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1.  Clonal Analysis of the Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries 
Caries Research  2010;44(5):485-497.
Severe early childhood caries is a microbial infection that severely compromises the dentition of young children. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.
Dental plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing, and by specific PCR amplification for Streptococcus mutans and Bifidobacteriaceae species.
Children with severe caries (n = 39) had more dental plaque and gingival inflammation than caries-free children (n = 41). Analysis of phylotypes from operational taxonomic unit analysis of 16S rRNA clonal metalibraries from severe caries and caries-free children indicated that while libraries differed significantly (p < 0.0001), there was increased diversity than detected in this clonal analysis. Using the Human Oral Microbiome Database, 139 different taxa were identified. Within the limits of this study, caries-associated taxa included Granulicatella elegans (p < 0.01) and Veillonella sp. HOT-780 (p < 0.01). The species associated with caries-free children included Capnocytophaga gingivalis (p < 0.01), Abiotrophia defectiva (p < 0.01), Lachnospiraceae sp. HOT-100 (p < 0.05), Streptococcus sanguinis (p < 0.05) and Streptococcus cristatus (p < 0.05). By specific PCR, S. mutans (p < 0.005) and Bifidobacteriaceae spp. (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with severe caries.
Clonal analysis of 80 children identified a diverse microbiota that differed between severe caries and caries-free children, but the association of S. mutans with caries was from specific PCR analysis, not from clonal analysis, of samples.
PMCID: PMC2975730  PMID: 20861633
Bifidobacteria; Clonal analysis; PCR; Severe early childhood caries; Streptococcus mutans
2.  Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries▿¶ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(4):1464-1474.
Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection (culture, PCR), has also been associated with a widely diverse microbiota using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe ECC children was compared with that of 40 caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 5,608 isolates. Sequence-based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe ECC and caries-free children had >90% population coverage, with greater diversity occurring in the blood isolate library. Isolate sequences were compared with taxon sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and 198 HOMD taxa were identified, including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa, and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated with severe ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus, and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans detection. We conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as that observed using cloning approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen.
PMCID: PMC3122858  PMID: 21289150
3.  Helicobacter pullorum Outbreak in C57BL/6NTac and C3H/HeNTac Barrier-Maintained Mice▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(5):1908-1910.
Helicobacter pullorum is a bacterial pathogen in humans. By using microaerobic culture techniques, H. pullorum was isolated from the feces of barrier-maintained mice and identified, on the basis of biochemical, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. This finding presents an opportunity to study H. pullorum pathogenesis in mice.
PMCID: PMC2863944  PMID: 20220161
4.  Chronic Hepatitis, Hepatic Dysplasia, Fibrosis, and Biliary Hyperplasia in Hamsters Naturally Infected with a Novel Helicobacter Classified in the H. bilis Cluster▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(11):3673-3681.
We recently described helicobacter-associated progressive, proliferative, and dysplastic typhlocolitis in aging (18- to 24-month-old) Syrian hamsters. Other pathogens associated with typhlocolitis in hamsters, Clostridium difficile, Lawsonia intracellularis, and Giardia spp., were not indentified. The presence of Helicobacter genus-specific DNA was noted by PCR in cecal and paraffin-embedded liver samples from aged hamsters by the use of Helicobacter-specific PCR primers. By 16S rRNA analysis, the Helicobacter sp. isolated from the liver tissue was identical to the cecal isolates from hamsters. The six hamster 16S rRNA sequences form a genotypic cluster most closely related to Helicobacter sp. Flexispira taxon 8, part of the Helicobacter bilis/H. cinaedi group. Livers from aged helicobacter-infected hamsters showed various stages of predominantly portocentric and, to a lesser extent, perivenular fibrosis. Within nodules, there was cellular atypia consistent with nodular dysplasia. The livers also exhibited a range of chronic active portal/interface and lobular inflammation, with significant portal hepatitis being present. The inflammation was composed of a mixture of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages, indicative of its chronic-active nature in these aged hamsters infected with Helicobacter spp. The isolation of novel Helicobacter spp., their identification by PCR from the diseased livers of aged hamsters, and their taxonomic classification as belonging to the Helicobacter bilis cluster strengthen the argument that H. bilis and closely related Helicobacter spp. play an etiological role in hepatobiliary disease in both animals and humans.
PMCID: PMC2772605  PMID: 19759229
5.  Diversity of Bacterial Populations on the Tongue Dorsa of Patients with Halitosis and Healthy Patients 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(2):558-563.
