of plain yogurt drink (PYD) a day. The primary outcome is serum level of 25(OH) D, which it is expected to be elevated only in FYD group. Secondary outcomes include improvements in glycemic, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in FYD group compared to PYD group. Three VDR FokI polymorphisms are determined only in FYD group followed by comparison of changes in the biomarkers among these genotypic variants.
The present study, at least in part, elucidates the discrepancies in the results of different vitamin D-diabetes studies pertaining to the genetic variations of the population. If VDR polymorphisms are found to influence the response to our intervention, then knowing distribution of VDR polymorphisms in both diabetic and non-diabetic populations can give a picture of the proportion of the community in whom up to 1000 IU/d vitamin D may not be effective enough to improve insulin resistance and related morbidities. Therefore, they should ideally receive further nutritional support according to their genotype.
Trial Registration NCT01236846
PMCID: PMC3146888  PMID: 21696575
vitamin D; vitamin D receptor; polymorphism; type 2 diabetes; study protocol
15.  Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program 
School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students.
This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student.
The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05).
School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran.
PMCID: PMC3214350  PMID: 22091261
Milk; Mental Processes; Education Status; Health; Motor Activity
16.  Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin C on glycemic indices, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic Iranian males 
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is the principal ω-3 fatty acids in marine oils. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c and some of the plasma lipids and lipoproteins has been negatively related to the intake of ω-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid, in some studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EPA and/or vitamin C on glycemic indices, blood pressure, and plasma lipids in type 2 diabetic Iranian males.
Sixty five men with type 2 diabetes were enrolled into the study between April 2 and June 27, 2008. Venous blood samples were obtained from all participants after 10 hours of fasting, at the baseline and after the intervention. Subjects received 500 mg EPA and/or 200 mg vitamin C and/or placebo depending on their groups. For eight weeks, 15 participants received EPA supplements with vitamin C (group 1), 16 took EPA supplements and vitamin C placebo (group 2), 17 took EPA placebo and vitamin C (group 3), and 17 received EPA placebo and vitamin C placebo (group 4), daily.
There were significant decreases in FBS, HbA1C, LDL-C and TG in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 (p < 0.01), but significant decreases in TC were shown only in groups 1, 2 and 3 (p < 0.01). There was a significant increase in HDL-C in all groups (p < 0.01).
In summary, it is concluded that, eight weeks of taking EPA + vitamin C supplementation improved the plasma levels of cardiovascular markers but didn’t reduce BP.
PMCID: PMC3252771  PMID: 22247720
Eicosapentaenoic Acid; Ascorbic Acid; Fasting; Blood Glucose; HbA1C; Glycosylated; Lipids; Blood Pressure; Diabetes Mellitus
17.  Effects of EPA and Vitamin E on Serum Enzymatic Antioxidants and Peroxidation Indices in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus 
Diabetes mellitus is associated with chronic changes in peripheral arteries because of oxidative stress and insufficient antioxidative defense mechanism. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could be effective in some diabetes complications; however, polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to determine whether eicosapentaenoic acid alone or in conjunction with vitamin E had differential effects on serum antioxidants and peroxidation indices.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 136 patients with type II diabetic mellitus (age 48.8±4.4 yr, BMI 27.8±1.7 kg/m2). The four groups of the study either received two grams of omega-3 fatty acids, 400 IU of vitamin E, a combination of the two or placebo for three months. Their serum total antioxidant capacity, enzymatic antioxidants and peroxidation indices were assessed.
Fasting serum TAC increased in EPA+E (10.7%, P< 0.001) and E groups (7.5%, P< 0.05). SOD, G-PX and G-RD increased in EPA group (7.3%, 5.1%, and 8.4%, P< 0.05, respectively). MDA and protein carbonyl decreased in EPA and E groups (respectively, 12.5%, 7.6% P< 0.05, P< 0.05; 13%, 15.3% P< 0.001, P< 0.05). After adjustment for baseline values, age, sex, BMI and duration of diagnosed diabetes, protein carbonyl decreased in EPA+E and E group (30.7%, 15.3%; P< 0.05 respectively) relative to the placebo group.
EPA, by itself has a statistically significant effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, enzymatic antioxidants and peroxidation indices in diabetic patients compared to EPA+E or E alone.
Trial registration: NCT00817622
PMCID: PMC3481622  PMID: 23113026
Diabetes mellitus; Eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA; Total antioxidant capacity; Vitamin E
18.  Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Vitamin E on the Blood Levels of Inflammatory Markers, Antioxidant Enzymes, and Lipid Peroxidation in Iranian Basketball Players 
Exercise can change the release of numerous cytokines and modulate their receptor systems. Dietary ω-3 lipids may decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins (PGs). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of exercise and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation, with or without vitamin E, on the blood levels of IL-2, TNF-α, catalase, glutathione reductase, and MDA in male basketball players.
Thirty-four well-trained male basketball players were enrolled into the study. Venous blood samples were obtained from all subjects between 5:00 and 6:00 p.m., after intensive endurance exercising for 2 hours, at the baseline and after intervention. Subjects received 2g EPA and/or 400 IU vitamin E or placebo depends on their groups for 6 weeks.
There were significant fall (paired t-test) in TNF-α in group1(P< 0.05), and in MDA in group 3 (P<0.05), whereas there were significant increase in glutathione reductase in groups1 and 3 (P< 0.05), and in MDA in group2 (P< 0.05).There were significant differences (Tukey) in glutathione reductase between groups 2 and 3 (P< 0.05), and in IL-2 between groups 1 and other groups (P< 0.01), but there were no significant differences in MDA, CAT, and TNF-α, among groups after 6 week of intervention.
Six weeks of EPA+vitamin E supplementation enhances the plasma levels of IL-2 and erythrocytes glutathione reductase, whereas it reduces TNF-α, and 6 weeks of EPA supplementation alone enhances only the serum level of MDA.
PMCID: PMC3468972  PMID: 23112985
EPA; Vitamin E; Inflammation; Antioxidant enzymes; Lipid peroxidation

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