The cytochrome P450 is the major enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Single CYP genotypes and metabolic phenotypes have been widely studied, but no combination analysis has been conducted in the context of specific populations and geographical areas. This study is the first to systematically analyze the combined genotypes and functional combinations of 400 samples of major CYP genes—CYP2E1, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 in four geographical areas of mainland China. 167 different genotype combinations were identified, of which 25 had a greater than 1% frequency in the Chinese Han population. In addition, phenotypes of the four genes for each sample were in line with the predictions of previous studies of the four geographical areas. On the basis of the genotype classification, we were able to produce a systemic functional combinations analysis for the population. 25 of the combinations detected had at least two non-wild phenotypes and four showed a frequency above 1%. A bioinformatics analysis of the relationship between particular drugs and multi-genes was conducted. This is the first systematic study to analyze genotype combinations and functional combinations across whole Chinese population and could make a significant contribution in the field of personalized medicine and therapy.
Theranostics; carbon dots; chlorin e6 (Ce6); fluorescence imaging; photodynamic therapy
We aimed at investigating the effect of carbon dots on the BALB/c mice immune system. Mice were respectively treated with different doses of carbon dots and saline. At 1 and 9 days after intravenous administration of carbon dots, splenocyte proliferation, subpopulation of the peripheral lymphocytes, and induction of primary immune responses in mice were investigated. The results showed that high dose of carbon dots could promote the percentages of CD3+ and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion and decrease the proportions of CD4+/CD8+ on the first day after administration. At 9 days post exposure, the proliferation of splenocytes had a significant increase. IFN-γ secretion and proportions of CD3+/CD19+ were also found to have an obvious promotion, and both the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were raised, whereas the expression of cytokines made little change in the treated groups, except for IL-12 which had a slight increase in the 50-mg/kg group. The weight coefficients and histological analysis of the spleen and thymus of the treated mice exerted fewer differences compared with those from the control mice. It suggests that carbon dots could influence the immune functions of normal BALB/c mice by inducing Th1 and Tc responses and that these effects were not enough to induce the morphological change of the immune organs.
Carbon dots; Immune function; Splenocyte proliferation; Cytokine
Gastric cancer is 2th most common cancer in China, and is still the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Successful development of safe and effective nanoprobes for in vivo gastric cancer targeting imaging is a big challenge. This study is aimed to develop folic acid (FA)-conjugated silica coated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) for targeted dual-modal fluorescent and X-ray computed tomography imaging (CT) of in vivo gastric cancer cells.
AuNCs were prepared, silica was coated on the surface of AuNCs, then folic acid was covalently anchored on the surface of AuNCs, resultant FA-conjugated AuNCs@SiO2 nanoprobes were investigated their cytotoxicity by MTT method, and their targeted ability to FR(+) MGC803 cells and FR(−) GES-1 cells. Nude mice model loaded with MGC803 cells were prepared, prepared nanoprobes were injected into nude mice via tail vein, and then were imaged by fluorescent and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging.
FA-conjugated AuNCs@SiO2 nanoprobes exhibited good biocompatibility, and could target actively the FR(+) MGC-803 cells and in vivo gastric cancer tissues with 5 mm in diameter in nude mice models, exhibited excellent red emitting fluorescence imaging and CT imaging.
The high-performance FA-conjugated AuNCs@SiO2 nanoprobes can target in vivo gastric cancer cells, can be used for fluorescent and CT dual-mode imaging, and may own great potential in applications such as targeted dual-mode imaging of in vivo early gastric cancer and other tumors with FR positive expression in near future.
Gold nanoclusters; Silica; Folic acid; Fluorescent imaging; X-ray computed tomography
Due to fascinating electronic properties and great potential in various applications, graphene has attracted great interest. Recently, much work have focused on the synthesis of different sizes and properties of graphene or graphene oxides (GOs), for example, graphene nanoribbons, nanosized graphene pieces, and nanosized triangular and hexagonal graphene sheets terminated by zigzag edges. Herein, we have demonstrated a widely available approach to fabricate the nanoscale GO pieces by directly solution-phase cutting a large-area GO sheet into nanoscale pieces via spontaneous redox reactions at room temperature. In this process, GO acts with dual functions as a model and a reducing reagent. With a typical example of silver ions, we have investigated in detail the influence of the reaction time and concentration of metal ions on yield and size of nanoscale GO pieces. Moreover, we also obtain Ag nanoparticle coating on the GO surface. Finally, a possible mechanism is suggested to explain the formation of nanoscale GO pieces.