The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the microbial profiles of the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects and subjects with halitosis by using culture-independent molecular methods. Our overall goal was to determine the bacterial diversity on the surface of the tongue dorsum as part of our ongoing efforts to identify all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of the oral cavity. Tongue dorsum scrapings were analyzed from healthy subjects with no complaints of halitosis and subjects with halitosis, defined as an organoleptic score of 2 or more and volatile sulfur compound levels greater than 200 ppb. 16S rRNA genes from DNA isolated from tongue dorsum scrapings were amplified by PCR with universally conserved bacterial primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. Typically, 50 to 100 clones were analyzed from each subject. Fifty-one strains isolated from the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects were also analyzed. Partial sequences of approximately 500 bases of cloned inserts from the 16S rRNA genes of isolates were compared with sequences of known species or phylotypes to determine species identity or closest relatives. Nearly complete sequences of about 1,500 bases were obtained for potentially novel species or phylotypes. In an analysis of approximately 750 clones, 92 different bacterial species were identified. About half of the clones were identified as phylotypes, of which 29 were novel to the tongue microbiota. Fifty-one of the 92 species or phylotypes were detected in more than one subject. Those species most associated with healthy subjects were Streptococcus salivarius, Rothia mucilaginosa, and an uncharacterized species of Eubacterium (strain FTB41). Streptococcus salivarius was the predominant species in healthy subjects, as it represented 12 to 40% of the total clones analyzed from each healthy subject. Overall, the predominant microbiota on the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects was different from that on the tongue dorsa of subjects with halitosis. Those species most associated with halitosis were Atopobium parvulum, a phylotype (clone BS095) of Dialister, Eubacterium sulci, a phylotype (clone DR034) of the uncultivated phylum TM7, Solobacterium moorei, and a phylotype (clone BW009) of Streptococcus. On the basis of our ongoing efforts to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species that colonize the oral cavity, there are now over 600 species.
PMCID: PMC149706  PMID: 12574246
6.  Helicobacter cetorum sp. nov., a Urease-Positive Helicobacter Species Isolated from Dolphins and Whales 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(12):4536-4543.
A novel helicobacter with the proposed name Helicobacter cetorum, sp. nov. (type strain MIT 99-5656; GenBank accession number AF 292378), was cultured from the main stomach of two wild, stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and from the feces of three captive cetaceans (a Pacific white-sided dolphin [Lagenorhynchus obliquidens]; an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin [Tursiops truncatus]; and a beluga whale [Delphinapterus leucas]). The infected captive cetaceans were either subclinical, or clinical signs included intermittent regurgitation, inappetance, weight loss, and lethargy. Ulcers were observed in the esophagus and forestomach during endoscopic examination in two of the three captive animals. In the third animal, esophageal linear erosions were visualized endoscopically, and histopathological evaluation of the main stomach revealed multifocal lymphoplasmacytic gastritis with silver-stained spiral-shaped bacteria. Helicobacter cetorum is a fusiform gram-negative bacterium with a single bipolar flagellum. The isolates grow under microaerobic conditions at 37 and 42°C but not at 25°C. H. cetorum is urease, catalase, and oxidase positive, and it is sensitive to cephalothin. The isolates from the wild, stranded dolphins were sensitive to nalidixic acid, whereas the isolates from the collection animals were resistant. By 16S rRNA sequencing it was determined that H. cetorum represented a distinct taxon that clusters most closely with H. pylori. Further studies are necessary to determine the role of H. cetorum in the development of gastric ulcers and gastritis of cetaceans. This is the first description and formal naming of a novel Helicobacter species from a marine mammal.
PMCID: PMC154630  PMID: 12454148
7.  Prevalent Bacterial Species and Novel Phylotypes in Advanced Noma Lesions 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(6):2187-2191.
