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1.  HIV Coreceptor Tropism in Paired Plasma, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Isolates from Antiretroviral-Naïve Subjects▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(4):1441-1445.
A survey of HIV coreceptor usage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and plasma samples from naïve seropositive patients was conducted. One hundred patients were enrolled in this study. Of the 100 patients, 36 had a primary or recent infection (P-RI), 31 had an early chronic infection (>350 CD4 cells) (ECI), and 33 had a late chronic infection (LCI). All 3 compartments were sampled in a subset of 33 participants, while the remaining 67 patients provided plasma samples and PBMCs only. Seventy-seven patients harbored the R5 virus in plasma samples and had a significantly higher median and percentage of CD4+ T cells than patients with X4 virus (437 and 281 cells/μl, respectively; P = 0.0086; 20.6% and 18.6%, respectively). The X4 strain was detected more frequently in patients with LCI than in patients with P-RI or ECI (39.3%, 19.4%, and 9.6%, respectively; P = 0.0063). PBMC and plasma tropism was concordant in 90 patients, and 73 had the R5 strain. Among patients with discordant results, 4 had the R5 virus in their plasma and the X4 virus in PBMCs; 6 showed the opposite profile. Plasma, PBMC, and CSF tropism determinations were concordant in 26/33 patients (21 patients had R5, and 5 had X4). The tropism was discordant in 5/33 patients, with the X4 virus in plasma and R5 in CSF; the HIV tropism in PBMCs was X4 in 3 patients. The remaining 2/33 patients had the R5 virus in plasma and PBMCs and the X4 virus in CSF; one of these patients had a P-RI. The discordant tropism in CSF and blood may have implications for chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist use in patients with limited response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) or in responding patients evaluated for simplification of treatment.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02564-10
PMCID: PMC3122871  PMID: 21367995
2.  Meta-analyses of diagnostic tests in infectious diseases: how helpful are they in the intensive care setting? 
In acute-care settings timely and accurate diagnostic tools are critical for patient treatment decisions and outcomes. This review provides an up-to-date look at the meta-analyses of diagnostic test for infections in the ICU setting.
There have been 3 meta-analyses investigating the value of procalcitonin as diagnostic marker of sepsis: overall, the performance of procalcitonin test was found moderate-good. Two meta-analyses evaluated methods for diagnosing intravascular device-related bloodstream infections. In general, quantitative catheter segment culture and paired quantitative blood culture showed reliable diagnostic yield, though significant heterogeneity was observed among studies. Criteria of diagnosing VAP in the intensive care unit has been evaluated in 3 systematic reviews. Overall, the cumulative results cast doubts about the usefulness of bacteriological data and quantitative cultures in the diagnosis of VAP; moreover, 2 of these meta-analyses concluded that invasive strategies for VAP diagnosis do not affect mortality.
PMCID: PMC3484627  PMID: 23439607
meta-analysis; infectious diseases; diagnostic test; VAP; procalcitonin; sepsis
3.  Meta-Analysis of BACTEC MGIT 960 and BACTEC 460 TB, with or without Solid Media, for Detection of Mycobacteria 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(5):2321-2325.
In a meta-analysis of 10 studies, the BACTEC 960/MGIT and BACTEC 460 systems showed a sensitivity and specificity in detecting mycobacteria (1,381 strains from 14,745 clinical specimens) of 81.5 and 99.6% and 85.8 and 99.9%, respectively. Combined with solid media, the sensitivity of the two systems increased to 87.7 and 89.7%, respectively.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.5.2321-2325.2004
PMCID: PMC404614  PMID: 15131224
4.  Erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2000;6(2):180-183.
In a prospective study of acute pharyngitis in Italian children, 69 (38.3%) of 180 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to macrolides. S. pyogenes was eradicated in 12 (63.1%) of 19 patients with erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes treated with clarithromycin and in 22 (88%) of 25 patients with erythromycin-susceptible strains. The constitutive-resistant phenotype was correlated with failure of macrolide treatment.
