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1.  Pyrimidine Pool Disequilibrium Induced by a Cytidine Deaminase Deficiency Inhibits PARP-1 Activity, Leading to the Under Replication of DNA 
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(7):e1005384.
Genome stability is jeopardized by imbalances of the dNTP pool; such imbalances affect the rate of fork progression. For example, cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency leads to an excess of dCTP, slowing the replication fork. We describe here a novel mechanism by which pyrimidine pool disequilibrium compromises the completion of replication and chromosome segregation: the intracellular accumulation of dCTP inhibits PARP-1 activity. CDA deficiency results in incomplete DNA replication when cells enter mitosis, leading to the formation of ultrafine anaphase bridges between sister-chromatids at “difficult-to-replicate” sites such as centromeres and fragile sites. Using molecular combing, electron microscopy and a sensitive assay involving cell imaging to quantify steady-state PAR levels, we found that DNA replication was unsuccessful due to the partial inhibition of basal PARP-1 activity, rather than slower fork speed. The stimulation of PARP-1 activity in CDA-deficient cells restores replication and, thus, chromosome segregation. Moreover, increasing intracellular dCTP levels generates under-replication-induced sister-chromatid bridges as efficiently as PARP-1 knockdown. These results have direct implications for Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disease combining susceptibility to cancer and genomic instability. BS results from mutation of the BLM gene, encoding BLM, a RecQ 3’-5’ DNA helicase, a deficiency of which leads to CDA downregulation. BS cells thus have a CDA defect, resulting in a high frequency of ultrafine anaphase bridges due entirely to dCTP-dependent PARP-1 inhibition and independent of BLM status. Our study describes previously unknown pathological consequences of the distortion of dNTP pools and reveals an unexpected role for PARP-1 in preventing DNA under-replication and chromosome segregation defects.
Author Summary
The maintenance of genome stability is essential for the accurate transmission of genetic information, to ensure the successful duplication of chromosomes and their even segregation during mitosis. Errors occurring during DNA replication may affect both the accuracy of chromosome duplication and the balance of chromosome segregation during mitosis. Accurate DNA replication is strongly dependent on deoxynucleotides (dNTP) concentrations. Distortions in dNTP pool affect the rate of replication fork progression and compromise genetic stability. In the work presented here, we identified a novel mechanism by which dNTP pool disequilibrium compromises the completion of DNA replication and thus chromosome segregation, independently of the rate of fork progression. This mechanism involves the intracellular accumulation of deoxycytidine due to cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency, inhibiting PARP-1 activity. These results have direct implications for Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disease combining susceptibility to cancer and genomic instability. BS cells also have a CDA defect, resulting in a high frequency of ultrafine anaphase bridges due entirely to dCTP-dependent PARP-1 inhibition. These data highlight new pathological consequences of the distortion of dNTP pools and reveal an unexpected role for PARP-1 in preventing the accumulation of excessive amounts of unreplicated DNA and chromosome segregation defects.
PMCID: PMC4504519  PMID: 26181065
2.  Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates TLR3 induced cytokines in human oral keratinocytes 
Molecular immunology  2010;48(0):294-304.
Recent studies implicate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the control of inflammatory responses following Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation in myeloid cells but its role in non-myeloid cells such as human keratinocytes is unknown. Here we show that TLR3 signaling can induce robust cytokine secretion including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), IL-12p70 and interferon beta (IFN-β), and our data reveal for the first time that inhibiting mTOR with rapamycin, suppresses these TLR3 induced responses but actually enhances bioactive IL-12p70 production in human oral keratinocytes. Rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and the 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP-1), and suppressed the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by decreasing phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We also show that TLR3 induces interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation by Akt via an mTOR-p70S6K-4EBP1 pathway. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Poly I:C induced expression of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-12p70 and IFN-β was blocked by JNK inhibitor SP600125. TLR3 preferentially phosphorylated IKKα through mTOR to activate nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) in human oral keratinocytes. Taken together, these data demonstrate p70S6K, p4EBP1, JNK, NF-kB and IRF3 are involved in the regulation of inflammatory mediators by TLR3 via the mTOR pathway. mTOR is a novel pathway modulating TLR3 induced inflammatory and antiviral responses in human oral keratinocytes.
