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Development (Cambridge, England) (1)
Indian Journal of Microbiology (1)
PLoS ONE (1)
Ding, Tian (3)
Bergmann, Andreas (1)
Bolduc, Clare (1)
Chen, Zhihong (1)
Connolly, Fiona (1)
Gutterman, Jordan U. (1)
Haridas, Valsala (1)
Jin, Yong-Guo (1)
Lackey, Melinda (1)
Langsley, Gordon (1)
Lee, Tom V. (1)
Oh, Deog-Hwan (1)
Rajendran, Vani (1)
Scherr, Heather (1)
Xu, Zhi-Xiang (1)
Year of Publication
A New Secondary Model Developed for the Growth Rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Broth
Indian Journal of Microbiology
This study was attempted to develop a new exponential sum model to describe the effect of temperature on growth rate (GR) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in broth. The growth rates of E. coli O157:H7 at different storage temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) estimated by fitting with the modified Gompertz model were used to develop secondary models such as square root model, Ratkowsky model and exponential sum model. Measures of coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and the sum of squares due to error (SSE) were employed to compare the performances of these three secondary models. Based on these criteria, the developed exponential sum model showed the better goodness-of-fit and performance.
Escherichia coli O157:H7; Predictive microbiology; Exponential sum model; Broth
Avicin D, a Plant Triterpenoid, Induces Cell Apoptosis by Recruitment of Fas and Downstream Signaling Molecules into Lipid Rafts
Gutterman, Jordan U.
Avicins, a family of triterpene electrophiles originally identified as potent inhibitors of tumor cell growth, have been shown to be pleiotropic compounds that also possess antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities. We previously showed that Jurkat cells, which express a high level of Fas, are very sensitive to treatment with avicins. Thus, we hypothesized that avicins may induce cell apoptosis by activation of the Fas pathway. By using a series of cell lines deficient in cell death receptors, we demonstrated that upon avicin D treatment, Fas translocates to the cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts. In the lipid rafts, Fas interacts with Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and Caspase-8 to form death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and thus mediates cell apoptosis. Interfering with lipid raft organization by using a cholesterol-depleting compound, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, not only prevents the clustering of Fas and its DISC complex but also reduces the sensitivity of the cells to avicin D. Avicin D activates Fas pathways independent of the association between extracellular Fas ligands and Fas receptors. A deficiency in Fas and its downstream signaling molecules leads to the resistance of the cells to avicin D treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that avicin D triggers the redistribution of Fas in the membrane lipid rafts, where Fas activates receptor-mediated cell death.
The E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme Uba1 in Drosophila controls apoptosis autonomously and tissue growth non-autonomously
Lee, Tom V.
Development (Cambridge, England)
Ubiquitination is an essential process regulating turnover of proteins for basic cellular processes such as the cell cycle and cell death (apoptosis). Ubiquitination is initiated by ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1), which activate and transfer ubiquitin to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2). Conjugation of target proteins with ubiquitin is then mediated by ubiquitin ligases (E3). Ubiquitination has been well characterized using mammalian cell lines and yeast genetics. However, the consequences of partial or complete loss of ubiquitin conjugation in a multi-cellular organism are not well understood. Here, we report the characterization of Uba1, the only E1 in Drosophila. We found that weak and strong Uba1 alleles behave genetically differently with sometimes opposing phenotypes. Whereas weak Uba1 alleles protect cells from cell death, clones of strong Uba1 alleles are highly apoptotic. Strong Uba1 alleles cause cell cycle arrest which correlates with failure to reduce cyclin levels. Surprisingly, clones of strong Uba1 mutants stimulate neighboring wild-type tissue to undergo cell division in a non-autonomous manner giving rise to overgrowth phenotypes of the mosaic fly. We demonstrate that the non-autonomous overgrowth is caused by failure to downregulate Notch signaling in Uba1 mutant clones. In summary, the phenotypic analysis of Uba1 demonstrates that impaired ubiquitin conjugation has significant consequences for the organism, and may implicate Uba1 as a tumor suppressor gene.
Uba1; E1; Ubiquitin-activating enzyme; Apoptosis; Proliferation; Drosophila; Autonomous control; Non autonomous control
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