The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in advanced noma lesions using culture-independent molecular methods. 16S ribosomal DNA bacterial genes from DNA isolated from advanced noma lesions of four Nigerian children were PCR amplified with universally conserved primers and spirochetal selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. Partial 16S rRNA sequences of approximately 500 bases from 212 cloned inserts were used initially to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species or phylotypes. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for most of the potentially novel species. A total of 67 bacterial species or phylotypes were detected, 25 of which have not yet been grown in vitro. Nineteen of the species or phylotypes, including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus spp., and the opportunistic pathogens Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum anthropi were detected in more than one subject. Other known species that were detected included Achromobacter spp., Afipia spp., Brevundimonas diminuta, Capnocytophaga spp., Cardiobacterium sp., Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium spp., Gemella haemoylsans, and Neisseria spp. Phylotypes that were unique to noma infections included those in the genera Eubacterium, Flavobacterium, Kocuria, Microbacterium, and Porphyromonas and the related Streptococcus salivarius and genera Sphingomonas and Treponema. Since advanced noma lesions are infections open to the environment, it was not surprising to detect species not commonly associated with the oral cavity, e.g., from soil. Several species previously implicated as putative pathogens of noma, such as spirochetes and Fusobacterium spp., were detected in at least one subject. However, due to the limited number of available noma subjects, it was not possible at this time to associate specific species with the disease.
PMCID: PMC130824  PMID: 12037085
8.  Coinfection of Enteric Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter spp. in Cats 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(6):2166-2172.
During a 6-year period, 64 of 227 commercially reared cats had microaerobic bacteria isolated from their feces. All the isolates were initially identified as Campylobacter-like organisms based on biochemical and phenotypic characteristics. DNA extractions from 51 of these isolates were subjected to PCR using primers specific for Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter spp. Of the isolates, 92% (47 of 51 isolates) were positive for Campylobacter spp., 41% (21 of 51 isolates) were positive for Helicobacter spp., 33% (17 of 51 isolates) were positive for both genera, 59% (30 of 51 isolates) were positive only for Campylobacter spp., and 8% (4 of 51) were positive only for Helicobacter spp. Sixteen of the 47 Campylobacter-positive cultures were positive for more than one Campylobacter spp. Based on a species-specific PCR assay, 83% of the isolates were identified as Campylobacter helveticus, 47% of the isolates were identified as Campylobacter upsaliensis, and 6% of the isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni. The 1.2-kb PCR products of the 16S rRNA genes of 19 Helicobacter species isolates were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Of the five different RFLP patterns obtained, two clustered with Helicobacter (“Flexispira”) taxon 8, one clustered with Helicobacter bilis, one clustered with Helicobacter canis, and the remaining pattern was closely related to a novel Helicobacter sp. strain isolated from a woodchuck. The sequence data for the 16S rRNA genes of 10 Helicobacter spp. validated the RFLP-based identification of these isolates. This study demonstrated that biochemical and phenotypic characteristics of microaerobic organisms in cat feces were insufficient to characterize mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter infections. Molecular structure-based diagnostics using genus- and species-specific PCR, RFLP analysis, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis enabled the identification of multiple microaerobic species in individual animals. The clinical relevance of enteric Helicobacter and Campylobacter coinfection in cats will require further studies.
PMCID: PMC88106  PMID: 11376052
9.  Isolation of Helicobacter cinaedi from the Colon, Liver, and Mesenteric Lymph Node of a Rhesus Monkey with Chronic Colitis and Hepatitis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(4):1580-1585.
On the basis of biochemical, phenotypic, and 16S rRNA analyses, Helicobacter cinaedi was isolated from the colon, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes of a 2-year-old rhesus monkey with chronic diarrhea. Histologically, the liver had mild to moderate biliary hyperplasia and hypertrophy with periportal inflammation and fibrosis. Colonic and cecal lesions consisted of diffuse chronic inflammation and glandular hyperplasia extending the length of the crypts. This is the first observation of H. cinaedi associated with active hepatitis and colitis in a nonhuman primate.
PMCID: PMC87974  PMID: 11283091
10.  Helicobacter aurati sp. nov., a Urease-Positive Helicobacter Species Cultured from Gastrointestinal Tissues of Syrian Hamsters 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(10):3722-3728.
A novel helicobacter with the proposed name Helicobacter aurati (type strain MIT 97-5075c) has been isolated from the inflamed stomachs and ceca of adult Syrian hamsters. The new species is fusiform with multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers; it contains urease and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. By 16S rRNA sequencing and repetitive element PCR-based DNA fingerprinting, it was found that H. aurati represents a distinct taxon and clusters with Helicobacter muridarum, Helicobacter hepaticus, and Helicobacter sp. MIT 94-022. H. aurati was recovered from hamsters housed in various research and vendor facilities. Further studies are necessary to define its association with disease and other microbiota in hamsters, as well as its impact on research projects involving hamsters. H. aurati (GenBank accession number AF297868) can be used in animal experiments to define the factors that are important for gastric helicobacter pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC87464  PMID: 11015391
11.  Prevalence and varieties of Helicobacter species in dogs from random sources and pet dogs: animal and public health implications. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(12):3165-3170.
Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domestic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacterial in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which of the organisms were culturable, and if the cultured organisms were morphologically similar to the organisms seen in situ; (iii) to identify the isolated organisms; and (iv) to determine if gastric bacteria were associated with gastritis. Three groups of dogs were examined: healthy laboratory dogs, healthy dogs from an animal shelter, and pet dogs with various nongastric illnesses. Of these, 100% of laboratory and shelter dogs and 67% of pet dogs were colonized by large, tightly coiled gastric spiral bacteria morphologically similar to Gastrospirillum hominis or Helicobacter felis (referred to as gastrospirilla). Regardless of the presence or density of gastric bacteria, all of the dogs in the study except one had mild to moderate gastritis. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from only 6 of 39 stomachs cultured, and only three of the organisms isolated were morphologically similar to the bacteria seen in situ. Five helicobacters were identified by 16S rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence analysis. Three were strains of H. felis, one was H. bilis, and one was a novel helicobacter morphologically similar to "Flexispira rappini." Gastrospirilla are almost universal in the stomachs of domestic dogs, and in most infected dogs, they do not appear to be associated with clinical signs or histologic lesions compared with uninfected dogs. Nongastrospirillum helicobacters are rare in dogs and are not histologically detectable. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated from domestic dogs.
PMCID: PMC229476  PMID: 8940465
12.  Helicobacter canis isolated from a dog liver with multifocal necrotizing hepatitis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(10):2479-2482.
On the basis of biochemical, phenotypic, and 16S rRNA analysis, a novel gram-negative bacterium, isolated from normal and diarrheic dogs as well as humans with gastroenteritis, has been recently named Helicobacter canis. A 2-month-old female crossbred puppy was submitted to necropsy with a history of weakness and vomiting for several hours prior to death. The liver had multiple and slightly irregular yellowish foci up to 1.5 cm in diameter. Histologically, the liver parenchyma contained randomly distributed, occasionally coalescing hepatocellular necrosis, often accompanied by large numbers of mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Sections of liver stained by the Warthin-Starry silver impregnation technique revealed spiral- to curve-shaped bacteria predominantly located in bile canaliculi and occasionally in bile ducts. Aerobic culture of liver was negative, whereas small colonies were noted on Campylobacter selective media after 5 days of microaerobic incubation. The bacteria were gram negative and oxidase positive but catalase, urease, and indoxyl acetate negative; nitrate was not reduced to nitrite, and the organism did not hydrolyze hippurate. The bacteria were also resistant to 1.5% bile. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria with bipolar sheathed flagella. By 16S rRNA analysis, the organism was determined to be H. canis. This is the first observation of H. canis in active hepatitis in a dog and correlates with recent findings of Helicobacter hepaticus- and Helicobacter bilis-related hepatic disease in mice. Further studies are clearly warranted to ascertain whether H. canis-associated hepatitis is more widespread in canines as well as a cause of previously classified idiopathic liver disease in humans.
PMCID: PMC229299  PMID: 8880504
13.  Phylogenetic analyses of some extremely halophilic archaea isolated from Dead Sea water, determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1996;62(10):3779-3786.
Twenty-two extremely halophilic aerobic archaeal strains were isolated from enrichments prepared from Dead Sea water samples collected 57 years ago. The isolates were phenotypically clustered into five different groups, and a representative from each group was chosen for further study. Almost the entire sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of these representatives, and of Haloarcula hispanica ATCC 33960, were determined to establish their phylogenetic positions. The sequences of these strains were compared to previously published sequences of 27 reference halophilic archaea (members of the family Halobacteriaceae) and two other archaea, Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1312 and Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864. Phylogenetic analysis using approximately 1,400 base comparisons of 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences demonstrated that the five isolates clustered closely to species belonging to three different genera--Haloferax, Halobacterium, and Haloarcula. Strains E1 and E8 were closely related and identified as members of the species Haloferax volcanii, and strain E12 was closely related and identified as a member of the species Halobacterium salinarum. However, strains E2 and E11 clustered in the Haloarcula branch with Haloarcula hispanica as the closest relative at 98.9 and 98.8% similarity, respectively. Strains E2 and E11 could represent two new species of the genus Haloarcula. However, because strains of these two new species were isolated from a single source, they will not be named until additional strains are isolated from other sources and fully characterized.