PMCID: PMC4372152  PMID: 20728939
Human oral keratinocytes; TLR3; mTOR; JNK; NF-kB; IRF3
3.  Neutrophils alter epithelial response to Porphyromonas gingivalis in a gingival crevice model 
Molecular oral microbiology  2012;28(2):102-113.
A gingival crevice model (epithelial cell- Porphyromonas gingivalis – neutrophil) was established and used to profile gingipain, matrix metalloproteinase, MMP mediators (NGAL and TIMP-1) and cytokine networks. Smoking is the primary environmental risk factor for periodontitis. Therefore, the influence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was also monitored in the same model. P. gingivalis alone induced low levels of IL-1β and IL-8 from epithelial cells, but high levels of both cytokines were produced on the addition of neutrophils. CSE-exposure (100 and 1000 ng/ml nicotine equivalency) significantly compromised P. gingivalis-induced cytokine secretion (both p < 0.05). P. gingivalis induced impressive secretion of NGAL (p < 0.05) which was not influenced by CSE. The influence of CSE on gingipains production was strain-specific. Purified gingipains effectively and rapidly degraded both TIMP-1 and MMP-9. Induction of large amounts of NGAL, degradation of TIMP-1, and increased gingipain activity would each be expected to prolong collagen degradation and promote disease progression. However, gingipains also degrade MMP-9. Thus, P. gingivalis exerts a complex influence on the proteolytic balance of a gingival crevice model. CSE-exposure reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokine burden, which may be expected to promote P. gingivalis survival. In addition to novel findings that provide mechanistic insight into periodontal disease progression, these results are in keeping with the recognized clinical dogma of decreased inflammation / increased disease in smokers. Thus, this straightforward gingival crevice model is established as a suitable vehicle for the elucidation of mechanisms that contribute to susceptibility to periodontitis.
PMCID: PMC3594541  PMID: 23193955
cytokines; epithelial cells; neutrophils; matrix metalloproteinases; periodontitis; P. gingivalis; tobacco smoke
4.  Wideband Aural Acoustic Absorbance Predicts Conductive Hearing Loss in Children 
International journal of audiology  2012;51(12):880-891.
This study tested the hypothesis that wideband aural absorbance predicts conductive hearing loss (CHL) in children medically classified as having otitis media with effusion.
Absorbance was measured in the ear canal over frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz at ambient pressure or as a swept tympanogram. CHL was defined using criterion air-bone gaps of 20, 25 and 30 dB at octaves from 0.25 to 4 kHz. A likelihood-ratio predictor of CHL was constructed across frequency for ambient absorbance and across frequency and pressure for absorbance tympanometry. Performance was evaluated at individual frequencies and for any frequency at which a CHL was present.
Study Sample
Absorbance and conventional 226-Hz tympanograms were measured in children of age 3 to 8 years with CHL and with normal hearing.
Absorbance was smaller at frequencies above 0.7 kHz in the CHL group than the control group. Based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, wideband absorbance in ambient and tympanometric tests were significantly better predictors of CHL than tympanometric width, the best 226-Hz predictor. Accuracies of ambient and tympanometric wideband absorbance did not differ.
Absorbance accurately predicted CHL in children and was more accurate than conventional 226-Hz tympanometry.
PMCID: PMC3693460  PMID: 23072655
Wideband aural acoustic absorbance; Conductive hearing loss; Tympanometry; Otitis media
5.  P. gingivalis Modulates Keratinocytes through FOXO Transcription Factors 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78541.
P. gingivalis is a prominent periodontal pathogen that has potent effects on host cells. In this study we challenged gingival epithelial cells with P. gingivalis with the aim of assessing how mRNA levels of key target genes were modulated by P. gingivalis via the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3. Primary mono- and multi-layer cultures of gingival epithelial cells were challenged and barrier function was examined by fluorescent dextran and apoptosis was measured by cytoplasmic histone associated DNA. Gene expression levels were measured by real-time PCR with and without FOXO1 and FOXO3 siRNA compared to scrambled siRNA. P. gingivalis induced a loss of barrier function and stimulated gingival epithelial cell apoptosis in multilayer cultures that was in part gingipain dependent. P. gingivalis stimulated an increase in FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA, enhanced mRNA levels of genes associated with differentiated keratinocyte function (keratin-1, -10, -14, and involucrin), increased mRNA levels of apoptotic genes (BID and TRADD), reduced mRNA levels of genes that regulate inflammation (TLR-2 and -4) and reduced those associated with barrier function (integrin beta-1, -3 and -6). The ability of P. gingivalis to modulate these genes was predominantly FOXO1 and FOXO3 dependent. The results indicate that P. gingivalis has pronounced effects on gingival keratinocytes and modulates mRNA levels of genes that affect host response, differentiation, apoptosis and barrier function. Moreover, this modulation is dependent upon the transcription factors FOXO1 or FOXO3. In addition, a new function for FOXO1 was identified, that of suppressing TLR-2 and TLR-4 and maintaining integrin beta -1, beta -3 and beta -6 basal mRNA levels in keratinocytes.
