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1.  Design and in vitro activities of N-alkyl-N-[(8-R-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]heteroarylsulfonamides, novel small molecule Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway inhibitors and anti-cancer agents 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2012;55(15):6738-6750.
The Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway is an attractive target for cancer as it controls tumor adaptation to growth under hypoxia and mediates chemo- and radiation resistance. We previously discovered 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide, as a novel small molecule HIF-1 pathway inhibitor in a high-throughput cell-based assay, but its in vivo delivery is hampered by poor aqueous solubility (0.009 μM in water; logP7.4: 3.7). Here we describe the synthesis of twelve N-alkyl-N-[(8-R-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]heteroarylsulfonamides, which were designed to possess optimal lipophilicities and aqueous solubilities by in silico calculations. Experimental logP7.4 values of 8 of the 12 new analogs ranged from 1.2 ∼ 3.1. Aqueous solubilities of 3 analogs were measured, among which the most soluble N-[(8-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-N-(propan-2-yl)pyridine-2-sulfonamide had an aqueous solubility of 80 μM, e.g. a solubility improvement of ∼9,000-fold. The pharmacological optimization had minimal impact on drug efficacy as the compounds retained IC50 values at or below 5 μM in our HIF-dependent reporter assay.
doi:10.1021/jm300752n
PMCID: PMC3756490  PMID: 22746274
drug discovery; HIF pathway inhibitors; anticancer drug; Hypoxia Inducible Factor; N-alkyl-N-[(8-R-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]heteroarylsulfonamides; a HRE-mediated luciferase assay; HIF-1α western blotting assay; logP7.4; drug aqueous solubility; sulforhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxicity assay; clonogenic cytotoxicity assay; glioma; brain tumor
2.  Binding Model for the Interaction of Anticancer Arylsulfonamides with the p300 Transcription Cofactor 
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters  2012;3(8):620-625.
Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that activate expression of multiple gene products and promote tumor adaptation to a hypoxic environment. To become transcriptionally active, HIFs associate with cofactors p300 or CBP. Previously, we found that arylsulfonamides can antagonize HIF transcription in a bioassay, block the p300/HIF-1α interaction, and exert potent anticancer activity in several animal models. In the present work, KCN1-bead affinity pull down, 14C-labeled KCN1 binding, and KCN1-surface plasmon resonance measurements provide initial support for a mechanism in which KCN1 can bind to the CH1 domain of p300 and likely prevent the p300/HIF-1α assembly. Using a previously reported NMR structure of the p300/HIF-1α complex, we have identified potential binding sites in the p300-CH1 domain. A two-site binding model coupled with IC50 values has allowed establishment of a modest ROC-based enrichment and creation of a guide for future analogue synthesis.
doi:10.1021/ml300042k
PMCID: PMC4056939  PMID: 24936238
hypoxia; solid tumors; p300; HIF arylsulfonamide inhibitors; binding model; QSAR; KCN1
3.  Targeted Cancer Gene Therapy Using a Hypoxia Inducible Factor–Dependent Oncolytic Adenovirus Armed with Interleukin-4 
Cancer research  2007;67(14):6872-6881.
There is a need for novel therapies targeting hypoxic cells in tumors. These cells are associated with tumor resistance to therapy and express hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor that mediates metabolic adaptation to hypoxia and activates tumor angiogenesis. We previously developed an oncolytic adenovirus (HYPR-Ad) for the specific killing of hypoxic/HIF-active tumor cells, which we now armed with an interleukin-4 gene (HYPR-Ad-IL4). We designed HYPR-Ad-IL4 by cloning the Ad E1A viral replication and IL-4 genes under the regulation of a bidirectional hypoxia/HIF-responsive promoter. The IL-4 cytokine was chosen for its ability to induce a strong host antitumor immune response and its potential antiangiogenic activity. HYPR-Ad-IL4 induced hypoxia-dependent IL-4 expression, viral replication, and conditional cytolysis of hypoxic, but not normoxic cells. The treatment of established human tumor xenografts with HYPR-Ad-IL4 resulted in rapid and maintained tumor regression with the same potency as that of wild-type dl309-Ad. HYPR-Ad-IL4–treated tumors displayed extensive necrosis, fibrosis, and widespread viral replication. Additionally, these tumors contained a distinctive leukocyte infiltrate and prominent hypoxia. The use of an oncolytic Ad that locally delivers IL-4 to tumors is novel, and we expect that HYPR-Ad-IL4 will have broad therapeutic use for all solid tumors that have hypoxia or active HIF, regardless of tissue origin or genetic alterations.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3244
PMCID: PMC2262867  PMID: 17638898

Results 1-3 (3)