Graphene oxides; Nanoscale graphene oxide pieces; Spontaneous redox reaction; Metal particles
Tumor suppressor p53, which is activated by various stress and oncogene activation, is a target for anti-cancer drug development. In this study, by screening panels of protein kinase inhibitors and protein phosphatase inhibitors, we identified 5-Iodotubercidin as a strong p53 activator. 5-Iodotubercidin is purine derivative and is used as an inhibitor for various kinases including adenosine kinase. We found that 5-Iodotubercidin could cause DNA damage, verified by induction of DNA breaks and nuclear foci positive for γH2AX and TopBP1, activation of Atm and Chk2, and S15 phosphorylation and up-regulation of p53. As such, 5-Iodotubercidin induces G2 cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. Itu also induces cell death in p53-dependent and -independent manners. DNA breaks were likely generated by incorporation of 5-Iodotubercidin metabolite into DNA. Moreover, 5-Iodotubercidin showed anti-tumor activity as it could reduce the tumor size in carcinoma xenograft mouse models in p53-dependent and -independent manners. These findings reveal 5-Iodotubercidin as a novel genotoxic drug that has chemotherapeutic potential.
Telomeres are protective chromosomal structures that play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Telomere length is known to be associated with ageing and age-related diseases. To study the impairment of telomeres induced by drug abuse, we conducted an association study in the Chinese Han population. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with addiction control status adjusted for age and gender. The results showed that drug abusers exhibited significantly shorter LTLs than controls (P = 1.32e−06). The time before relapse also presented an inverse correlation with LTL (P = 0.02). Drug abusers who had used heroin and diazepam displayed a shorter LTL than those taking other drugs (P = 0.018 and P = 0.009, respectively). Drug abusers who had ingested drugs via snuff exhibited longer LTLs than those using other methods (P = 0.02). These observations may offer a partial explanation for the effects of drug addiction on health.
Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) were prepared using the improved nitric acid oxidation method. The C-dots were characterized by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The C-dots were subjected to systematic safety evaluation via acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, and genotoxicity experiments (including mouse bone marrow micronuclear test and Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test). The results showed that the C-dots were successfully prepared with good stability, high dispersibility, and water solubility. At all studied C-dot dosages, no significant toxic effect, i.e., no abnormality or lesion, was observed in the organs of the animals. Therefore, the C-dots are non-toxic to mice under any dose and have potential use in fluorescence imaging in vivo, tumor cell tracking, and others.
Carbon dots; Biocompatibility; Toxicity
A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future.
Dominant epitope; Quantum dots; Antigenic peptide; Fluorescence polarization; HBV; Surface antigen
Upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals own great potential in applications such as biomolecule-labeling, in vivo tracking and molecular imaging. Herein we reported that NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals were controllably synthesized by oleic acid (OA)/ ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for targeted fluorescent imaging of gastric cancer in vivo. The optimal synthesis condition of NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals by OA/IL two-phase system was established, adding more metal ion such as Na+ ion could facilitate the size control and crystal-phase transition, more importantly, markedly enhancing fluorescent intensity of beta-phase nanocrystals compared with traditional methods. Alpha-phase NaYbF4, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with less than 10nm in diameter and beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with 30 nm or so in diameter and strong fluorescent signals were obtained, these synthesized nanocrystals exhibited very low cytotoxicity. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals were prepared, could actively target gastric cancer tissues implanted into nude mice in vivo, and realized targeted fluorescent imaging. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals show great potential in applications such as targeted near infared radiation fluorescent imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and targeted therapy of gastric cancer in the near future.
NaYbF4: 25%Gd; 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals; synthesis; targeted imaging; fluorescent imaging; gastric cancer; cytotoxicity.