PMCID: PMC3827038  PMID: 24265696
6.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Interleukin-6 in Central Nervous System Inflammatory Diseases 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72399.
Interleukin (IL)-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS).
To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS) from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND).
Patients and Methods
We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117), including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65), primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11), optic neuritis (ON, n = 30); idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10); other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35); and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212). Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal−Wallis test and Mann−Whitney U-test.
CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4%) of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9%) of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212). IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS.
CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.
PMCID: PMC3754988  PMID: 24015240
7.  The Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 in Regulating IFN-β–Mediated IL-10 Production 
The ability of IFN-β to induce IL-10 production from innate immune cells is important for its anti-inflammatory properties and is believed to contribute to its therapeutic value in treating multiple sclerosis patients. In this study, we identified that IFN-β stimulates IL-10 production by activating the JAK1- and PI3K-signaling pathways. JAK1 activity was required for IFN-β to activate PI3K and Akt1 that resulted in repression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-β activity. IFN-β–mediated suppression of GSK3-β promoted IL-10, because IL-10 production by IFN-β–stimulated dendritic cells (DC) expressing an active GSK3-β knockin was severely reduced, whereas pharmacological or genetic inhibition of GSK3-β augmented IL-10 production. IFN-β increased the phosphorylated levels of CREB and STAT3 but only CREB levels were affected by PI3K. Also, a knockdown in CREB, but not STAT3, affected the capacity of IFN-β to induce IL-10 from DC. IL-10 production by IFN-β–stimulated DC was shown to suppress IFN-γ and IL-17 production by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cells, and this IL-10–dependent anti-inflammatory effect was enhanced by directly targeting GSK3 in DC. These findings highlight how IFN-β induces IL-10 production and the importance that IL-10 plays in its anti-inflammatory properties, as well as identify a therapeutic target that could be used to increase the IL-10–dependent anti-inflammatory properties of IFN-β.
PMCID: PMC3606930  PMID: 21160051
8.  Blood Glutathione S-Transferase-π as a Time Indicator of Stroke Onset 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e43830.
Ability to accurately determine time of stroke onset remains challenging. We hypothesized that an early biomarker characterized by a rapid increase in blood after stroke onset may help defining better the time window during which an acute stroke patient may be candidate for intravenous thrombolysis or other intravascular procedures.
The blood level of 29 proteins was measured by immunoassays on a prospective cohort of stroke patients (N = 103) and controls (N = 132). Mann-Whitney U tests, ROC curves and diagnostic odds ratios were applied to evaluate their clinical performances.
Among the 29 molecules tested, GST-π concentration was the most significantly elevated marker in the blood of stroke patients (p<0.001). More importantly, GST-π displayed the best area under the curve (AUC, 0.79) and the best diagnostic odds ratios (10.0) for discriminating early (N = 22, <3 h of stroke onset) vs. late stroke patients (N = 81, >3 h after onset). According to goal-oriented distinct cut-offs (sensitivity(Se)-oriented: 17.7 or specificity(Sp)-oriented: 65.2 ug/L), the GST-π test obtained 91%Se/50%Sp and 50%Se/91%Sp, respectively. Moreover, GST-π showed also the highest AUC (0.83) and performances for detecting patients treated with tPA (N = 12) compared to ineligible patients (N = 103).
This study demonstrates that GST-π can accurately predict the time of stroke onset in over 50% of early stroke patients. The GST-π test could therefore complement current guidelines for tPA administration and potentially increase the number of patients accessing thrombolysis.
PMCID: PMC3444482  PMID: 23028472
9.  Correlation of Particular Bacterial PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Patterns with Bovine Ruminal Fermentation Parameters and Feed Efficiency Traits ▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(19):6338-6350.