PMCID: PMC168186  PMID: 8837434
14.  Molecular phylogeny and in situ detection of the etiologic agent of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in shrimp. 
Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson, p. 16, in Handbook of Shrimp Diseases, 1989) and is an economically important disease that has limited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracellular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because of the absence of established shrimp cell lines. The inability to culture the NHP bacterium necessitated the use of molecular methods for phylogenetic placement of the NHP bacterium. The gene encoding the 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) of this shrimp pathogen was amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the cloned 16S rDNA indicates that the NHP bacterium is a member of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. Within the alpha subclass, the NHP bacterium is shown to be most closely related to bacterial endosymbionts of protozoa, Caedibacter caryophila and Holospora obtusa. Also, the NHP bacterium is distinct from but related to members of the typhus group (Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii) and spotted fever group (R. rickettsii) of the family Rickettsiaceae. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide DNA probes that bind to variable regions (V2, V6, and V8) of 16S rRNA of the NHP bacterium were used to detect the bacterium in infected shrimp by in situ hybridization. This technique provided direct visual evidence that the 16S rDNA that was amplified, cloned, and sequenced was derived from the intracellular bacterium that infects the hepatopancreas of farm-raised P. vannamei shrimp.
PMCID: PMC168141  PMID: 8795235
15.  Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira. 
Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Cristispira to other spirochetes. Since Cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from bacterial DNA isolated from Cristispira cell-laden crystalline styles of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. The amplified products were then cloned into Escherichia coli plasmids. Sequence comparisons of the gene coding for 16S rRNA (rDNA) insert of one clone, designated CP1, indicated that it was spirochetal. The sequence of the 16S rDNA insert of another clone was mycoplasmal. The CP1 sequence possessed most of the individual base signatures that are unique to 16S rRNA (or rDNA) sequences of known spirochetes. CP1 branched deeply among other spirochetal genera within the family Spirochaetaceae, and accordingly, it represents a separate genus within this family. A fluorescently labeled DNA probe designed from the CP1 sequence was used for in situ hybridization experiments to verify that the sequence obtained was derived from the observed Cristispira cells.
PMCID: PMC167858  PMID: 8975621
16.  Phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from termite guts. 
Comparisons of 16S rDNA sequences were used to determine the phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from hindguts of the African higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae (Wasmann). The 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from spirochete-rich hindguts by using universal primers, and the amplified products were cloned into Escherichia coli. Clones were screened with a spirochete-specific DNA probe. Analysis of 1,410 base positions of the 16S rDNA insert from one spirochete clone, designated NL1, supported its assignment to the genus Treponema, with average interspecies similarities of ca. 85%. The sequence of NL1 was most closely related (ca. 87 to 88% similarity) to sequences of Spirochaeta stenostrepta and Spirochaeta caldaria and to a previously published sequence (ca. 87% similarity) of spirochetal clone MDS1 from the Australian lower termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis (Froggatt). On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence comparisons and individual base signatures, clones NL1 and MDS1 clearly represent two novel species of Treponema, although specific epithets have not yet been proposed. The gross morphology of NL1 was determined from in situ hybridization experiments with an NL1-specific, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe. Cells were approximately 0.3 to 0.4 by 30 microns in size, with a wavelength and amplitude of about 10 microns and 0.8 to 1.6 micron, respectively. Moreover, electron microscopy of various undulate cells present in gut contents confirmed that they possessed ultrastructural features typical of spirochetes, i.e., a wavy protoplasmic cylinder, periplasmic flagella, and an outer sheath. The sequence data suggest that termite gut spirochetes may represent a separate line of descent from other treponemes and that they constitute a significant reservoir of previously unrecognized spirochetal biodiversity.
PMCID: PMC167805  PMID: 8593040
17.  Arcobacter-specific and Arcobacter butzleri-specific 16S rRNA-based DNA probes. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(7):1691-1698.