This study reports the effects of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) LaF3:Yb,Er on zebrafish, with the aim of investigating UCNPs toxicity. LaF3:Yb,Er were prepared by an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system, and characterized by transmission electron microscope and X-ray powder diffraction. 140 zebrafish embryos were divided into six test groups and one control group, and respectively were injected into 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL LaF3:Yb,Er@SiO2 solution, and respectively were raised for 5 days. Each experiment was repeated ten times. Results showed that water-soluble LaF3:Yb,Er were successfully prepared, and did not exhibit obvious toxicity to zebrafish embryos under 100 μg/mL, but exhibited chronic toxicities 200 μg/mL in vivo, resulting in malformations and delayed hatching rate and embryonic and larval development. The excretion channels of LaF3:Yb,Er in adult zebrafish were mainly found in the intestine after being injected evenly for 24 h. In conclusion, the exploration of LaF3:Yb,Er for in vivo applications in animals and humans must consider UCNPs biocompatibility.
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs); biocompatibility; toxicity; zebrafish embryo.
This work is aimed to evaluate a method to detect the residual magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in animal tissues. Ferric ions released from MNPs through acidification with hydrochloric acid can be measured by complexation with potassium thiocyanate. MNPs in saline could be well detected by this chemical colorimetric method, whereas the detected sensitivity decreased significantly when MNPs were mixed with mouse tissue homogenates. In order to check the MNPs in animal tissues accurately, three improvements have been made. Firstly, proteinase K was used to digest the proteins that might bind with iron, and secondly, ferrosoferric oxide (Fe3O4) was collected by a magnetic field which could capture MNPs and leave the bio-iron in the supernatant. Finally, the collected MNPs were carbonized in the muffle furnace at 420°C before acidification to ruin the groups that might bind with ferric ions such as porphyrin. Using this method, MNPs in animal tissues could be well measured while avoiding the disturbance of endogenous iron and iron-binding groups.
Ferric ions; Magnetic nanoparticles; Potassium thiocyanate; Mouse tissue; Chemical colorimetric method
Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1) is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer.
Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6%) atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples.
Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.
We reported a one-pot, environmentally friendly method for biosynthesizing nanoscale Au-Ag alloy using chloroplasts as reducers and stabilizers. The prepared nanoscale Au-Ag alloy was characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was further used to identify the possible biomolecules from chloroplasts that are responsible for the formation and stabilization of Au-Ag alloy. The FTIR results showed that chloroplast proteins bound to the nanoscale Au-Ag alloy through free amino groups. The bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles have only one plasmon band, indicating the formation of an alloy structure. HR-TEM images showed that the prepared Au-Ag alloy was spherical and 15 to 20 nm in diameter. The high crystallinity of the Au-Ag alloy was confirmed by SAED and XRD patterns. The prepared Au-Ag alloy was dispersed into multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to form a nanosensing film. The nanosensing film exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for 2-butanone oxidation at room temperature. The anodic peak current (Ip) has a linear relationship with the concentrations of 2-butanone over the range of 0.01% to 0.075% (v/v), when analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The excellent electronic catalytic characteristics might be attributed to the synergistic electron transfer effects of Au-Ag alloy and MWNTs. It can reasonably be expected that this electrochemical biosensor provided a promising platform for developing a breath sensor to screen and pre-warn of early cancer, especially gastric cancer.
Chloroplasts; Au-Ag alloy; Nanosensing film
Curcumin has shown considerable pharmacological activity, including anti-inflammatory, but its poor bioavailability and rapid metabolization have limited its application. The purpose of the present study was to formulate curcumin-solid lipid nanoparticles (curcumin-SLNs) to improve its therapeutic efficacy in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rat model of asthma. A solvent injection method was used to prepare the curcumin-SLNs. Physiochemical properties of curcumin-SLNs were characterized, and release experiments were performed in vitro. The pharmacokinetics in tissue distribution was studied in mice, and the therapeutic effect of the formulation was evaluated in the model. The prepared formulation showed an average size of 190 nm with a zeta potential value of −20.7 mV and 75% drug entrapment efficiency. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the encapsulated curcumin. The release profile of curcumin-SLNs was an initial burst followed by sustained release. The curcumin concentrations in plasma suspension were significantly higher than those obtained with curcumin alone. Following administration of the curcumin-SLNs, all the tissue concentrations of curcumin increased, especially in lung and liver. In the animal model of asthma, curcumin-SLNs effectively suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory cell infiltration and also significantly inhibited the expression of T-helper-2-type cytokines, such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared to the asthma group and curcumin-treated group. These observations implied that curcumin-SLNs could be a promising candidate for asthma therapy.