The influence of rumen microbial structure and functions on host physiology remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between the ruminal microflora and the host by correlating bacterial diversity with fermentation measurements and feed efficiency traits, including dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and residual feed intake, using culture-independent methods. Universal bacterial partial 16S rRNA gene products were amplified from ruminal fluid collected from 58 steers raised under a low-energy diet and were subjected to PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to relate specific PCR-DGGE bands to various feed efficiency traits and metabolites. Analysis of volatile fatty acid profiles showed that butyrate was positively correlated with daily dry matter intake (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher concentration in inefficient animals (P = 0.10), while isovalerate was associated with residual feed intake (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that particular bacteria and their metabolism in the rumen may contribute to differences in host feed efficiency under a low-energy diet. This is the first study correlating PCR-DGGE bands representing specific bacteria to metabolites in the bovine rumen and to host feed efficiency traits.
PMCID: PMC2950479  PMID: 20709849
10.  Epithelial cell pro-inflammatory cytokine response differs across dental plaque bacterial species 
The dental plaque is comprised of numerous bacterial species which may or may not be pathogenic. Human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) respond to perturbation by various bacteria of the dental plaque by production of different levels of inflammatory cytokines which is a putative reflection of their virulence. The aim of the current study was to determine responses in terms of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 secretion induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus gordonii in order to gauge their virulence potential.
Materials and Methods
HGECs were challenged with the four bacterial species, live or heat-killed, at various MOIs (multiplicity of infection) and the elicited IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 responses were assayed by ELISA.
Primary HGECs challenged with live P. gingivalis produced high levels of IL-1β, while challenge with live A. actinomycetemcomitans gave high levels of IL-8. The opportunistic pathogen F. nucleatum induces the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the commensal S. gordonii is the least stimulatory.
We conclude that various dental plaque biofilm bacteria induce different cytokine response profiles in primary human gingival epithelial cells that may reflect their individual virulence or commensal status.
PMCID: PMC2900159  PMID: 20096064
P. gingivalis; A. actinomycetemcomitans; F. nucleatum; S.gordonii; epithelial cells; cytokines
11.  Sphingosine Kinase-1 Is Required for Toll Mediated β-Defensin 2 Induction in Human Oral Keratinocytes 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11512.
Host defense against invading pathogens is triggered by various receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs). Activation of TLRs is a pivotal step in the initiation of innate, inflammatory, and antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide secreted upon Gram-negative bacterial perturbation in many cells. Stimulation of various TLRs has been shown to induce HBD-2 in oral keratinocytes, yet the underlying cellular mechanisms of this induction are poorly understood.
Principal Findings
Here we demonstrate that HBD-2 induction is mediated by the Sphingosine kinase-1 (Sphk-1) and augmented by the inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) via the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) dependent pathway. HBD-2 secretion was dose dependently inhibited by a pharmacological inhibitor of Sphk-1. Interestingly, inhibition of GSK-3β by SB 216763 or by RNA interference, augmented HBD-2 induction. Overexpression of Sphk-1 with concomitant inhibition of GSK-3β enhanced the induction of β-defensin-2 in oral keratinocytes. Ectopic expression of constitutively active GSK-3β (S9A) abrogated HBD-2 whereas kinase inactive GSK-3β (R85A) induced higher amounts of HBD-2.
These data implicate Sphk-1 in HBD-2 regulation in oral keratinocytes which also involves the activation of PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β and ERK 1/2. Thus we reveal the intricate relationship and pathways of toll-signaling molecules regulating HBD-2 which may have therapeutic potential.
PMCID: PMC2901390  PMID: 20634980
12.  Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Production of IL-1Ra Is Negatively Regulated by GSK3 via the MAPK ERK1/21 
IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β, has been shown to regulate the progression of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although experimental studies and clinical trials have demonstrated the importance of IL-1Ra in chronic inflammatory diseases, the cellular mechanisms responsible for regulating the endogenous production of IL-1Ra by innate immune cells are currently unresolved. In the present study, we identify that glycogen-synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) regulates the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra via its ability to regulate the MAPK ERK1/2 in TLR-stimulated cells. Elucidation of the cell-signaling pathway by which GSK3 controlled ERK activity demonstrated that GSK3 inhibition resulted in an abrogation in the levels of the inhibitory residue serine 71 on Rac1 and increased the ability of Rac1 to interact with and activate p21-activated protein kinase. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rac1 attenuated the ability of GSK3 inhibition to augment phopsho-ERK1/2 levels in LPS-stimulated immune cells. Moreover, inhibiting the ability of GSK3 to augment ERK1/2 activity abrogated enhanced IL-1Ra production by GSK3-inhibited cells. Our findings identify that GSK3 negatively regulates the levels of IL-1Ra produced by LPS-stimulated innate immune cells.