The genus Arcobacter encompasses gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria formerly designated Campylobacter cryaerophila. Two genus-specific 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide DNA probes (23-mer and 27-mer) were developed. The probes hybridized with strains of Arcobacter butzleri (n = 58), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (n = 19), and Arcobacter skirrowii (n = 17). The probes did not cross-react with any of the reference strains of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, including "Flexispira rappini," or Wolinella. The 27-mer hybridized with 61 Arcobacter spp. field isolates originating from late-term aborted porcine (n = 54) and equine (n = 2) fetuses and humans with enteritis (n = 5). The species of Arcobacter isolates (n = 56) recovered from aborted livestock fetuses were determined by ribotyping and were as follows: A. cryaerophilus group 1A (11 of 56; 20%), A. cryaerophilus group 1B (37 of 56; 66%), A. butzleri (5 of 56; 9%), and unknown (3 of 56; 5%). The five human field strains were identified as A. butzleri. A species-specific DNA probe (24-mer) for A. butzleri was also developed since there is evidence that this organism may be a human pathogen. This probe hybridized with previously characterized strains of A. butzleri (n = 58), with 10 field strains identified as A. butzleri by ribotyping and with 2 strains having an indeterminate ribotype. The A. butzleri-specific probe did not cross-react with strains of A. skirrowii (n = 17) and A. cryaerophilus (n = 19).
PMCID: PMC228251  PMID: 7545177
18.  Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(2):445-454.
A fusiform bacterium with 3 to 14 multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers wrapped around the cell was isolated from the liver, bile, and lower intestine of aged, inbred mice. The bacteria grew at 37 and 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions, rapidly hydrolyzed urea, were catalase and oxidase positive, reduced nitrate to nitrite, did not hydrolyze indoxyl acetate or hippurate, and were resistant to both cephalothin and nalidixic acid but sensitive to metronidazole. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was classified as a novel helicobacter, Helicobacter bilis. This new helicobacter, like Helicobacter hepaticus, colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice. Although the organism is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis, further studies are required to ascertain whether H. bilis is responsible for causing chronic hepatitis and/or hepatocellular tumors in mice.
PMCID: PMC227964  PMID: 7536217
19.  Diversity of cultivable and uncultivable oral spirochetes from a patient with severe destructive periodontitis. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(5):1889-1895.
To determine the genetic diversity of cultivable and uncultivable spirochetes in the gingival crevice of a patient with severe periodontitis, partial 16S rRNA genes were cloned from PCR-amplified products of DNA and RNA extracted from a subgingival plaque sample. Approximately 500 bp were amplified in PCRs by using universally conserved primers with polylinker tails. Purified PCR products were cloned into Escherichia coli by using the plasmid vector pUC19. The resultant clone library was screened by colony hybridization with a radiolabeled, treponeme-specific oligonucleotide probe. The 16S rRNA inserts of 81 spirochetal clones were then sequenced by standard procedures. Sequences were compared with 16S rRNA sequences of 35 spirochetes, including the four known cultivable oral treponeme species. The analysis revealed an unexpected diversity of oral treponemes from a single patient. When 98% or greater sequence similarity was used as the definition of a species-level cluster, the clone sequences were found to represent 23 species. When 92% similarity was used as the definition, the clones fell into eight major groups, only two of which contained named species, Treponema vincentii and Treponema denticola, while Treponema pectinovorum and Treponema socranskii were not represented in any cluster. Seven of the 81 spirochetal clones were found to contain chimeric 16S rRNA sequences. In situ fluorescence hybridization with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled oligonucleotide probe specific for one of the new species representing cluster 19 was used to identify cells of the target species directly in clinical samples.
PMCID: PMC186432  PMID: 8168954
20.  Intracellular Campylobacter-like organism from ferrets and hamsters with proliferative bowel disease is a Desulfovibrio sp. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1994;32(5):1229-1237.
Proliferative bowel disease is an intestinal disorder of a variety of domestic animals associated with the presence of an intracellular Campylobacter-like organism (ICLO). We have identified the ICLO obtained from a ferret with proliferative colitis by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. In this ferret, proliferative bowel tissue containing the ICLO had translocated to the mesenteric lymph nodes, omentum, and liver. The 16S rRNA genes of the ICLO were amplified from an infected fragment of extraintestinal tissue by using universal prokaryotic primers. Approximately 1,480 bases of the amplified 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by cycle sequencing. Comparison of the sequence of the ICLO with those of over 400 bacteria in our data base indicated that the sequence of the ICLO was most closely related to that of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (87.5% similarity). Phylogenetic analysis with 12 Desulfovibrio species and 20 species from related genera placed the ICLO in a subcluster within the genus Desulfovibrio with D. desulfuricans and 5 other Desulfovibrio species. We will refer to this organism as the intracellular Desulfovibrio organism (IDO). Specific primers were produced for PCR amplification of a 550-base fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of the IDO in proliferative intestinal tissue samples. This unique 550-base segment was amplified from samples of frozen intestinal tissue from nine ferrets and three hamsters with ICLO-associated disease but not in four intestinal tissue samples from animals without the ICLO-associated disease. The 550-base amplified products from the bowel tissues of one hamster and one ferret were fully sequenced. The ferret IDO partial sequence was identical to the previously determined 16S rRNA sequence over its length, and the hamster IDO sequence differed by a single base. The same intracellular organism has been identified in proliferative intestinal tissues of swine and that the organism has been successfully maintained in tissue culture. The availability of specific primers for PCR-based detection of this intracellular Desulfovibrio organism will aid in the determination of its role in the pathogenesis of proliferative bowel disease in a variety of infected hosts.