airway hyperresponsiveness; pharmacokinetics; curcumin; solid lipid nanoparticles
Matrix metalloproteases are key regulatory molecules in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and in inflammatory processes. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) can significantly enhance muscle regeneration by promoting the formation of myofibers and degenerating the fibrous tissue. Herein, we prepared novel MMP-1-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PLGA-PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) capable of sustained release of MMP-1. We established quadratic equations as mathematical models and employed rotatable central composite design and response surface methodology to optimize the preparation procedure of the NPs. Then, characterization of the optimized NPs with respect to particle size distribution, particle morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, MMP-1 activity assay and in vitro release of MMP-1 from NPs was carried out. The results of mathematical modeling show that the optimal conditions for the preparation of MMP-1-loaded NPs were as follows: 7 min for the duration time of homogenization, 4.5 krpm for the agitation speed of homogenization and 0.4 for the volume ratio of organic solvent phase to external aqueous phase. The entrapment efficiency and the average particle size of the NPs were 38.75 ± 4.74% and 322.7 ± 18.1 nm, respectively. Further scanning electron microscopy image shows that the NPs have a smooth and spherical surface, with mean particle size around 300 nm. The MMP-1 activity assay and in vitro drug release profile of NPs indicated that the bioactivity of the enzyme can be reserved where the encapsulation allows prolonged release of MMP-1 over 60 days. Taken together, we reported here novel PLGA-PCL NPs for sustained release of MMP-1, which may provide an ideal MMP-1 delivery approach for tissue reconstruction therapy.
Matrix metalloproteinase-1; PLGA-PCL; Nanoparticles; Rotatable central composite design; Response surface methodology
How to find early gastric cancer cells in vivo is a great challenge for the diagnosis and therapy of gastric cancer. This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of using fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle (FMNP)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to realize targeted imaging and hyperthermia therapy of in vivo gastric cancer. The primary cultured mouse marrow MSCs were labeled with amino-modified FMNPs then intravenously injected into mouse model with subcutaneous gastric tumor, and then, the in vivo distribution of FMNP-labeled MSCs was observed by using fluorescence imaging system and magnetic resonance imaging system. After FMNP-labeled MSCs arrived in local tumor tissues, subcutaneous tumor tissues in nude mice were treated under external alternating magnetic field. The possible mechanism of MSCs targeting gastric cancer was investigated by using a micro-multiwell chemotaxis chamber assay. Results show that MSCs were labeled with FMNPs efficiently and kept stable fluorescent signal and magnetic properties within 14 days, FMNP-labeled MSCs could target and image in vivo gastric cancer cells after being intravenously injected for 14 days, FMNP-labeled MSCs could significantly inhibit the growth of in vivo gastric cancer because of hyperthermia effects, and CCL19/CCR7 and CXCL12/CXCR4 axis loops may play key roles in the targeting of MSCs to in vivo gastric cancer. In conclusion, FMNP-labeled MSCs could target in vivo gastric cancer cells and have great potential in applications such as imaging, diagnosis, and hyperthermia therapy of early gastric cancer in the near future.
fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle; mesenchymal stem cells; gastric cancer; targeted imaging; hyperthermia therapy
Herein, we report that octahedral and spherical Cu2O samples with hollow structures are synthesized in high yield by reducing Cu(EDA)22+ complex with hydrazine. A series of experiments are carried out to investigate the factors which impact on the morphology of the Cu2O samples. It is observed that ethylenediamine (EDA) serves as a molecular template in the formation of hollow structure. Octahedral Cu2O with solid structure is prepared without EDA. When EDA is added, Cu2O sample with hollow structure is formed. Different morphologies of Cu2O such as spherical and octahedral could be obtained by adjusting the concentration of EDA and NaOH. The temporal crystal growth mechanism is proposed. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared Cu2O nanoparticles are evaluated by monitoring two dyes (methyl orange and congo red) using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Results show that the order of photocatalytic activity of Cu2O with different morphologies is as follows: hollow octahedral morphology > hollow sphere morphology > solid octahedral morphology. The hollow octahedral Cu2O nanoparticles would be a promising material on applications for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants.