PMCID: PMC2850057  PMID: 19109187
13.  IFN-β Production by TLR4-Stimulated Innate Immune Cells Is Negatively Regulated by GSK3-β1 
TLR 4 stimulation of innate immune cells induces a MyD88-independent signaling pathway that leads to the production of IFN-β. In this study, we demonstrate glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β) plays a fundamental role in this process. Suppression of GSK3-β activity by either pharmacological inhibition, small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing, or ectopic expression of a kinase-dead GSK3-β mutant enhanced IFN-β production by TLR4-stimulated macrophages. Conversely, ectopic expression of a constitutively active GSK3-β mutant severely attenuated IFN-β production. GSK3-β was found to negatively control the cellular levels of the transcription factor c-Jun and its nuclear association with ATF-2. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-Jun levels abrogated the ability of GSK3-β inhibition to augment IFN-β, demonstrating that the ability of GSK3 to control IFN-β production was due to its ability to regulate c-Jun levels. The ability of GSK3 inhibition to control IFN-β production was confirmed in vivo as mice treated with a GSK3 inhibitor exhibited enhanced systemic levels of IFN-β upon LPS challenge. These findings identify a novel regulatory pathway controlling IFN-β production by TLR4-stimulated innate immune cells.
PMCID: PMC2849978  PMID: 18981097
14.  Antigenic Experience Dictates Functional Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 in Human CD4+ T Cell Responses1 
Signals induced by the TCR and CD28 costimulatory pathway have been shown to lead to the inactivation of the constitutively active enzyme, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), which has been implicated in the regulation of IL-2 and T cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether GSK3 plays a similar role in naive and memory CD4+ T cell responses. Here we demonstrate a divergence in the dependency on the inactivation of GSK3 in the proliferative responses of human naive and memory CD4+ T cells. We find that although CD28 costimulation increases the frequency of phospho-GSK3 inactivation in TCR-stimulated naive and memory CD4+ T cells, memory cells are less reliant on GSK3 inactivation for their proliferative responses. Rather we find that GSK3β plays a previously unrecognized role in the selective regulation of the IL-10 recall response by human memory CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, GSK3β-inactivated memory CD4+ T cells acquired the capacity to suppress the bystander proliferation of CD4+ T cells in an IL-10-dependent, cell contact-independent manner. Our findings reveal a dichotomy present in the function of GSK3 in distinct human CD4+ T cell populations.
PMCID: PMC2849970  PMID: 19050253
15.  c-Jun Controls the Ability of IL-12 to Induce IL-10 Production from Human Memory CD4+ T Cells1 
IL-12p70 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that has been shown to induce IL-10 production from CD4+ T cells, yet the underlying cellular mechanisms controlling this process are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that IL-12p70 induces IL-10 production from human memory CD4+ T cells via a PI3K-dependent signaling mechanism. Specifically, stimulation of human memory CD4+ T cells in the presence of IL-12p70 lead to increased PI3K activity and the subsequent phosphorylation and inactivation of the downstream constitutively active serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Inhibition of PI3K prevented the inactivation of GSK3β by IL-12p70, as well as the subsequent ability of IL-12p70 to augment IL-10 levels by memory CD4+ T cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3β abrogated the ability of IL-12p70 to increase IL-10 production by TCR-stimulated CD4+ T cells. In contrast, direct inhibition of GSK3 mimicked the effect of IL-12p70 on IL-10 production by memory CD4+ T cells. Analysis of downstream transcription factors identified that the ability of IL-12p70 to inactivate GSK3β lead to increased levels of c-Jun. The ability of IL-12p70 to inactivate GSK3β and induce c-Jun levels was required for IL-12 to augment IL-10 production by human memory CD4+ T cells, since small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing of c-Jun abrogated this process. These studies identify the cellular mechanism by which IL-12 induces IL-10 production from human memory CD4+ T cells.