PMCID: PMC2640849  PMID: 10756153
5.  Penetration of dapsone into pulmonary lining fluid of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. 
We studied the penetration of dapsone into the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of sixteen human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients who had received the drug at a dose of 100 mg twice weekly as primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and venipuncture were performed for each patient at a specific time after administration of the last dose of dapsone. Dapsone concentrations in plasma and BAL were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The apparent volume of ELF recovered by BAL was determined by using urea as an endogenous marker. The mean concentrations of dapsone in ELF at 2 h (five patients), 4 h (three patients), 12 h (two patients), 24 h (three patients), and 48 h (three patients) were 0.95, 0.70, 1.55, 0.23, and 0.45 mg/liter, respectively, while concentrations in plasma were 1.23, 0.79, 1.31, 0.83, and 0.18 mg/liter, respectively. Dapsone concentrations in ELF were 76, 79, 115, 65, and 291% of those observed in plasma at the same times, respectively. These data show that dapsone is well distributed into ELF and that a twice-weekly 100-mg prophylactic regimen results in sustained concentrations in this compartment.
PMCID: PMC163854  PMID: 9145873
6.  Population pharmacokinetics of dapsone administered biweekly to human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(12):2743-2748.
The population pharmacokinetics of dapsone were examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving dapsone at a dosage of 100 mg twice weekly for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Nonlinear mixed-effect modeling was used to determine the best pharmacostatistical model for the data. A one-compartment open model with first-order absorption and elimination was used as the structural pharmacokinetic model. Several covariates were tested for their influence on pharmacokinetic parameters. Rifampin was found to increase the values of clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) and volume of distribution/ bioavailability (V/F) by approximately 70%. CL/F and V/F were 1.83 liters/h and 69.6 liters, respectively, for patients not taking rifampin. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapsone was appreciably less than expected on the basis of studies with healthy volunteers. Increased bilirubin levels were associated with a significant decrease in the absorption rate constant (Ka). However, this finding may be considered clinically irrelevant because the post hoc Bayesian estimates of Ka for patients with high bilirubin levels ( > 1.2 mg/dl) were at the lower bound of the values for patients with normal bilirubin levels. The value of Ka was 0.957 h-1 for a patient with a bilirubin level of 0.7 mg/dl. After inclusion of covariates in the model, the interpatient variability was 35% for CL/F, not significant for V/F, and 85% for Ka. Simulation of plasma concentration-versus-time curves indicated that the administration of 100 mg of dapsone biweekly is associated with sustained dapsone levels in the plasma of the majority of the patients. Dosage adjustments for patients concomitantly treated with rifampin may be necessary.
PMCID: PMC163614  PMID: 9124833
7.  Pharmacokinetics of dapsone in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. 
Dapsone, administered at various doses and schedules, has been proven to be a safe and effective alternative to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Dapsone is also recommended by the Centers for Disease Control for PCP prophylaxis in HIV-infected children. However, the suggested dosage regimen is based upon clinical experience with children with leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis rather than pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data obtained from the target patient population. In order to determine a rational dosage regimen that could be tested in clinical studies aimed at the evaluation of dapsone for the prevention of PCP in HIV-infected children, we studied the pharmacokinetics of dapsone following a 2-mg/kg of body weight oral dose in twelve HIV-positive children aged 9 months to 9 years. Plasma was collected at the following times after dapsone administration: 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The levels of dapsone in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Expressed as means +/- standard deviations (ranges), the pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: peak concentration in plasma, 1.12 +/- 0.48 (0.44 to 1.81) mg/liter; time to peak concentration in plasma, 3.8 +/- 1.3 (2 to 6) h; half-life at elimination phase, 24.2 +/- 7.1 (14.4 to 35.0) h; clearance from plasma divided by bioavailability (CL/F), 1.15 +/- 0.67 (0.37 to 2.63) ml/min/kg; and volume of distribution divided by bioavailability (V/F), 2.25 +/- 1.20 (1.00 to 4.57) liters/kg. Oral CL correlated negatively with age (r = 0.614 and P = 0.034), as did V (r = 0.631 and P = 0.028). As a consequence of the high interindividual variability in growth retardation, pharmacokinetic parameters correlated with measures of body development better than they did with age (e.g., for CL/F to height, r = 0.765 and P = 0.004, and for V/F to height, r = 0.748 and P = 0.005). Since oral CL from plasma and V were positively and highly correlated (r = 0.898 and P = 0.0001), a lower absolute F may be the cause, in part, of higher values for CL/F and V/F in smaller children. The results of this study warrant the testing of a 2-mg/kg dose of dapsone administered twice or thrice weekly to HIV-infected children. The monitoring of drug levels in plasma and dosage adjustment may be necessary for smaller children.
PMCID: PMC162691  PMID: 7625796

Results 1-8 (8)