Cuprous oxide; Crystal growth; Hollow structure; Octahedral nanocrystals; Photocatalysis
A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach to the aqueous-phase synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles was demonstrated using silver nitrate (AgNO3) and freshly extracted egg white. The bio-conjugates were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering. These results indicated that biomolecule-coated Ag nanoparticles are predominantly spherical in shape with an average size of 20 nm. The proteins of egg white, which have different functional groups, played important roles in reducing Ag+ and maintaining product attributes such as stability and dispersity. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that these Ag-protein bio-conjugates showed good biocompatibility with mouse fibroblast cell lines 3T3. Furthermore, X-ray irradiation tests on 231 tumor cells suggested that the biocompatible Ag-protein bio-conjugates enhanced the efficacy of irradiation, and thus may be promising candidates for use during cancer radiation therapy.
green chemistry; biosynthesis; egg white; Ag nanoparticles; X-ray irradiation
Melanoma is known to be radioresistant and traditional treatments have been intractable. Therefore, novel approaches are required to improve the therapeutic efficacy of melanoma treatment. In our study, gold nanorods conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp peptides (RGD-GNRs) were used as a sensitizer to enhance the response of melanoma cells to 6 mV radiation.
Methods and materials
A375 melanoma cells were treated by gold nanorods or RGD-GNRs with or without irradiation. The antiproliferative impact of the treatments was measured by MTT assay. Radiosensitizing effects were determined by colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle data were measured by flow cytometry. Integrin αvβ3 expression was also investigated by flow cytometry.
Addition of RGD-GNRs enhanced the radiosensitivity of A375 cells with a dose-modifying factor of 1.35, and enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that RGD-GNRs plus irradiation induced significant G2/M phase arrest in A375 cells. Both spontaneous and radiation-induced expressions of integrin αvβ3 were downregulated by RGD-GNRs.
Our study indicated that RGD-GNRs could sensitize melanoma A375 cells to irradiation. It was hypothesized that this was mainly through downregulation of radiation-induced αvβ3, in addition to induction of a higher proportion of cells within the G2/M phase. The combination of RGD-GNRs and radiation needs further investigation.
radiosensitivity; melanoma; Arg-Gly-Asp peptides; gold nanorods; integrin αvβ3, G2; M arrest
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have great potential in applications such as disease modeling, pharmacological screening and stem cell therapies. Up to date, there is no related report on the use of ES cells as tracking and contrast reagents of cancer cells in vivo. Herein we report that DiR-labeled murine ES cells can recognize and target gastric cancer cells in vivo. DiR-labeled murine ES (mES) cells (5×106) were intravenously injected into gastric tumor-bearing mice. The biodistribution of DiR-labeled mES cells was monitored by IVIS imaging within 24 h. Major organs were harvested and analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. Chemotaxis assay was employed to investigate the chemotaxis of ES cells tracking cancer cells. Fluorescent imaging results showed that DiR-labeled mES cells targeted gastric cancer tissue in vivo as early as 10 min post-injection, reaching a peak at 2h post-injection. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting results showed gastric cancer tissues specifically expressed SSEA-1. In vitro migration tests confirmed that mES cells actively moved to test sites with different concentration of CXCL12 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, DiR-labeled mES cells may be used for gastric cancer targeted imaging in vivo, and have great potential in applications such as identifying and imaging of early gastric cancer in near future.
murine embryonic stem cells; gastric cancer cells; target imaging; migration; chemotaxis.
In this article, PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites were prepared based on the self-organization of Au@PtAg nanorods on graphene sheets. Graphite oxides (GO) were prepared and separated to individual sheets using Hummer's method. Graphene nano-sheets were prepared by chemical reduction with hydrazine. The prepared PtAg alloy nanomaterial and the hybrid composites with graphene were characterized by SEM, TEM, and zeta potential measurements. It is confirmed that the prepared Au@PtAg alloy nanorods/graphene hybrid composites own good catalytic function for methanol electro-oxidation by cyclic voltammograms measurements, and exhibited higher catalytic activity and more stability than pure Au@Pt nanorods and Au@AgPt alloy nanorods. In conclusion, the prepared PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites own high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation, so that it is one kind of high-performance catalyst, and has great potential in applications such as methanol fuel cells in near future.