PMCID: PMC2849968  PMID: 19734233
16.  In vitro modeling of host-parasite interactions: the 'subgingival' biofilm challenge of primary human epithelial cells 
BMC Microbiology  2009;9:280.
Microbial biofilms are known to cause an increasing number of chronic inflammatory and infectious conditions. A classical example is chronic periodontal disease, a condition initiated by the subgingival dental plaque biofilm on gingival epithelial tissues. We describe here a new model that permits the examination of interactions between the bacterial biofilm and host cells in general. We use primary human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) and an in vitro grown biofilm, comprising nine frequently studied and representative subgingival plaque bacteria.
We describe the growth of a mature 'subgingival' in vitro biofilm, its composition during development, its ability to adapt to aerobic conditions and how we expose in vitro a HGEC monolayer to this biofilm. Challenging the host derived HGEC with the biofilm invoked apoptosis in the epithelial cells, triggered release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in parallel induced rapid degradation of the cytokines by biofilm-generated enzymes.
We developed an experimental in vitro model to study processes taking place in the gingival crevice during the initiation of inflammation. The new model takes into account that the microbial challenge derives from a biofilm community and not from planktonically cultured bacterial strains. It will facilitate easily the introduction of additional host cells such as neutrophils for future biofilm:host cell challenge studies. Our methodology may generate particular interest, as it should be widely applicable to other biofilm-related chronic inflammatory diseases.
PMCID: PMC2818713  PMID: 20043840
17.  Human DNA Polymerase η Is Required for Common Fragile Site Stability during Unperturbed DNA Replication▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2009;29(12):3344-3354.
Human DNA polymerase η (Pol η) modulates susceptibility to skin cancer by promoting translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) past sunlight-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Despite its well-established role in TLS synthesis, the role of Pol η in maintaining genome stability in the absence of external DNA damage has not been well explored. We show here that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of Pol η from undamaged human cells affects cell cycle progression and the rate of cell proliferation and results in increased spontaneous chromosome breaks and common fragile site expression with the activation of ATM-mediated DNA damage checkpoint signaling. These phenotypes were also observed in association with modified replication factory dynamics during S phase. In contrast to that seen in Pol η-depleted cells, none of these cellular or karyotypic defects were observed in cells depleted for Pol ι, the closest relative of Pol η. Our results identify a new role for Pol η in maintaining genomic stability during unperturbed S phase and challenge the idea that the sole functional role of Pol η in human cells is in TLS DNA damage tolerance and/or repair pathways following exogenous DNA damage.
PMCID: PMC2698728  PMID: 19380493
18.  TLR4 and S1P receptors cooperate to enhance inflammatory cytokine production in human gingival epithelial cells 
European journal of immunology  2008;38(4):1138-1147.
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors for highly conserved microbial molecular patterns. Activation of TLR is a pivotal step in the initiation of innate, inflammatory, and immune defense mechanisms. Recent findings indicate that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) may modulate TLR signaling, but it is unclear which GPCR are involved in this process. One such cooperation between GPCR and TLR can be attributed to the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor family. The S1P receptors (S1P1–5) are a family of GPCR with a high affinity for S1P, a serum-borne bioactive lipid associated with diverse biological activities such as inflammation and healing. In this study, we show that pro-inflammatory cytokine production, including IL-6 and IL-8, was increased with LPS and concomitant S1P stimulation. Furthermore, elevated cytokine production following LPS and S1P challenge in human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) was significantly reduced when TLR4, S1P1 or S1P3 signaling was blocked. Our study also shows that S1P1 and S1P3 expression was induced by LPS in HGEC, and this elevated expression enhanced the influence of S1P in its cooperation with TLR4 to increase cytokine production. This cooperation between TLR4 and S1P1 or S1P3 demonstrates that TLR4 and GPCR can interact to enhance cytokine production in epithelial cells.
PMCID: PMC2738989  PMID: 18395849
Cytokines; Epithelial cells; S1P1; S1P3; TLR4
19.  Role of TLS DNA polymerases eta and kappa in processing naturally occurring structured DNA in human cells 
Molecular carcinogenesis  2009;48(4):369-378.
