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author:("demirel, T")
1.  A Quasi-Experimental Study Analyzing the Effectiveness of Portable High-Efficiency Particulate Absorption Filters in Preventing Infections in Hematology Patients during Construction 
Turkish Journal of Hematology  2016;33(1):41-47.
The increased risk of infection for patients caused by construction and renovation near hematology inpatient clinics is a major concern. The use of high-efficiency particulate absorption (HEPA) filters can reduce the risk of infection. However, there is no standard protocol indicating the use of HEPA filters for patients with hematological malignancies, except for those who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This quasi-experimental study was designed to measure the efficacy of HEPA filters in preventing infections during construction.
Materials and Methods:
Portable HEPA filters were placed in the rooms of patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies because of large-scale construction taking place near the hematology clinic. The rates of infection during the 6 months before and after the installation of the portable HEPA filters were compared. A total of 413 patients were treated during this 1-year period.
There were no significant differences in the antifungal prophylaxis and treatment regimens between the groups. The rates of infections, clinically documented infections, and invasive fungal infections decreased in all of the patients following the installation of the HEPA filters. When analyzed separately, the rates of invasive fungal infections were similar before and after the installation of HEPA filters in patients who had no neutropenia or long neutropenia duration. HEPA filters were significantly protective against infection when installed in the rooms of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients who were undergoing consolidation treatment, and patients who were neutropenic for 1-14 days.
Despite the advent of construction and the summer season, during which environmental Aspergillus contamination is more prevalent, no patient or patient subgroup experienced an increase in fungal infections following the installation of HEPA filters. The protective effect of HEPA filters against infection was more pronounced in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients undergoing consolidation therapy, and patients with moderate neutropenia.
PMCID: PMC4805340  PMID: 26376622
HEPA filter; Infection; invasive fungal infection
3.  Hilbert–Huang transform in detecting and analyzing the uterine contraction activities 
The diagnosis of labor is currently one of the most difficult problems encountered by obstetrical healthcare providers. A major health problem is the increase in the rate of preterm delivery, which is responsible for 75% of all deaths in newborns. In addition, preterm delivery is associated with several cognitive and health problems in later life and enormous costs for the health system. A better understanding of myometrial activities could help to reduce preterm deliveries and the costs associated with prematurity in the following years. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether using the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) to analyze the uterine contraction data would help us gain a better insight of the myometrial activities of the human uterus during pregnancy.
Material and Methods
Uterine magnetomyographic (MMG) signals were recorded from pregnant patients at gestational ages of 32–38 weeks. The study was approved by the Human Research Advisory Board of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) and performed after obtaining written consent from each patient. The recording of transabdominal MMG signals was conducted with the SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment (SARA, VSM MedTech Inc; Coquitlam, BC, Canada) system, which has 151 primary magnetic sensors allocated approximately 3 cm apart over an area of 850 cm2. The arrangement of sensors is concave in nature and, in a similar lateral distance, spans the maternal abdomen longitudinally from the symphysis pubis to the uterine fundus. The recording times ranged from 12 to 28 min, and the sampling rate was 250 Hz. The data were down-sampled to 25 Hz to reduce the computational complexity and post-processed with a bandpass filter (0.05–1 Hz) because the uterine contraction activity is a band-limited process (0.05–1 Hz). The recordings of one intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) dataset and two mother-perceived contraction datasets were compared with the HHT results, and HHT’s potential was explored through the development of a module and a series of experiments. The local energy and the instantaneous frequency derived from the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) through HHT provide a full energy-frequency-time distribution of the data. Our objective was to determine whether HHT for each channel can help identify and localize contractions in the uterus. Human studies have been reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards described in an appropriate version of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2000.
After comparing the IUPC and other mother-perceived contraction (STIM) datasets with HHT results, we were able to visually detect contraction locations in the HHT-processed uterine signals. For verification and validation purposes, when we further analyzed the delay time between two signals, the mechanical activity (i.e., IUPC) following the electrical activity (i.e., magnetic signal) was observed. In conclusion, our experimentations using the method introduced here revealed that there is a 75% correlation between the results obtained by HHT and IUPC data.
This study compared uterine contractions and changes in the intrauterine pressure with results obtained by HHT. In addition, using IUPC data as a validation guide, we showed that the HHT approach can be used for noise removal. There is a need for time-saving and non-subjective automatic contraction detection in the field of prenatal examination.
