There is limited information about the clinical and prognostic significance of patient-reported recovery time.
Prospective cohort study.
Setting & Participants
6,040 patients in the DOPPS.
Answer to question, “How long does it take you to recover from a dialysis session?” categorized as follows: <2, 2–6, 7–12, or >12 hours.
Outcomes & Measurements
Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between recovery time and patient characteristics, hemodialysis treatment variables, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hospitalization and mortality.
32% reported recovery time <2 hours; 41%, 2–6 hours; 17%, 7–12 hours; and 10%, >12 hours. Using proportional odds (ordinal) logistic regression, shorter recovery time was associated with male sex, full-time employment, and higher serum albumin. Longer recovery time was associated with older age, dialysis vintage, body mass index, diabetes, and psychiatric disorder. Greater intradialytic weight loss, longer dialysis session length, and lower dialysate sodium concentration were associated with longer recovery time. In facilities that used uniform dialysate sodium concentration for ≥90% of patients, the adjusted OR of longer recovery time, comparing dialysate sodium concentration <140 vs 140 mEq/L, was 1.72 (95% CI, 1.37–2.16). Recovery time was positively correlated with symptoms of kidney failure and kidney disease burden score, and inversely correlated with HRQoL mental and physical component summary scores. Using Cox regression, adjusting for potential confounders not influenced by recovery time, it was positively associated with first hospitalization and mortality (adjusted HRs for recovery time >12 vs. 2–6 hours of 1.22 [95% CI, 1.09–1.37] and 1.47 [95% CI, 1.19–1.83], respectively).
Answers are subjective and not supported by physiological measurements.
Recovery time can be used to identify patients with poorer HRQoL and higher risks of hospitalization and mortality. Interventions to reduce recovery time and possibly to improve clinical outcomes, such as increasing dialysate sodium concentration, need to be tested in randomized trials.