Accurate DNA replication during S-phase is fundamental to maintain genome integrity. During this critical process, replication forks frequently encounter obstacles that impede their progression. While the regulatory pathways which act in response to exogenous replication stress are beginning to emerge, the mechanisms by which fork integrity is maintained at naturally occurring endogenous replication-impeding sequences remains obscure. Notably, little is known about how cells replicate through special chromosomal regions containing structured non-B DNA, e.g. G4 quartets, known to hamper fork progression or trigger chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we have investigated the role in this process of the human translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases of the Y-family (pol η, pol ι, and pol κ), specialized enzymes known to synthesize DNA through DNA damage. We show that depletion by RNA interference of expression of the genes for Pol η or Pol κ, but not Pol ι, sensitizes U2OS cells treated with the G4-tetraplex interactive compound telomestatin and triggers double-strand breaks in HeLa cells harbouring multiple copies of a G-rich sequence from the promoter region of the human c-MYC gene, chromosomally integrated as a transgene. Moreover, we found that downregulation of Pol κ only raises the level of DSB in HeLa cells containing either one of two breakage hotspot structured DNA sequences in the chromosome, the major break region (Mbr) of BCL-2 gene and the GA rich region from the far right-hand end of the genome of the Kaposi Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus. These data suggest that naturally occurring DNA structures are physiological substrates of both pol η and pol κ. We discuss these data in the light of their downregulation in human cancers.
PMCID: PMC2696892  PMID: 19117014
DNA Replication; Genetic Instability; Double Strand Breaks; non-B DNA
20.  Porphyromonas gingivalis induce apoptosis in human gingival epithelial cells through a gingipain-dependent mechanism 
BMC Microbiology  2009;9:107.
The oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has been shown to modulate apoptosis in different cell types, but its effect on epithelial cells remains unclear.
We demonstrate that primary human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) challenged with live P. gingivalis for 24 hours exhibit apoptosis, and we characterize this by M30 epitope detection, caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation and Annexin-V staining. Live bacteria strongly upregulated intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Pro-apoptotic molecules such as caspase-3, -8, -9, Bid and Bax were upregulated after 24 hours. The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was also upregulated, but this was not sufficient to ensure cell survival. The main P. gingivalis proteases arginine and lysine gingipains are necessary and sufficient to induce host cell apoptosis. Thus, live P. gingivalis can invoke gingival epithelial cell apoptosis in a time and dose dependent manner with significant apoptosis occurring between 12 and 24 hours of challenge via a gingipain-dependent mechanism.
The present study provides evidence that live, but not heat-killed, P. gingivalis can induce apoptosis after 24 hours of challenge in primary human gingival epithelial cells. Either arginine or lysine gingipains are necessary and sufficient factors in P. gingivalis elicited apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC2692854  PMID: 19473524
21.  Anemia in children with chronic kidney disease 
Anemia is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, but the management of anemia in children is complex. Erythropoietin and supplemental iron are used to maintain hemoglobin levels. The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) clinical practice guidelines for the management of anemia specifically in children were recently published. Pediatric nephrologists are encouraged to use current clinical practice guidelines and best evidence in conjunction with their clinical experience to optimally manage patients with anemia.
PMCID: PMC2668634  PMID: 17245602
Chronic kidney disease; Erythropoietin; Hemoglobin; Iron; Pediatric
22.  Novel Anti-Metastatic Action of Cidofovir Mediated by Inhibition of E6/E7, CXCR4 and Rho/ROCK Signaling in HPV+ Tumor Cells 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(3):e5018.
Cervical cancer is frequently associated with HPV infection. The expression of E6 and E7 HPV oncoproteins is a key factor in its carcinogenicity and might also influence its virulence, including metastatic conversion. The cellular mechanisms involved in metastatic spread remain elusive, but pro-adhesive receptors and their ligands, such as SDF-1α and CXCR4 are implicated. In the present study, we assessed the possible relationship between SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling, E6/E7 status and the metastatic process. We found that SDF-1α stimulated the invasion of E6/E7-positive cancer cell lines (HeLa and TC-1) in Matrigel though CXCR4 and subsequent Rho/ROCK activation. In pulmonary metastatic foci generated by TC-1 cells IV injection a high proportion of cells expressed membrane-associated CXCR4. In both cases models (in vitro and in vivo) cell adhesion and invasion was abrogated by CXCR4 immunological blockade supporting a contribution of SDF-1α/CXCR4 to the metastatic process. E6 and E7 silencing using stable knock-down and the approved anti-viral agent, Cidofovir decreased CXCR4 gene expression as well as both, constitutive and SDF-1α-induced cell invasion. In addition, Cidofovir inhibited lung metastasis (both adhesion and invasion) supporting contribution of E6 and E7 oncoproteins to the metastatic process. Finally, potential signals activated downstream SDF-1α/CXCR4 and involved in lung homing of E6/E7-expressing tumor cells were investigated. The contribution of the Rho/ROCK pathway was suggested by the inhibitory effect triggered by Cidofovir and further confirmed using Y-27632 (a small molecule ROCK inhibitor). These data suggest a novel and highly translatable therapeutic approach to cervix cancer, by inhibition of adhesion and invasion of circulating HPV-positive tumor cells, using Cidofovir and/or ROCK inhibition.