PMCID: PMC4664209  PMID: 26692768
Uterine contraction; myometrium; magnetomyographic activity; Hilbert–Huang transform; empirical mode decomposition; contraction analysis
5.  A rare case of penis agenesis (Aphallia) with associated multiple urogenital anomalies 
The penis as a component of external genitalia, takes part in fertility, urinary and psychosexual structure of males with its complex character. We report a case of penis agenesis with associated left renal agenesis, left superior segment ureteral agenesis, prostate agenesis, left ureterocele, right vesicoureteral reflux and high urethrorectal communication above the rectal sphincter. The patient refused any surgical intervention because of his religious beliefs.
PMCID: PMC4601949  PMID: 26298242
Penis agenesis; Aphallia; Renal agenesis; Prostate agenesis; Vesicoureteral reflux; Ureterocele; Vesicorectal fistula
7.  Clinical and Prognostic Features of Erionite-Induced Malignant Mesothelioma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2015;56(2):311-323.
This review analytically examines the published data for erionite-related malignant pleural mesothelioma (E-MPM) and any data to support a genetically predisposed mechanism to erionite fiber carcinogenesis. Adult patients of age ≥18 years with erionite-related pleural diseases and genetically predisposed mechanisms to erionite carcinogenesis were included, while exclusion criteria included asbestos- or tremolite-related pleural diseases. The search was limited to human studies though not limited to a specific timeframe. A total of 33 studies (31042 patients) including 22 retrospective studies, 6 prospective studies, and 5 case reports were reviewed. E-MPM developed in some subjects with high exposures to erionite, though not all. Chest CT was more reliable in detecting various pleural changes in E-MPM than chest X-ray, and pleural effusion was the most common finding in E-MPM cases, by both tests. Bronchoalveolar lavage remains a reliable and relatively less invasive technique. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and mitomycin can be administered either alone or following surgery. Erionite has been the culprit of numerous malignant mesothelioma cases in Europe and even in North America. Erionite has a higher degree of carcinogenicity with possible genetic transmission of erionite susceptibility in an autosomal dominant fashion. Therapeutic management for E-MPM remains very limited, and cure of the disease is extremely rare.
PMCID: PMC4329339  PMID: 25683976
Asbestos; malignant mesothelioma; pleural effusion
8.  Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer 
Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4276682  PMID: 25574403
9.  Relation between inflammatory cytokine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gene polymorphism in young adult patients with bronchiectasis 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2014;6(6):684-693.
Bronchiectasis develops as a result of genetic and environmental factors and its etiopathogenesis is not still clear. Recent studies have revealed that inflammatory cytokines, which are formed as a result of chronic infection and inflammation, play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. For this purpose, the level of inflammatory cytokines in bronchiectasis and the presence or absence of a genetic predisposition with the gene polymorphism of these cytokines was investigated.
Material and methods
A total of 60 patients, 40 study cases and 20 controls, which were monitored with the diagnosis of bronchiectasis were included in the study. In these individuals, cytokine levels [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, along with the routine blood tests, were determined. Furthermore, the polymorphism in IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α cytokine genes and its frequency were studied in the obtained DNA by the automatic sequence analysis method and the results were compared.
It was found that in serum and BAL fluid of the patient group, the IL-8 level was high, whereas the IL-10 level was low (P<0.05). No significant difference was detected in the other cytokines (P>0.05). It was found that in cytokine gene polymorphisms IL-8 -251 A/T, IL-10 -592 A/C, and IL-10 -819 T/C genotypes are associated with increased risk of bronchiectasis. It was detected that the IL-8 -251 A/T genotype increased the risk of having the disease by 4.19 fold. (OR =4.19, 95% CI =1.24-14.17, P=0.021). The IL-10 -592 C/A genotype increased the risk of having the disease by 5.71 fold (OR = 5.71, 95% CI =1.35-24.06, P=0.017) and the IL-10 -819 T/C genotype increased the risk of having the disease by 5.06 fold (OR =5.06, 95% CI =1.20-21.27, P=0.048). No significant correlation was found between the other polymorphisms and bronchiectasis.
The IL-8, IL-10 levels and the gene polymorphism of these cytokines differ. In addition to detecting higher levels of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10, detection of gene polymorphism related to these two cytokines in bronchiectasis gives rise to the thought that cytokines may have role in a predisposition to bronchiectasis. However, as the number of patients is small, precise remarks could not be made on this subject. There is need for further studies include a larger number of patients.
PMCID: PMC4073412  PMID: 24976991
Bronchiectasis; inflammation; cytokine; DNA sequence analysis; gene polymorphism
10.  Evaluation of Quality of Life with the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Effect of Dyspnea on Disease-Specific Quality of Life in These Patients 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1214-1219.
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) was recently introduced for use in assessing disease-specific quality of life and follow-up of patients with COPD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dyspnea on disease-specific quality of life detected by CAT score in patients with COPD.
