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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1)
Nucleic Acids Research (1)
Castaing, Bertrand (2)
Coste, Franck (2)
Culard, Françoise (2)
Aller, Pierre (1)
Angeles Izquierdo, Maria (1)
Baucheron, Sylvie (1)
Canepa, Sylvie (1)
Carell, Thomas (1)
Cloeckaert, Axel (1)
Essalhi, Kadija (1)
Gehrke, Tim H. (1)
Giraud, Etienne (1)
Le Bihan, Yann-Vaï (1)
Maurel, Marie-Christine (1)
Roussel, Alain (1)
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Binding of the RamR Repressor to Wild-Type and Mutated Promoters of the ramA Gene Involved in Efflux-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
The transcriptional activator RamA is involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) by increasing expression of the AcrAB-TolC RND-type efflux system in several pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), ramA expression is negatively regulated at the local level by RamR, a transcriptional repressor of the TetR family. We here studied the DNA-binding activity of the RamR repressor with the ramA promoter (PramA). As determined by high-resolution footprinting, the 28-bp-long RamR binding site covers essential features of PramA, including the −10 conserved region, the transcriptional start site of ramA, and two 7-bp inverted repeats. Based on the RamR footprint and on electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), we propose that RamR interacts with PramA as a dimer of dimers, in a fashion that is structurally similar to the QacR-DNA binding model. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements indicated that RamR has a 3-fold-lower affinity (KD [equilibrium dissociation constant] = 191 nM) for the 2-bp-deleted PramA of an MDR S. Typhimurium clinical isolate than for the wild-type PramA (KD = 66 nM). These results confirm the direct regulatory role of RamR in the repression of ramA transcription and precisely define how an alteration of its binding site can give rise to an MDR phenotype.
5-Hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin DNA lesion, a molecular trap for DNA glycosylases
Le Bihan, Yann-Vaï
Angeles Izquierdo, Maria
Gehrke, Tim H.
Nucleic Acids Research
DNA base-damage recognition in the base excision repair (BER) is a process operating on a wide variety of alkylated, oxidized and degraded bases. DNA glycosylases are the key enzymes which initiate the BER pathway by recognizing and excising the base damages guiding the damaged DNA through repair synthesis. We report here biochemical and structural evidence for the irreversible entrapment of DNA glycosylases by 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin, an oxidized thymine lesion. The first crystal structure of a suicide complex between DNA glycosylase and unrepaired DNA has been solved. In this structure, the formamidopyrimidine-(Fapy) DNA glycosylase from Lactococcus lactis (LlFpg/LlMutM) is covalently bound to the hydantoin carbanucleoside-containing DNA. Coupling a structural approach by solving also the crystal structure of the non-covalent complex with site directed mutagenesis, this atypical suicide reaction mechanism was elucidated. It results from the nucleophilic attack of the catalytic N-terminal proline of LlFpg on the C5-carbon of the base moiety of the hydantoin lesion. The biological significance of this finding is discussed.
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