PMCID: PMC2657827  PMID: 19325708
23.  High-frequency click-evoked otoacoustic emissions and behavioral thresholds in humansa) 
Relationships between click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and behavioral thresholds have not been explored above 5 kHz due to limitations in CEOAE measurement procedures. New techniques were used to measure behavioral thresholds and CEOAEs up to 16 kHz. A long cylindrical tube of 8-mm diameter, serving as a reflection-less termination, was used to calibrate audiometric stimuli and design a wideband CEOAE stimulus. A second click was presented 15 dB above a probe click level that varied over a 44 dB range, and a nonlinear residual procedure extracted a CEOAE from these click responses. In some subjects (age 14-29 years) with normal hearing up to 8 kHz, CEOAE spectral energy and latency were measured up to 16 kHz. Audiometric thresholds were measured using an adaptive yes-no procedure. Comparison of CEOAE and behavioral thresholds suggested a clinical potential of using CEOAEs to screen for high-frequency hearing loss. CEOAE latencies determined from the peak of averaged, filtered, temporal envelopes decreased to 1 ms with increasing frequency up to 16 kHz. Individual CEOAE envelopes included both compressively-growing, longer-delay components consistent with a coherent-reflection source, and linearly- or expansively-growing, shorter-delay components consistent with a distortion source. Envelope delays of both components were approximately invariant with level.
PMCID: PMC2659524  PMID: 19206876
43.64.Jb; 43.66.Yw; 43.64.Kc
24.  Two-tone suppression of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissionsa) 
Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) measured using a suppressor tone in human ears are analogous to two-tone suppression responses measured mechanically and neurally in mammalian cochleae. SFOAE suppression was measured in 24 normal-hearing adults at octave frequencies (fp=0.5–8.0 kHz) over a 40 dB range of probe levels (Lp). Suppressor frequencies (fs) ranged from −2.0 to 0.7 octaves re: fp, and suppressor levels ranged from just detectable suppression to full suppression. The lowest suppression thresholds occurred for “best” fs slightly higher than fp. SFOAE growth of suppression (GOS) had slopes close to one at frequencies much lower than best fs, and shallow slopes near best fs, which indicated compressive growth close to 0.3 dB/dB. Suppression tuning curves constructed from GOS functions were well defined at 1, 2, and 4 kHz, but less so at 0.5 and 8.0 kHz. Tuning was sharper at lower Lp with an equivalent rectangular bandwidth similar to that reported behaviorally for simultaneous masking. The tip-to-tail difference assessed cochlear gain, increasing with decreasing Lp and increasing fp at the lowest Lp from 32 to 45 dB for fp from 1 to 4 kHz. SFOAE suppression provides a noninvasive measure of the saturating nonlinearities associated with cochlear amplification on the basilar membrane.
PMCID: PMC2517244  PMID: 18345837
25.  A novel disease-causing mutation in AVPR2: Q96H 
NDT Plus  2008;2(1):20-22.
A 4-month-old male infant was diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Genetic testing of the arginine vasopressin receptor-2 (AVPR2) yielded a novel X-linked mutation, termed Q96H, in both the propositus and his mother; there was no family history. Protein sequence comparison between AVPR subtypes shows that Q96 is part of a highly conserved motif. Many other disease-causing mutations, confirmed with in vitro expression studies, map to surrounding residues. Molecular modelling studies showed that the equivalent residue in AVPR1 is likely critical for vasopressin binding. We posit that Q96 must be important for the integrity of AVPR2 function.
PMCID: PMC4421472  PMID: 25949277
AVPR2; DDAVP; nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; vasopressin

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