PMCID: PMC263654  PMID: 8051249
21.  Helicobacter hepaticus sp. nov., a microaerophilic bacterium isolated from livers and intestinal mucosal scrapings from mice. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1994;32(5):1238-1245.
A bacterium with a spiral shape and bipolar, single, sheathed flagella was isolated from the livers of mice with active, chronic hepatitis. The bacteria also colonized the cecal and colonic mucosae of mice. The bacterium grew at 37 degrees C under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions, rapidly hydrolyzed urea, was catalase and oxidase positive, reduced nitrate to nitrite, and was resistant to cephalothin metronidazole. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was classified as a novel helicobacter, Helicobacter hepaticus. This new helicobacter, like two other murine Helicobacter species, H. muridarum and "H. rappini," is an efficient colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract, but in addition, it has the pathogenic potential to elicit persistent hepatitis in mice.
PMCID: PMC263656  PMID: 8051250
22.  Helicobacter mustelae isolation from feces of ferrets: evidence to support fecal-oral transmission of a gastric Helicobacter. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(2):606-611.
Helicobacter mustelae has been isolated from stomachs of ferrets with chronic gastritis and ulcers. When H. mustelae is inoculated orally into H. mustelae-negative ferrets, the animals become colonized and develop gastritis, a significant immune response, and a transient hypochlorhydria. All of these features mimic Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric disease in humans. Because the epidemiology of H. pylori infection is poorly understood and its route of transmission is unknown, the feces of weanling and adult ferrets were cultured for the presence of H. mustelae. H. mustelae was isolated from the feces of 11 of 36 ferrets by using standard helicobacter isolation techniques. H. mustelae was identified by biochemical tests, ultrastructural morphology, reactivity with specific DNA probes, and 16S rRNA sequencing. H. mustelae was not recovered from 20-week-old ferrets which had been H. mustelae positive as weanlings, nor was H. mustelae recovered from 1-year-old ferrets. Isolation of H. mustelae from feces may correspond to periods of transient hypochlorhydria, or H. mustelae may be shed in feces intermittently. The H. mustelae-colonized ferret provides an ideal model for studying the pathogenesis and transmission of H. pylori-induced gastric disease.
PMCID: PMC257672  PMID: 1370432
23.  Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(19):6101-6109.
The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum.
PMCID: PMC208357  PMID: 1917844
24.  Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequences. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(9):1812-1817.
Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA.
PMCID: PMC270216  PMID: 1723076
25.  Helicobacter pylori isolated from the domestic cat: public health implications. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(6):2367-2374.
Helicobacter pylori has been directly linked with active chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Although a substantial portion of the human population is colonized with H. pylori, the patterns of transmission of the organism remain in doubt, and reservoir hosts have not been identified. This study documents the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats obtained from a commercial vendor. The isolation of H. pylori from these cats was confirmed by morphologic and biochemical evaluations, fatty acid analysis, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. H. pylori was cultured from 6 cats and organisms compatible in appearance with H. pylori were observed in 15 additional cats by histologic examination. In most animals, H. pylori was present in close proximity to mucosal epithelial cells or in mucus layers of the glandular or surface epithelium. Microscopically, H. pylori-infected cat stomachs contained a mild to severe diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with small numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils in the subglandular and gastric mucosae. Lymphoid follicles were also noted, particularly in the antrum, and often displaced glandular mucosal tissue. Thus, the domestic cat may be a potential model for H. pylori disease in humans. Also, the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats raises the possibility that the organism may be a zoonotic pathogen, with transmission occurring from cats to humans.
PMCID: PMC186520  PMID: 8188360

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