Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-10 (10)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Citrullination of DNMT3A by PADI4 regulates its stability and controls DNA methylation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2014;42(13):8285-8296.
DNA methylation is a central epigenetic modification in mammals, with essential roles in development and disease. De novo DNA methyltransferases establish DNA methylation patterns in specific regions within the genome by mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here we show that protein citrullination by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) affects the function of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A. We found that DNMT3A and PADI4 interact, from overexpressed as well as untransfected cells, and associate with each other's enzymatic activity. Both in vitro and in vivo, PADI4 was shown to citrullinate DNMT3A. We identified a sequence upstream of the PWWP domain of DNMT3A as its primary region citrullinated by PADI4. Increasing the PADI4 level caused the DNMT3A protein level to increase as well, provided that the PADI4 was catalytically active, and RNAi targeting PADI4 caused reduced DNMT3A levels. Accordingly, pulse-chase experiments revealed stabilization of the DNMT3A protein by catalytically active PADI4. Citrullination and increased expression of native DNMT3A by PADI4 were confirmed in PADI4-knockout MEFs. Finally, we showed that PADI4 overexpression increases DNA methyltransferase activity in a catalytic-dependent manner and use bisulfite pyrosequencing to demonstrate that PADI4 knockdown causes significant reduction of CpG methylation at the p21 promoter, a known target of DNMT3A and PADI4. Protein citrullination by PADI4 thus emerges as a novel mechanism for controlling a de novo DNA methyltransferase. Our results shed new light on how post-translational modifications might contribute to shaping the genomic CpG methylation landscape.
PMCID: PMC4117755  PMID: 24957603
2.  TET2 and TET3 regulate GlcNAcylation and H3K4 methylation through OGT and SET1/COMPASS 
The EMBO Journal  2013;32(5):645-655.
This paper identifies the N-acetylglucosamine transferase OGT as binding partner for TET2/3 proteins. Their genome-wide chromatin binding and the characterization of the Set1/COMPASS complex as OGT target implies coordinated gene regulation.
TET proteins convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an emerging dynamic epigenetic state of DNA that can influence transcription. Evidence has linked TET1 function to epigenetic repression complexes, yet mechanistic information, especially for the TET2 and TET3 proteins, remains limited. Here, we show a direct interaction of TET2 and TET3 with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). OGT does not appear to influence hmC activity, rather TET2 and TET3 promote OGT activity. TET2/3–OGT co-localize on chromatin at active promoters enriched for H3K4me3 and reduction of either TET2/3 or OGT activity results in a direct decrease in H3K4me3 and concomitant decreased transcription. Further, we show that Host Cell Factor 1 (HCF1), a component of the H3K4 methyltransferase SET1/COMPASS complex, is a specific GlcNAcylation target of TET2/3–OGT, and modification of HCF1 is important for the integrity of SET1/COMPASS. Additionally, we find both TET proteins and OGT activity promote binding of the SET1/COMPASS H3K4 methyltransferase, SETD1A, to chromatin. Finally, studies in Tet2 knockout mouse bone marrow tissue extend and support the data as decreases are observed of global GlcNAcylation and also of H3K4me3, notably at several key regulators of haematopoiesis. Together, our results unveil a step-wise model, involving TET–OGT interactions, promotion of GlcNAcylation, and influence on H3K4me3 via SET1/COMPASS, highlighting a novel means by which TETs may induce transcriptional activation.
PMCID: PMC3590984  PMID: 23353889
chromatin; epigenetics; TET proteins
3.  Aberrant Promoter Methylation and Expression of UTF1 during Cervical Carcinogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e42704.
Promoter methylation profiles are proposed as potential prognosis and/or diagnosis biomarkers in cervical cancer. Up to now, little is known about the promoter methylation profile and expression pattern of stem cell (SC) markers during tumor development. In this study, we were interested to identify SC genes methylation profiles during cervical carcinogenesis. A genome-wide promoter methylation screening revealed a strong hypermethylation of Undifferentiated cell Transcription Factor 1 (UTF1) promoter in cervical cancer in comparison with normal ectocervix. By direct bisulfite pyrosequencing of DNA isolated from liquid-based cytological samples, we showed that UTF1 promoter methylation increases with lesion severity, the highest level of methylation being found in carcinoma. This hypermethylation was associated with increased UTF1 mRNA and protein expression. By using quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot, we showed that both UTF1 mRNA and protein are present in epithelial cancer cell lines, even in the absence of its two main described regulators Oct4A and Sox2. Moreover, by immunofluorescence, we confirmed the nuclear localisation of UTF1 in cell lines. Surprisingly, direct bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed that the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine was associated with decreased UTF1 gene methylation and expression in two cervical cancer cell lines of the four tested. These findings strongly suggest that UTF1 promoter methylation profile might be a useful biomarker for cervical cancer diagnosis and raise the questions of its role during epithelial carcinogenesis and of the mechanisms regulating its expression.