Gastric cancer is 2th most common cancer in China, and is still the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. How to recognize early gastric cancer cells is still a great challenge for early diagnosis and therapy of patients with gastric cancer. This study is aimed to develop one kind of multifunctional nanoprobes for in vivo targeted magnetofluorescent imaging of gastric cancer.
BRCAA1 monoclonal antibody was prepared, was used as first antibody to stain 50 pairs of specimens of gastric cancer and control normal gastric mucous tissues, and conjugated with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles with 50 nm in diameter, the resultant BRCAA1-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoprobes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectrometry, as-prepared nanoprobes were incubated with gastric cancer MGC803 cells, and were injected into mice model loaded with gastric cancer of 5 mm in diameter via tail vein, and then were imaged by fluorescence optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging, their biodistribution was investigated. The tissue slices were observed by fluorescent microscopy, and the important organs such as heart, lung, kidney, brain and liver were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain method.
BRCAA1 monoclonal antibody was successfully prepared, BRCAA1 protein exhibited over-expression in 64% gastric cancer tissues, no expression in control normal gastric mucous tissues, there exists statistical difference between two groups (P < 0.01). The BRCAA1-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoprobes exhibit very low-toxicity, lower magnetic intensity and lower fluorescent intensity with peak-blue-shift than pure FMNPs, could be endocytosed by gastric cancer MGC803 cells, could target in vivo gastric cancer tissues loaded by mice, and could be used to image gastric cancer tissues by fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging, and mainly distributed in local gastric cancer tissues within 12 h post-injection. HE stain analysis showed that no obvious damages were observed in important organs.
The high-performance BRCAA1 monoclonal antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles can target in vivo gastric cancer cells, can be used for simultaneous magnetofluorescent imaging, and may have great potential in applications such as dual-model imaging and local thermal therapy of early gastric cancer in near future.
Docetaxel (DTX) is a very important member of taxoid family. Despite several alternative delivery systems reported recently, DTX formulated by Polysorbate 80 and alcohol (Taxotere®) is still the most frequent administration in clinical practice. In this study, we incorporated DTX into Polysorbate 80/Phospholipid mixed micelles and compared its structural characteristics, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and blood compatibility with its conventional counterparts. Results showed that the mixed micelles loaded DTX possessed a mean size of approximately 13 nm with narrow size distribution and a rod-like micelle shape. In the pharmacokinetics assessment, there was no significant difference between the two preparations (P > 0.05), which demonstrated that the DTX in the two preparations may share a similar pharmacokinetic process. However, the Polysorbate 80/Phospholipid mixed micelles can increase the drug residence amount of DTX in kidney, spleen, ovary and uterus, heart, and liver. The blood compatibility assessment study revealed that the mixed micelles were safe for intravenous injection. In conclusion, Polysorbate 80/Phospholipid mixed micelle is safe, can improve the tumor therapeutic effects of DTX in the chosen organs, and may be a potential alternative dosage form for clinical intravenous administration of DTX.
We fabricated a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-nanoparticles (NPs)-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine bladder acellular matrix allograft (BAMA) system, which is designed for achieving a sustained release of VEGF protein, and embedding the protein carrier into the BAMA. We identified and optimized various formulations and process parameters to get the preferred particle size, entrapment, and polydispersibility of the VEGF-NPs, and incorporated the VEGF-NPs into the (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic®) F127 to achieve the preferred VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system. Then the thermal behavior of the system was proven by in vitro and in vivo study, and the kinetic-sustained release profile of the system embedded in porcine bladder acellular matrix was investigated. Results indicated that the bioactivity of the encapsulated VEGF released from the NPs was reserved, and the VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system can achieve sol-gel transmission successfully at appropriate temperature. Furthermore, the system can create a satisfactory tissue-compatible environment and an effective VEGF-sustained release approach. In conclusion, a novel VEGF-loaded PLGA NPs-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine BAMA system is successfully prepared, to provide a promising way for deficient bladder reconstruction therapy.