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author:("Das, mania")
1.  Suitability of self-collected vaginal samples for cervical cancer screening in peri-urban villages in Andhra Pradesh, India 
Objectives:
Our aim was to determine if (1) Hybrid Capture 2 and a PCR-based method were comparable for detection of high-risk HPVs, (2) clinician-collected and self-collected samples were equally efficient to detect HPV and cervical cancer precursor lesions and (3) if participation rates improved with home-based vs. clinic-based self collection.
Methods:
Samples were selected from women participating in a cervical cancer screening study according to human papillomavirus (HPV), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), or Pap smear screening results. From 432 of 892 selected women, split sample aliquots were tested for HPV DNA using both the Hybrid Capture 2 assay and the Roche prototype line blot assay. Women from a subset of villages were recruited at two separate time points for clinic-based self-collection and home-based self-collection, and participation rates were compared.
Results:
Pairwise agreement between self- and clinician-collected samples was high by both hc2 (90.8% agreement, kappa=0.7) and PCR (92.6% agreement, kappa=0.8), with significantly increased high-risk HPV detection in clinician-collected specimens (McNemar's p<0.01). Ability to detect precursor lesions was highest by PCR testing of clinician-collected samples and lowest by Hybrid Capture 2 testing of self-collected samples (11/11 and 9/11 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and cancer detected, respectively). Participation in home-based screening was significantly higher than clinic-based screening (71.5% and 53.8%, respectively; p<0.001) among women 30-45 years old.
Conclusion:
The combination of improved screening coverage and a high single test sensitivity afforded by HPV DNA testing of home-based self-collected swabs may have a greater programmatic impact on cervical cancer mortality reduction compared to programs requiring a pelvic exam.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1171
PMCID: PMC2762740  PMID: 19423518
2.  Reasons for Seeking HIV-test: Evidence from a Private Hospital in Rural Andhra Pradesh, India 
This study sought to describe the development of HIV counselling and testing services in a rural private hospital and to explore the factors associated with reasons for seeking HIV testing and sexual behaviours among adults seeking testing in the rural hospital. Data for this study were drawn from a voluntary counselling and testing clinic in a private hospital in rural Andhra Pradesh state in southern India. In total, 5,601 rural residents sought HIV counselling and testing and took part in a behavioural risk-assessment survey during October 2003–June 2005. The prevalence of HIV was 1.1%. Among the two reported reasons for test-seeking—based on past sexual behaviour and based on being sick at the time of testing—men, individuals reporting risk behaviours, such as those having multiple pre- and postmarital sexual partners, individuals whose recent partner was a sex worker, and those who reported using alcohol before sex, were more likely to seek testing based on their past sexual behaviour. Men also were more likely to seek testing because they were sick. The findings from this large sample in rural India suggest that providing HIV-prevention and care services as part of an ongoing system of healthcare-delivery may benefit rural residents who otherwise may not have access to these services. The implications of involving the private sector in HIV-related service-delivery and in conducting research in rural areas are discussed. It is argued that services that are gaining prominence in urban areas, such as addressing male heterosexual behaviours and assessing the role of alcohol-use, are equally relevant areas of intervention in rural India.
PMCID: PMC2740696  PMID: 19069622
HIV; HIV infections; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Private sector; Rural health services; Voluntary counselling and testing; India
3.  Prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and in normal women in Andhra Pradesh, India 
Background
Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer reported from India, large scale population based studies on the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are very few from this region. In view of the clinical trials for HPV vaccine taking place in India, it is of utmost importance to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in various geographical regions of India. We investigated the genotype distribution of high-risk HPV types in squamous cell carcinomas and the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervicovaginal samples in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh (AP), India.
Methods
HPV genotyping was done in cervical cancer specimens (n = 41) obtained from women attending a regional cancer hospital in Hyderabad. HPV-DNA testing was also done in cervicovaginal samples (n = 185) collected from women enrolled in the cervical cancer screening pilot study conducted in the rural community, of Medchal Mandal, twenty kilometers away from Hyderabad.
Results
High-risk HPV types were found in 87.8% (n = 36/41) of the squamous cell carcinomas using a PCR-based line blot assay. Among the HPV positive cancers, the overall type distribution of the major high-risk HPV types was as follows: HPV 16 (66.7%), HPV 18 (19.4%), HPV 33 (5.6%), HPV 35 (5.6%), HPV 45 (5.6%), HPV 52 (2.8%), HPV 58(2.8%), HPV 59(2.8%) and HPV 73 (2.8%). Women participating in the community screening programme provided both a self-collected vaginal swab and a clinician-collected cervical swab for HPV DNA testing. Primary screening for high risk HPV was performed using the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) assay. All hc2 positive samples by any one method of collection were further analyzed using the Roche PCR-based line blot for genotype determination. The prevalence of high risk HPV infection in this community-based screening population was 10.3% (19/185) using the clinician-collected and 7.0% (13/185) using the self-collected samples. The overall agreement between self-collected and clinician-collected samples was 92%; however among HPV-positive specimens, the HPV agreement was only moderate (39.1%). The most frequently detected HPV types in the Medchal community are HPV 52 and 16.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the HPV type distribution in both cervical cancer tissues and in a general screening population from Andhra Pradesh is similar to that reported in India and other parts of the world. We also conclude that an effective vaccine targeting HPV 16 will reduce the cervical cancer burden in AP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-116
PMCID: PMC1345691  PMID: 16371167
4.  URINARY EXCRETION OF FOREIGN ANTIGENS AND RNA FOLLOWING PRIMARY AND SECONDARY INJECTIONS OF ANTIGENS 
Two soluble antigens, BSA and KLH labeled with sulfanilate-35S, when injected intravenously into normal animals, were excreted in the urine to over 70% in 24 hr. Over the next 6 days, 25% more was excreted after which time only a trace could be detected. Much of the antigen remaining from the primary injection appeared in the urine following a secondary injection of the unlabeled protein carrier at 7 days after primary injection. The antigen material found in the urine was quite heterogeneous with respect to physical properties and much of it was associated with RNA material as shown by chromatographic analyses. The main difference between the labeled material released following the primary and secondary injection was the higher degree of association of antigen material with nucleotide material after secondary injection as compared with primary injection. Further study is needed to distinguish qualitative from quantitative changes of the components, antigen and nucleic acid, and also the nature of their association. Possible similarities were found for the RNA-antigen material released from tissue after secondary injection of unlabeled antigen, and the material that was isolated previously from liver.
PMCID: PMC2138346  PMID: 6016894

Results 1-4 (4)