Materials and Methods
In this study, 90 stable patients with COPD as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria were included. The level of dyspnea was assessed with the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, and disease-specific quality of life was assessed with CAT score.
The mean±SD age was 68.5±10.9 (range 41-97) years. A significant relationship was established between CAT score, MRC dyspnea scale score and GOLD stage in patients with COPD. There was also a positive correlation between dyspnea scale scores and GOLD stage in the patients (p<0.001), as well as positive correlation between CAT score and dyspnea scale score (p<0.001). CAT score showed a significant correlation with hospitalization and exacerbations (p<0.05).
Dyspnea is an important symptom that may impact quality of life in patients with COPD. CAT was shown to be a simple, fast and intelligible measurement of disease-specific quality of life, and was correlated with levels of dyspnea in patients with COPD.
PMCID: PMC3743182  PMID: 23918572
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; dyspnea; quality of life
11.  The Relationship of Orthodontic Treatment Need with Periodontal Status, Dental Caries, and Sociodemographic Factors 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:498012.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11–14 years). Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) scores, and a questionnaire that surveyed socio-demographic status of students were used. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between variables. TPI scores showed that 36.4% of the students had normal occlusion, while 41.2% had slight, 15.7% had definite, 4% had severe, and 2.7% had very severe malocclusion. TPI values did not show any significant differences between pupils in different age, gender, socioeconomic status groups, and CPITN scores, whereas there was a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores. The orthodontic treatment need was not significantly correlated with CPITN or socio-demographic status; however, the correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores.
PMCID: PMC3485904  PMID: 23193381
12.  Efficacy of serum chitotriosidase activity in early treatment of patients with active tuberculosis and a negative sputum smear 
The results of sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis must be awaited in most cases, which delays the start of treatment in patients with sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. We investigated whether plasma chitotriosidase activity is a strong marker for early diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients for whom a bacillus smear is negative and tuberculosis culture is positive.
Clinical, radiological, and laboratory features were evaluated in 75 patients, 17 of whom were diagnosed as having active tuberculosis by negative acid-fast bacillus smear and positive culture, 38 as having sequel tuberculosis which was radiologically and microbiologically negative, and 20 who served as healthy controls. Serum chitotriosidase activity levels were measured in both cases and controls.
The mean age of the cases with active pulmonary tuberculosis, cases with sequel lesions, and controls was 23 ± 2.4 years, 22 ± 1.7 years, and 24 ± 2.1 years, respectively. Serum chitotriosidase levels were 68.05 ± 72.61 nmol/hour/mL in smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases (Group A) and 29.73 ± 20.55 nmol/hour/mL in smear-negative, culture-negative sequel pulmonary tuberculosis cases (Group B). Serum chitotriosidase levels from patients in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B and Group C. There was no statistically significant difference in serum chitotriosidase levels between cases with sequel pulmonary tuberculosis (Group B, smear-negative, culture-negative) and healthy controls (Group C).
In patients with active tuberculosis and a negative sputum smear for acid-fast bacillus, plasma chitotriosidase activity seems to be a strong marker for diagnosis of active disease which can be used while awaiting culture results.
PMCID: PMC3431959  PMID: 22956876
pulmonary tuberculosis; serum chitotriosidase; diagnosis; antituberculous treatment; disease activity
13.  High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Stem-Cell Support As Adjuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer: Overview of 15 Randomized Trials 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(24):3214-3223.
Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHST) for high-risk primary breast cancer has not been shown to prolong survival. Individual trials have had limited power to show overall benefit or benefits within subsets.
We assembled individual patient data from 15 randomized trials that compared HDC versus control therapy without stem-cell support. Prospectively defined primary end points were relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). We compared the effect of HDC versus control by using log-rank tests and proportional hazards regression, and we adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. Subset analyses were by age, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor size, histology, hormone receptor (HmR) status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status.
Of 6,210 total patients (n = 3,118, HDC; n = 3,092 control), the median age was 46 years; 69% were premenopausal, 29% were postmenopausal, and 2% were unknown menopausal status; 49.5% were HmR positive; 33.5% were HmR negative, and 17% were unknown HmR status. The median follow-up was 6 years. After analysis was adjusted for covariates, HDC was found to prolong relapse-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.93; P < .001) but not overall survival (OS; HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.02; P = .13). For OS, no covariates had statistically significant interactions with treatment effect, and no subsets evinced a significant effect of HDC. Younger patients had a significantly better RFS on HDC than did older patients.
Adjuvant HDC with AHST prolonged RFS in high-risk primary breast cancer compared with control, but this did not translate into a significant OS benefit. Whether HDC benefits patients in the context of targeted therapies is unknown.
