Significance: Mechanosignaling is vital for maintaining the structural integrity of bone under physiologic conditions. These signals activate and suppress multiple signaling cascades regulating bone formation and resorption. Understanding these pathways is of prime importance to exploit their therapeutic potential in disorders associated with bone loss due to disuse, trauma, or disruption of homeostatic mechanisms. Recent Advances: In the case of cells of the bone, an impressive amount of data has been generated that provides evidence of a complex mechanism by which mechanical signals can maintain or disrupt cellular homeostasis by driving transcriptional regulation of growth factors, matrix proteins and inflammatory mediators in health and inflammation. Mechanical signals act on cells in a magnitude dependent manner to induce bone deposition or resorption. During health, physiological levels of these signals are essential for maintaining bone strength and architecture, whereas during inflammation, similar signals can curb inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascade, while upregulating matrix synthesis via mothers against decapentaplegic homolog and/or Wnt signaling cascades. Contrarily, excessive mechanical forces can induce inflammation via activation of the NF-κB signaling cascade. Critical Issues: Given the osteogenic potential of mechanical signals, it is imperative to exploit their therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bone disorders. Here we review select signaling pathways and mediators stimulated by mechanical signals to modulate the strength and integrity of the bone. Future Directions: Understanding the mechanisms of mechanotransduction and its effects on bone lay the groundwork for development of nonpharmacologic mechanostimulatory approaches for osteodegenerative diseases and optimal bone health. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 970–985.
Nanofiber-expanded human umbilical cord blood–derived CD34+ cell therapy has been shown to have potential applications for peripheral and myocardial ischaemic diseases. However, the efficacies of expanded CD34+ cell therapy for treating cutaneous wounds and its mechanisms of action have yet to be established. Using an excisional wound model in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune deficient mice, we show herein that CD34+ cells accelerate the wound-healing process by enhancing collagen synthesis, and increasing fibroblast cell migration within the wound bed. Concomitantly, reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) such as MMP1, MMP3, MMP9 and MMP13 were detected in the wound beds of animals treated with CD34+ cells compared with vehicle-treated controls. CD34+ cells were found to mediate enhanced migration and proliferation of dermal fibroblast cells in vitro. Moreover, CD34+ cells secrete collagen in a serum-deprived environment. In mechanistic studies, co-culture of CD34+ cells with primary skin fibroblasts increased the expression of collagen1A1, a component of type 1 collagen, and decreased the expression of MMP1 in fibroblast cells in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, CD34+ cell–mediated functions were transcriptionally regulated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinases pathway. Collectively, these data provide evidence of therapeutic efficacy and a novel mechanism of nanofiber-expanded CD34+ cell–mediated accelerated wound healing.
human umbilical cord blood; nanofiber-expanded CD34+ cells; cutaneous wound; NOD/SCID mice; collagen; MMPs
Innate immune system has been known to play an important role in
inhibiting the malignant transformation, tumor progression and invasion.