PMCID: PMC3411846  PMID: 22880087
4.  DNA methylation profiling identifies epigenetic dysregulation in pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic patients 
The EMBO Journal  2012;31(6):1405-1426.
DNA methylation profiling identifies epigenetic dysregulation in pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic patients
The first genome-scale DNA methylation study on pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic patients identifies disease-associated DNA methylation pattern that translate into aberrant gene expression in novel factors relevant for β-cell function and survival.
In addition to genetic predisposition, environmental and lifestyle factors contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epigenetic changes may provide the link for translating environmental exposures into pathological mechanisms. In this study, we performed the first comprehensive DNA methylation profiling in pancreatic islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We uncovered 276 CpG loci affiliated to promoters of 254 genes displaying significant differential DNA methylation in diabetic islets. These methylation changes were not present in blood cells from T2D individuals nor were they experimentally induced in non-diabetic islets by exposure to high glucose. For a subgroup of the differentially methylated genes, concordant transcriptional changes were present. Functional annotation of the aberrantly methylated genes and RNAi experiments highlighted pathways implicated in β-cell survival and function; some are implicated in cellular dysfunction while others facilitate adaptation to stressors. Together, our findings offer new insights into the intricate mechanisms of T2D pathogenesis, underscore the important involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in diabetic islets and may advance our understanding of T2D aetiology.
PMCID: PMC3321176  PMID: 22293752
DNA methylation; pancreatic islets; type 2 diabetes
5.  DNA methylation profiling reveals a predominant immune component in breast cancers 
EMBO Molecular Medicine  2011;3(12):726-741.
Breast cancer is a molecularly, biologically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. Understanding this diversity is essential to improving diagnosis and optimizing treatment. Both genetic and acquired epigenetic abnormalities participate in cancer, but the involvement of the epigenome in breast cancer and its contribution to the complexity of the disease are still poorly understood. By means of DNA methylation profiling of 248 breast tissues, we have highlighted the existence of previously unrecognized breast cancer groups that go beyond the currently known ‘expression subtypes’. Interestingly, we showed that DNA methylation profiling can reflect the cell type composition of the tumour microenvironment, and in particular a T lymphocyte infiltration of the tumours. Further, we highlighted a set of immune genes having high prognostic value in specific tumour categories. The immune component uncovered here by DNA methylation profiles provides a new perspective for the importance of the microenvironment in breast cancer, holding implications for better management of breast cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3377115  PMID: 21910250
breast cancer; DNA methylation; epigenetics; epigenomics; microenvironment
6.  Functional Connection between Deimination and Deacetylation of Histones▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2009;29(18):4982-4993.
Histone methylation plays key roles in regulating chromatin structure and function. The recent identification of enzymes that antagonize or remove histone methylation offers new opportunities to appreciate histone methylation plasticity in the regulation of epigenetic pathways. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4; also known as PAD4) was the first enzyme shown to antagonize histone methylation. PADI4 functions as a histone deiminase converting a methylarginine residue to citrulline at specific sites on the tails of histones H3 and H4. This activity is linked to repression of the estrogen-regulated pS2 promoter. Very little is known as to how PADI4 silences gene expression. We show here that PADI4 associates with the histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Kinetic chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that PADI4 and HDAC1, and the corresponding activities, associate cyclically and coordinately with the pS2 promoter during repression phases. Knockdown of HDAC1 led to decreased H3 citrullination, concomitantly with increased histone arginine methylation. In cells with a reduced HDAC1 and a slightly decreased PADI4 level, these effects were more pronounced. Our data thus suggest that PADI4 and HDAC1 collaborate to generate a repressive chromatin environment on the pS2 promoter. These findings further substantiate the “transcriptional clock” concept, highlighting the dynamic connection between deimination and deacetylation of histones.
PMCID: PMC2738279  PMID: 19581286
7.  De novo DNA methylation promoted by G9a prevents reprogramming of embryonically silenced genes 
Nature structural & molecular biology  2008;15(11):1176-1183.
