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author:("camber, L")
1.  Cancers in concrete workers: results of a cohort study of 33 668 workers 
OBJECTIVES—To study cancer morbidity patterns in concrete workers.
METHODS—A cohort of 33 503 concrete workers was enrolled in the study from 1971-86. The average duration of follow up was 19.4 years (582 225 person-years). The workers' cancer morbidity was compared with the morbidity of the general population.
RESULTS—A total of 3572 incident cancers were observed. Significantly increased standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were found for all malignant neoplasms (SIR 107; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 103 to 110), cancer of the lip (SIR 179; 95%CI 134 to 234), cancer of the stomach (SIR 139; 95%CI 122 to 158), cancer of the lung (SIR 125; 95%CI 114 to 137), and cancer of the prostate (SIR 108; 95%CI 101 to 116). Reduced risk was found for cancer of the large intestine (SIR 80; 95%CI 69 to 93) and cancer of the testis (SIR 50; 95%CI 26 to 87). Smoking was more prevalent among the concrete workers than in the general population (50% v 35%).
CONCLUSION—The study has shown a slightly increased overall risk of cancer among concrete workers. The increased risk of lung cancer could entirely be due to differences in smoking habits between concrete workers and the general population. There is a possibility that the smoking also has contributed to the increased risks of stomach cancer and lip cancer, but occupational factors may have contributed to these cancer sites.


Keywords: occupational diseases; constructions workers; smoking
doi:10.1136/oem.57.4.264
PMCID: PMC1739941  PMID: 10810113
2.  Histological types of lung cancer among smelter workers exposed to arsenic. 
The histological distribution of lung cancer was investigated in 93 men who had worked at a Swedish smelter with high levels of arsenic. A comparison was made with a group of 136 patients with lung cancer from the county where the smelter was located. Company records provided information on occupational exposure and data on smoking habits were obtained from a next of kin of each subject. No pronounced differences in the histological types of lung carcinomas between smelter workers and the reference group could be seen for smokers. Some analyses indicated an increased proportion of adenocarcinomas among the smelter workers, which confirmed earlier data, but these findings were difficult to interpret. Cases among smelter workers who had never smoked showed a histological distribution resembling that in smokers, indicating that the work environment at the smelter and smoking had a similar influence on the risk for different types of lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC1007859  PMID: 3040072
3.  Occupation and male lung cancer: a case-control study in northern Sweden. 
Using a case-control study comprising about 600 men with lung cancer in northern Sweden the potential risk of different occupations and groups of occupations was studied. Longitudinal data concerning occupation, employment, and smoking habits were obtained by questionnaires. Some occupational groups (underground miners, copper smelter workers, electricians, and plumbers) exposed to previously known lung carcinogenic agents such as radon daughters, arsenic, and asbestos, had considerably increased odds ratios, which persisted after adjustment for smoking. A slightly raised odds ratio was observed in a group of blue collar workers potentially exposed to lung carcinogenic agents; this rise in the group as a whole mainly disappeared after adjustment for smoking. Farmers and foresters had strikingly low odds ratios, which could only partly be explained by their more moderate smoking habits. The population aetiological fraction attributable to occupation was estimated as 9%.
PMCID: PMC1007858  PMID: 3620367
4.  Smoking and lung cancer with special regard to type of smoking and type of cancer. A case-control study in north Sweden. 
British Journal of Cancer  1986;53(5):673-681.
The aetiologic role of tobacco smoking was elucidated in a case-control study comprising 579 cases of male lung cancer registered during 1972-1977 in northern Sweden. The population aetiologic fraction attributable to smoking was about 80% in this series. Pipe smoking was as common as cigarette smoking and gave similar relative risk. The pipe smoking cases, however, had significantly higher mean age and mean smoking years at the time of diagnosis than the cigarette smoking cases. An obvious dose-response relation was found for both cigarette and pipe smoking. In ex-smokers, the relative risk gradually decreased from five years after cessation of smoking. This decrease was, however, much less pronounced in ex-pipe smokers than in ex-cigarette smokers. High relative risks were obtained for small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. For adenocarcinomas the relative risk was considerably lower but still significantly increased. Two types of controls were used, i.e. decreased and living. Comparison with living controls gave generally higher risk estimates than comparison with deceased controls.
PMCID: PMC2001370  PMID: 3013266
5.  Professional driving, smoking, and lung cancer: a case referent study. 
In a case referent study of about 600 cases of male lung cancer in northern Sweden the risk in professional drivers was specifically studied. Data concerning occupations, time and type of employment, and smoking habits were collected by questionnaires directed to close relatives. On average, professional drivers were heavier smokers and this was the chief cause of a slightly increased crude risk ratio in the study as a whole. Smoking drivers in an upper age group (70 and over) had a high relative risk of lung cancer, whereas in a lower age group (under 70) no significant increase was found. The relative risk in non-smoking drivers in the upper age group was moderately raised with borderline statistical significance. The high relative risk estimated for smoking drivers in the upper age group suggests a synergistic effect between smoking and occupational exposure.
PMCID: PMC1007464  PMID: 3978044

Results 1-5 (5)