However, the mechanistic basis remains ambiguous. Despite polyclonality of human
γδ T cells, Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset was shown to
recognize and limit the growth of various tumors at various degrees. The
differential recognition of the tumor cells by Vγ2Vδ2 T cells are
yet to be defined. Our study reveals that γδ T cells limit
in vitro growth of most breast tumor cells, such as SkBr7
(HER2+), MCF7 (ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (ER−) by inhibiting their survival and
inducing apoptosis, except BrCa-MZ01 (PR+) cells. To investigate detail
mechanisms of antineoplastic effects, we found that cell death was associated
with the surface expression levels of MICA/B and ICAM1. Molecular signaling
analysis demonstrated that inhibition of cell growth by γδ T cells
was associated with the lower expression levels of cell survival-related
molecules such as AKT, ERK and concomitant upregulation of apoptosis-related
molecules, such as PARP, cleaved caspase 3 and tumor suppressor genes PTEN and
P53. However, opposite molecular signaling was observed in the resistant cell
line after coculture with γδ T cells. In vivo,
antineoplastic effects of γδ T cells were also documented, where
tumor growth was inhibited due to the downregulation of survival signals, strong
induction of apoptotic molecules, disruption of microvasculature and increased
infiltration of tumor associated macrophages. These findings reveal that a
complex molecular signaling is involved in γδ T cell-mediated
Vγ2Vδ2 T cell; breast cancer; cell survival; apoptosis; angiogenesis; xenotransplant; NOD/SCID mice
Molecular-focused cancer therapies, e.g., molecularly targeted therapy and immunotherapy, so far demonstrate only limited efficacy in cancer patients. We hypothesize that underestimating the role of biophysical factors that impact the delivery of drugs or cytotoxic cells to the target sites (for associated preferential cytotoxicity or cell signaling modulation) may be responsible for the poor clinical outcome. Therefore, instead of focusing exclusively on the investigation of molecular mechanisms in cancer cells, convection-diffusion of cytotoxic molecules and migration of cancer-killing cells within tumor tissue should be taken into account to improve therapeutic effectiveness. To test this hypothesis, we have developed a mathematical model of the interstitial diffusion and uptake of small cytotoxic molecules secreted by T-cells, which is capable of predicting breast cancer growth inhibition as measured both in vitro and in vivo. Our analysis shows that diffusion barriers of cytotoxic molecules conspire with γδ T-cell scarcity in tissue to limit the inhibitory effects of γδ T-cells on cancer cells. This may increase the necessary ratios of γδ T-cells to cancer cells within tissue to unrealistic values for having an intended therapeutic effect, and decrease the effectiveness of the immunotherapeutic treatment.
Osteoporosis is a bone disorder associated with loss of bone mineral density and micro architecture. A balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities maintains bone homeostasis. Increased bone loss due to increased osteoclast and decreased osteoblast activities is considered as an underlying cause of osteoporosis.
Methods and Findings
The cures for osteoporosis are limited, consequently the potential of CD34+ cell therapies is currently being considered. We developed a nanofiber-based expansion technology to obtain adequate numbers of CD34+ cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood, for therapeutic applications. Herein, we show that CD34+ cells could be differentiated into osteoblastic lineage, in vitro. Systemically delivered CD34+ cells home to the bone marrow and significantly improve bone deposition, bone mineral density and bone micro-architecture in osteoporotic mice. The elevated levels of osteocalcin, IL-10, GM-CSF, and decreased levels of MCP-1 in serum parallel the improvements in bone micro-architecture. Furthermore, CD34+ cells improved osteoblast activity and concurrently impaired osteoclast differentiation, maturation and functionality.
These findings demonstrate a novel approach utilizing nanofiber-expanded CD34+ cells as a therapeutic application for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) pool depends on fine balance between self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. HSCs normally reside within the bone marrow niche of an adult mammal. The embryonic development of HSCs is a complex process that involves the migration of developing HSCs in multiple anatomical sites. Throughout the process, developing HSCs receive internal (transcriptional program) and external (HSC niche) signals, which direct them to maintain balance between self-renewal and differentiation, also to generate a pool of HSCs. In physiological condition HSCs differentiate into all mature cell types present in the blood. However, in pathological condition they may differentiate into non-hematological cells according to the need of the body. It was shown that HSCs can transdifferentiate into cell types that do not belong to the hematopoietic system suggests a complete paradigm shift of the hierarchical hematopoietic tree. This review describes the developmental origins and regulation of HSCs focusing on developmental signals that induce the adult hematopoietic stem cell program, as these informations are very critical for manipulating conditions for expansion of HSCs in ex vivo condition. This review also states clinical application and related patents using HSC.
