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1.  Endocrine-Therapy-Resistant ESR1 Variants Revealed by Genomic Characterization of Breast-Cancer-Derived Xenografts 
Cell reports  2013;4(6):10.1016/j.celrep.2013.08.022.
SUMMARY
To characterize patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for functional studies, we made whole-genome comparisons with originating breast cancers representative of the major intrinsic subtypes. Structural and copy number aberrations were found to be retained with high fidelity. However, at the single-nucleotide level, variable numbers of PDX-specific somatic events were documented, although they were only rarely functionally significant. Variant allele frequencies were often preserved in the PDXs, demonstrating that clonal representation can be transplantable. Estrogen-receptor-positive PDXs were associated with ESR1 ligand-binding-domain mutations, gene amplification, or an ESR1/YAP1 translocation. These events produced different endocrine-therapy-response phenotypes in human, cell line, and PDX endocrine-response studies. Hence, deeply sequenced PDX models are an important resource for the search for genome-forward treatment options and capture endocrine-drug-resistance etiologies that are not observed in standard cell lines. The originating tumor genome provides a benchmark for assessing genetic drift and clonal representation after transplantation.
doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.08.022
PMCID: PMC3881975  PMID: 24055055
2.  A comparison of PAM50 intrinsic subtyping with immunohistochemistry and clinical prognostic factors in tamoxifen-treated estrogen receptor positive breast cancer 
Purpose
To compare clinical, immunohistochemical and gene expression models of prognosis applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks in a large series of estrogen receptor positive breast cancers, from patients uniformly treated with adjuvant tamoxifen.
Methods
qRT-PCR assays for 50 genes identifying intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were completed on 786 specimens linked to clinical (median followup 11.7 years) and immunohistochemical (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67) data. Performance of predefined intrinsic subtype and Risk-Of-Relapse scores was assessed using multivariable Cox models and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Harrell’s C index was used to compare fixed models trained in independent data sets, including proliferation signatures.
Results
Despite clinical ER positivity, 10% of cases were assigned to non-Luminal subtypes. qRT-PCR signatures for proliferation genes gave more prognostic information than clinical assays for hormone receptors or Ki67. In Cox models incorporating standard prognostic variables, hazard ratios for breast cancer disease specific survival over the first 5 years of followup, relative to the most common Luminal A subtype, are 1.99 (95% CI: 1.09–3.64) for Luminal B, 3.65 (1.64–8.16) for HER2-enriched and 17.71 (1.71–183.33) for the basal like subtype. For node-negative disease, PAM50 qRT-PCR based risk assignment weighted for tumor size and proliferation identifies a group with >95% 10 yr survival without chemotherapy. In node positive disease, PAM50-based prognostic models were also superior.
Conclusion
The PAM50 gene expression test for intrinsic biological subtype can be applied to large series of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancers, and gives more prognostic information than clinical factors and immunohistochemistry using standard cutpoints.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-1282
PMCID: PMC2970720  PMID: 20837693
3.  PIK3CA and PIK3CB inhibition produce synthetic lethality when combined with estrogen deprivation in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer 
Cancer research  2009;69(9):3955-3962.
Several phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit inhibitors are currently in clinical trial. We therefore sought to examine relationships between pharmacological inhibition and somatic mutations in PI3K catalytic subunits in ER+ breast cancer, where these mutations are particularly common. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to determine the effect of selective inhibition of PI3K catalytic subunits, p110α and p110β, in ER+ breast cancer cells harboring either mutation (PIK3CA) or gene amplification (PIK3CB). p110α RNAi inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in all tested ER+ breast cancer cells under estrogen deprived-conditions, whereas p110β RNAi only affected cells harboring PIK3CB amplification. Moreover, dual p110α/p110β inhibition potentiated these effects. In addition, treatment with the clinical grade PI3K catalytic subunit inhibitor BEZ235 also promoted apoptosis in ER+ breast cancer cells. Importantly, estradiol suppressed apoptosis induced by both gene knockdowns and by BEZ235 treatment. Our results suggest that PI3K inhibitors should target both p110α and p110β catalytic subunits, whether wild-type or mutant, and be combined with endocrine therapy for maximal efficacy when treating ER+ breast cancer.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4450
PMCID: PMC2811393  PMID: 19366795
breast cancer; estrogen receptor; PI3 kinase; endocrine therapy; synthetic lethality

Results 1-3 (3)