PMCID: PMC4322115  PMID: 21768471
14.  High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Overview of Six Randomized Trials 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(24):3224-3231.
High doses of effective chemotherapy are compelling if they can be delivered safely. Substantial interest in supporting high-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow or autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in the 1980s and 1990s led to the initiation of randomized trials to evaluate its effect in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
We identified six randomized trials in metastatic breast cancer that evaluated high doses of chemotherapy with transplant support versus a control regimen without stem-cell support. We assembled a single database containing individual patient information from these trials. The primary analysis of overall survival was a log-rank test comparing high dose versus control. We also used Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for known covariates. We addressed potential treatment differences within subsets of patients.
The effect of high-dose chemotherapy on overall survival was not statistically different (median, 2.16 v 2.02 years; P = .08). A statistically significant advantage in progression-free survival (median, 0.91 v 0.69 years) did not translate into survival benefit. Subset analyses found little evidence that there are groups of patients who might benefit from high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic support.
Overall survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the six randomized trials was not significantly improved by high-dose chemotherapy; any benefit from high doses was small. No identifiable subset of patients seems to benefit from high-dose chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC4322116  PMID: 21768454
15.  Comparison of the Data Classification Approaches to Diagnose Spinal Cord Injury 
In our previous study, we have demonstrated that analyzing the skin impedances measured along the key points of the dermatomes might be a useful supplementary technique to enhance the diagnosis of spinal cord injury (SCI), especially for unconscious and noncooperative patients. Initially, in order to distinguish between the skin impedances of control group and patients, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the main data classification approach. However, in the present study, we have proposed two more data classification approaches, that is, support vector machine (SVM) and hierarchical cluster tree analysis (HCTA), which improved the classification rate and also the overall performance. A comparison of the performance of these three methods in classifying traumatic SCI patients and controls was presented. The classification results indicated that dendrogram analysis based on HCTA algorithm and SVM achieved higher recognition accuracies compared to ANN. HCTA and SVM algorithms improved the classification rate and also the overall performance of SCI diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3306787  PMID: 22474539
16.  A Radar-Enabled Collaborative Sensor Network Integrating COTS Technology for Surveillance and Tracking 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(2):1336-1351.
The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.
PMCID: PMC3304115  PMID: 22438713
Doppler radar; wireless sensor mote; autonomous sensor network; surveillance; tracking
17.  Gingival Hyperplasia as an Early Diagnostic Oral Manifestation in Acute Monocytic Leukemia: A Case Report 
European Journal of Dentistry  2007;1(2):111-114.
Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease of bone marrow. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy is essential. Rapidly forming gingival hyperplasia is usually the first sign of this disease. This case report describes a 17-year-old female who presented rapid gingival overgrowth together with gingival bleeding in only two weeks time. A medical consultation was asked from hematology clinics and after a detailed medical examination Acute Monocytic Leukemia (FAB M5) was rendered. Chemotherapy was the choice of treatment. The patient responded well to chemotherapeutic induction regimen and after two months of medical therapy disease remised and gingival hyperplasia regressed. This case report shows that the gingival hyperplasia may represent an initial manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. Also, early medical therapy in acute monocytic leukemia may resolve the gingival hyperplasia that companies the disease progression.
PMCID: PMC2609944  PMID: 19212486
Acute monocytic leukemia; Gingival hyperplasia
18.  Salvage high-dose chemotherapy for children with extragonadal germ-cell tumours 
British Journal of Cancer  2005;93(4):412-417.
We reviewed the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) experience with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in paediatric patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumour (GCT). A total of 23 children with extragonadal GCT, median age 12 years (range 1–20), were treated with salvage HDC with haematopoietic progenitor cell support. The GCT primary location was intracranial site in nine cases, sacrococcyx in eight, retroperitoneum in four, and mediastinum in two. In all, 22 patients had a nongerminomatous GCT and one germinoma. Nine patients received HDC in first- and 14 in second- or third-relapse situation. No toxic deaths occurred. Overall, 16 of 23 patients (70%) achieved a complete remission. With a median follow-up of 66 months (range 31–173 months), 10 (43%) are continuously disease-free. Of six patients who had a disease recurrence after HDC, one achieved a disease-free status with surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In total, 11 patients (48%) are currently disease-free. Eight of 14 patients (57%) with extracranial primary and three of nine patients (33%) with intracranial primary GCT are currently disease-free. HDC induced impressive long-term remissions as salvage treatment in children with extragonadal extracranial GCTs. Salvage HDC should be investigated in prospective trials in these patients.
PMCID: PMC2361583  PMID: 16106248
extragonadal germ cell tumour; high-dose chemotherapy; salvage therapy; children

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