Hematopoietic stem cells; embryonic development; regulation; self-renewal; differentiation; transdifferentiation; clinical application; patents
The Phase I clinical study was designed to assess the safety and feasibility of a dose escalating intracoronary infusion of autologous bone marrow (BM)-derived CD133+ stem cell therapy to the patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) and ischemia. Nine patients were received CD133+ cells into epicardial vessels supplying collateral flow to areas of viable ischemic myocardium in the distribution of the CTO. There were no major adverse cardiac events (MACE), revascularization, re-admission to the hospital secondary to angina, or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for the 24-month period following cellular infusion. In addition, there were no periprocedural infusion-related complications including malignant arrhythmias, loss of normal coronary blood flow or acute neurologic events. Cardiac enzymes were negative in all patients. There was an improvement in the degree of ischemic myocardium, which was accompanied by a trend towards reduction in anginal symptoms. Intracoronary infusion of autologous CD133+ marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible. Cellular therapy with CD133+ cells to reduce anginal symptoms and to improve ischemia in patients with CTO awaits clinical investigation in Phase II/III trials.
Safety; Efficacy; Autologous; Bone marrow; CD133; Chronic; Myocardial; Ischemia; Therapy
Mechanisms of human Vγ2Vδ2 T cell-mediated tumor immunity have yet to be fully elucidated.
Methods and Findings
At least some tumor cell recognition is mediated by NKG2D-MICA interactions. Herein, by using MTT assay and PI-BrdU co-staining and Western-blot, we show that these Vγ2Vδ2 T cells can limit the proliferation of ovarian tumor cells by down regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle related molecules in tumor cells. Cell-to-cell contact is critical. γδ T cell-resistant, but not susceptible ovarian tumor cells escape γδ T cell-mediated immune recognition by up-regulating pErk1/2, thereby decreasing surface MICA levels. Erk1/2 inhibitor pretreatment or incubation prevents this MICA decrease, while up-regulating key cell cycle related molecules such as CDK2, CDK4 and Cyclin D1, as well as apoptosis related molecules making resistant tumor cells now vulnerable to γδ T cell-mediated lysis.
These findings demonstrate novel effects of γδT cells on ovarian tumor cells.
Despite recent advances in cardiovascular medicine, ischemic heart disease remains the major cause of death in the United States and abroad. Cell-based therapy for degenerative diseases like myocardial ischemia using stem cells is currently under serious investigation. Various types of stem cells are being considered to be candidates for cell transplantation in cell-based therapy. Hematopoietic stem cells are one of the most promising cell types as several studies demonstrated their ability to improve ischemic cardiac functions by enhancing neovascularization and by reducing the total size of scar tissue. However, in order to procure sufficient numbers of functional stem cells, ex-vivo expansion technology became critically important. In this review, we focus on the state-of-the-art ex-vivo technology for the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells, and the underlying mechanisms regulating stem cell self-renewal as well as differentiation.
ischemic heart disease; ex-vivo expansion; hematopoietic stem cells; cytokines; nanofibers
Therapeutic potential was evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction using nanofiber-expanded human cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (CD133+/CD34+) genetically modified with VEGF plus PDGF genes (VIP).
Methods and Findings
Myocardial function was monitored every two weeks up to six weeks after therapy. Echocardiography revealed time dependent improvement of left ventricular function evaluated by M-mode, fractional shortening, anterior wall tissue velocity, wall motion score index, strain and strain rate in animals treated with VEGF plus PDGF overexpressed stem cells (VIP) compared to nanofiber expanded cells (Exp), freshly isolated cells (FCB) or media control (Media). Improvement observed was as follows: VIP>Exp> FCB>media. Similar trend was noticed in the exercise capacity of rats on a treadmill. These findings correlated with significantly increased neovascularization in ischemic tissue and markedly reduced infarct area in animals in the VIP group. Stem cells in addition to their usual homing sites such as lung, spleen, bone marrow and liver, also migrated to sites of myocardial ischemia. The improvement of cardiac function correlated with expression of heart tissue connexin 43, a gap junctional protein, and heart tissue angiogenesis related protein molecules like VEGF, pNOS3, NOS2 and GSK3. There was no evidence of upregulation in the molecules of oncogenic potential in genetically modified or other stem cell therapy groups.
