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author:("dessen, P")
1.  Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(7):539-543.
OBJECTIVES—Insulin resistance (IR) has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of gout. The lipoprotein abnormalities described in hyperuricaemic subjects are similar to those associated with IR, and insulin influences renal urate excretion. In this study it was investigated whether dietary measures, reported to be beneficial in IR, have serum uric acid (SU) and lipid lowering effects in gout.
METHODS—Thirteen non-diabetic men (median age 50, range 38-62) were enrolled. Each patient had had at least two gouty attacks during the four months before enrolment. Dietary recommendations consisted of calorie restriction to 6690 kJ (1600 kcal) a day with 40% derived from carbohydrate, 30% from protein, and 30% from fat; replacement of refined carbohydrates with complex ones and saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated ones. At onset and after 16 weeks, fasting blood samples were taken for determination of SU, serum cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs). Results were expressed as median (SD).
RESULTS—At onset, the body mass index (BMI) was 30.5 (8.1) kg/m2. Dietary measures resulted in weight loss of 7.7 (5.4) kg (p=0.002) and a decrease in the frequency of monthly attacks from 2.1 (0.8) to 0.6 (0.7) (p=0.002). The SU decreased from 0.57 (0.10) to 0.47 (0.09) mmol/l (p=0.001) and normalised in 7 (58%) of the 12 patients with an initially raised level. Serum cholesterol decreased from 6.0 (1.7) to 4.7 (0.9) mmol/l (p=0.002), LDL-C from 3.5 (1.2) to 2.7 (0.8) mmol/l (p=0.004), TGs from 4.7 (4.2) to 1.9 (1.0) mmol/l (p=0.001), and C:HDL-C ratios from 6.7 (1.7) to 5.2 (1.0) (p=0.002). HDL-C levels increased insignificantly. High baseline SU, frequency of attacks, total cholesterol, LDL-C and TG levels, and total C:HDL-C ratios correlated with higher decreases in the respective variables upon dietary intervention (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION—The results suggest that weight reduction associated with a change in proportional macronutrient intake, as recently recommended in IR, is beneficial, reducing the SU levels and dyslipidaemia in gout. Current dietary recommendations for gout may need re-evaluation.


doi:10.1136/ard.59.7.539
PMCID: PMC1753185  PMID: 10873964
2.  Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon with triiodothyronine corrects co-existent autonomic dysfunction: preliminary findings. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1992;68(798):263-267.
Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed in 9 subjects with Raynaud's phenomenon. The underlying diseases were systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 5), systemic sclerosis (n = 3) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 1). Five standard non-invasive tests, 3 of heart rate and 2 of blood pressure, were employed. Compared with age and sex matched controls (n = 25), the number of values abnormal was 24 of 45 (53%) overall and between one and 4 (median, 2) individually. Significant differences were present for 3 tests, two of heart rate and one of blood pressure. The subjects were given triiodothyronine, 60 to 80 micrograms per day, for vasospastic attacks. Autonomic function was reassessed between weeks 4 and 9 (9 subjects) and between weeks 12 and 18 (8 subjects) after introduction of triiodothyronine. Test results showed a considerable improvement. At the second reassessment, the number of values abnormal was now 5 of 40 (12.5%) overall and nil (n = 4) or one (n = 4) individually. Significant differences remained for one heart rate test only. Adverse side effects to triiodothyronine occurred in a single subject and were readily controlled. Evidence of somatic neuropathy was present electrophysiologically in all 9 subjects and clinically in 8. Triiodothyronine may have corrected autonomic dysfunction by increasing blood flow to ischaemic peripheral nerves or by acting on the autonomic system more directly. Further study of triiodothyronine in autonomic insufficiency appears merited.
PMCID: PMC2399264  PMID: 1409189

Results 1-8 (8)