The pluripotency determining gene, Oct-3/4 (also called Pou5f1) undergoes post implantation silencing in a process mediated by the histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a. Microarray analysis now shows that this enzyme may operate as a master regulator that inactivates multiple early embryonic genes by bringing about methylated-histone H3K9 heterochromatinization and de novo DNA methylation. Genetic studies in differentiating ES cells demonstrate that a point mutation in the G9a SET domain prevents heterochromatinization, but still allows de novo methylation, while biochemical and functional studies indicate that G9a itself is capable of bringing about de novo methylation through its ankyrin (ANK) domain, by recruiting Dnmt3a/3b independently of its HMT activity. These modifications appear to be programmed for carrying out two separate biological functions, with histone methylation blocking target-gene reactivation in the absence of transcriptional repressors, while DNA methylation prevents reprogramming to the undifferentiated state.
PMCID: PMC2581722  PMID: 18953337
8.  MAGE-A1 interacts with adaptor SKIP and the deacetylase HDAC1 to repress transcription 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(14):4340-4350.
MAGE-A1 belongs to a family of 12 genes that are active in various types of tumors and silent in normal tissues except in male germ-line cells. The MAGE-encoded antigens recognized by T cells are highly tumor-specific targets for T cell-oriented cancer immunotherapy. The function of MAGE-A1 is currently unknown. To analyze it, we attempted to identify protein partners of MAGE-A1. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we detected an interaction between MAGE-A1 and Ski Interacting Protein (SKIP). SKIP is a transcriptional regulator that connects DNA-binding proteins to proteins that either activate or repress transcription. We show that MAGE-A1 inhibits the activity of a SKIP-interacting transactivator, namely the intracellular part of Notch1. Deletion analysis indicated that this inhibition requires the binding of MAGE-A1 to SKIP. Moreover, MAGE-A1 was found to actively repress transcription by binding and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Our results indicate that by binding to SKIP and by recruiting HDACs, MAGE-A1 can act as a potent transcriptional repressor. MAGE-A1 could therefore participate in the setting of specific gene expression patterns for tumor cell growth or spermatogenesis.
PMCID: PMC514365  PMID: 15316101
9.  The DNA methyltransferases associate with HP1 and the SUV39H1 histone methyltransferase 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(9):2305-2312.
The DNA methyltransferases, Dnmts, are the enzymes responsible for methylating DNA in mammals, which leads to gene silencing. Repression by DNA methylation is mediated partly by recruitment of the methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2. Recently, MeCP2 was shown to associate and facilitate histone methylation at Lys9 of H3, which is a key epigenetic modification involved in gene silencing. Here, we show that endogenous Dnmt3a associates primarily with histone H3-K9 methyltransferase activity as well as, to a lesser extent, with H3-K4 enzymatic activity. The association with enzymatic activity is mediated by the conserved PHD-like motif of Dnmt3a. The H3-K9 histone methyltransferase that binds Dnmt3a is likely the H3-K9 specific SUV39H1 enzyme since we find that it interacts both in vitro and in vivo with Dnmt3a, using its PHD-like motif. We find that SUV39H1 also binds to Dnmt1 and, consistent with these interactions, SUV39H1 can purify DNA methyltransferase activity from nuclear extracts. In addition, we show that HP1β, a SUV39H1-interacting partner, binds directly to Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a and that native HP1β associates with DNA methyltransferase activity. Our data show a direct connection between the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation and histone methylation. These results further substantiate the notion of a self-reinforcing repressive chromatin state through the interplay between these two global epigenetic modifications.
PMCID: PMC154218  PMID: 12711675
10.  Dnmt3L is a transcriptional repressor that recruits histone deacetylase 
Nucleic Acids Research  2002;30(17):3831-3838.
The Dnmt3L protein belongs to the Dnmt3 family of DNA methyltransferases by virtue of its sequence homology in the plant homeodomain (PHD)-like motif. Dnmt3L is essential for the establishment of maternal genomic imprints and, given its lack of key methyltransferase motifs, is more likely to act as a regulator of methylation rather than as an enzyme that methylates DNA. Here, we show that Dnmt3L, like Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, interacts both in vitro and in vivo with the histone deacetylase HDAC1. Consistent with the binding to a deacetylase, Dnmt3L purifies histone deacetylase activity from nuclear extracts. We find that Dnmt3L can repress transcription and that this repression is dependent on HDAC1 and is relieved by treatment with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. Binding of Dnmt3L to HDAC1 as well as its repressive function require the PHD-like motif. Our results indicate that Dnmt3L plays a role in transcriptional regulation and that recruitment of the HDAC repressive machinery is a shared and conserved feature of the Dnmt3 family. The fact that, despite the absence of a methyltransferase domain, Dnmt3L retains the capacity to contact deacetylase further substantiates the notion that the Dnmts can repress transcription independently of their methylating activities.
PMCID: PMC137431  PMID: 12202768

Results 1-10 (10)