Regenerative therapy using nanofiber-expanded hematopoietic stem cells with overexpression of VEGF and PDGF has a favorable impact on the improvement of rat myocardial function accompanied by upregulation of tissue connexin 43 and pro-angiogenic molecules after infarction.
The stem cell therapy for treating ischemic diseases is promising; however, the limited availability and compromised quality of progenitor cells in aged and diseased patients limit its therapeutic use. Here we report a nanofiber-based ex vivo stem cell expansion technology and proangiogenic growth factors overexpression of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived progenitor cells to enhance angiogenic potential of therapeutic stem cells. The progenitor cells were expanded ~225-fold on nanofiber-based serum-free ex vivo expansion culture technique without inducing differentiation. The expanded cells express high levels of stem cell homing receptor, CXCR4, and adhesion molecule, LFA-1. The nanofiber-expanded stem cells uptake AcLDL effectively, and migrate efficiently in an in vitro transmigration assay. These expanded cells can also differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a NOD/SCID mouse hind limb vascular injury model, nanofiber-expanded cells were more effective in blood flow restoration and this effect was further augmented by VEGF164 and PDGF-BB, growth factor overexpression. The data indicate that nanofiber-based ex vivo expansion technology can provide an essential number of therapeutic stem cells. Additionally, proangiogenic growth factors overexpression in progenitor cells can potentially improve autologous or allogeneic stem cell therapy for ischemic diseases.
Human umbilical cord blood; Hematopoietic progenitor stem cells; Proangiogenic growth factors; Nanofibers; Limb ischemia
Immature myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) express only low levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II but express high levels of CD1 a, b, and c antigen-presenting molecules at the cell surface. As Vδ1+ γ/δ T cells are the main tissue subset of γ/δ T cells and they are known to recognize CD1c in the absence of specific foreign antigen recognition, we examined the possible interaction of these T cells with immature DCs. We show that CD1-restricted γ/δ T cells can mediate the maturation of DCs. DC maturation required cell–cell contact and could be blocked by antibodies against CD1c. The maturation process was partially mediated by tumor necrosis factor α. Importantly, immature DCs matured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide and CD1-restricted γ/δ T cells produced bioactive interleukin-12p70. In addition, these DCs were able to efficiently present peptide antigens to naive CD4+ T cells. CD1-restricted γ/δ T cell recognition of immature DCs provides the human immune system with the capacity to rapidly generate a pool of mature DCs early during microbial invasion. This may be an important source of critical host signals for T helper type 1 polarization of antigen-specific naive T cells and the subsequent adaptive immune response.
T cell antigen receptors γ/δ; CD1; dendritic cells; antigen-presenting cell; tumor necrosis factor
Vγ2Vδ2 cells, a class of T cells found only in primates, are reactive to nonpeptide organophosphate and alkylamine antigens secreted by bacteria and parasites. These cells make up 2-5% percent of human peripheral blood T cells but expand to make up 8–60% of peripheral blood T cells during bacterial and parasitic infections. We show here, using a chimeric severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse (hu-SCID) model, that human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells mediate resistance to extracellular gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Morganella morganii) bacteria, as assessed by survival, body weight, bacterial loads, and histopathology. Surprisingly, this bacterial resistance was evident 1 day after infection, and bacteria were cleared well before γδ T cell expansion was detected 6 days after infection. Decreased resistance in Vδ2 T cell–depleted hu-SCID mice correlated with decreased serum IFN-γ titers. Intravenous treatment of infected, reconstituted hu-SCID mice with pamidronate, a human Vγ2Vδ2 T cell–specific aminobisphosphonate antigen, markedly increased the in vivo antibacterial effect of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Therefore, this large pool of antigen-specific, yet immediately reactive memory human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells is likely to be an important mediator of resistance against extracellular bacterial infection and may bridge the gap between innate and acquired immunity.