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1.  Cortical gamma responses: searching high and low 
In this paper, a brief, preliminary attempt is made to frame a scientific debate about how functional responses at gamma frequencies in electrophysiological recordings (EEG, MEG, ECoG, and LFP) should be classified and interpreted. In general, are all gamma responses the same, or should they be divided into different classes according to criteria such as their spectral characteristics (frequency range and/or shape), their spatial-temporal patterns of occurrence, and/or their responsiveness under different task conditions? In particular, are the responses observed in intracranial EEG at a broad range of “high gamma” frequencies (~60–200 Hz) different from gamma responses observed at lower frequencies (~30–80 Hz), typically in narrower bands? And if they are different, how should they be interpreted? Does the broad spectral shape of high gamma responses arise from the summation of many different narrow-band oscillations, or does it reflect something completely different? If we are not sure, should we refer to high gamma activity as oscillations? A variety of theories have posited a mechanistic role for gamma activity in cortical function, often assuming narrow-band oscillations. These theories continue to influence the design of experiments and the interpretation of their results. Do these theories apply to all electrophysiological responses at gamma frequencies? Although no definitive answers to these questions are immediately anticipated, this paper will attempt to review the rationale for why they are worth asking and to point to some of the possible answers that have been proposed.
PMCID: PMC3958992  PMID: 21081143
Gamma band; High-gamma; Oscillations; Electrocorticography; Electroencephalography; Functional mapping; Induced responses; ERD/ERS
2.  Coarse Electrocorticographic Decoding of Ipsilateral Reach in Patients with Brain Lesions 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115236.
In patients with unilateral upper limb paralysis from strokes and other brain lesions, strategies for functional recovery may eventually include brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) using control signals from residual sensorimotor systems in the damaged hemisphere. When voluntary movements of the contralateral limb are not possible due to brain pathology, initial training of such a BMI may require use of the unaffected ipsilateral limb. We conducted an offline investigation of the feasibility of decoding ipsilateral upper limb movements from electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in three patients with different lesions of sensorimotor systems associated with upper limb control. We found that the first principal component (PC) of unconstrained, naturalistic reaching movements of the upper limb could be decoded from ipsilateral ECoG using a linear model. ECoG signal features yielding the best decoding accuracy were different across subjects. Performance saturated with very few input features. Decoding performances of 0.77, 0.73, and 0.66 (median Pearson's r between the predicted and actual first PC of movement using nine signal features) were achieved in the three subjects. The performance achieved here with small numbers of electrodes and computationally simple decoding algorithms suggests that it may be possible to control a BMI using ECoG recorded from damaged sensorimotor brain systems.
PMCID: PMC4278860  PMID: 25545500
3.  Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography 
Epilepsy & behavior : E&B  2013;29(2):259-268.
The Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation.
PMCID: PMC3896917  PMID: 24034899
electrocorticography; brain-computer interface; high-frequency oscillations; brain mapping; seizure detection; gamma-frequency electroencephalography; neuroprosthetics; subdural grid
4.  High-frequency gamma activity (80-150 Hz) is increased in human cortex during selective attention 
To study the role of gamma oscillations (>30 Hz) in selective attention using subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) in humans.
We recorded ECoG in human subjects implanted with subdural electrodes for epilepsy surgery. Sequences of auditory tones and tactile vibrations of 800 ms duration were presented asynchronously, and subjects were asked to selectively attend to one of the two stimulus modalities in order to detect an amplitude increase at 400 ms in some of the stimuli.
Event-related ECoG gamma activity was greater over auditory cortex when subjects attended auditory stimuli and was greater over somatosensory cortex when subjects attended vibrotactile stimuli. Furthermore, gamma activity was also observed over prefrontal cortex when stimuli appeared in either modality, but only when they were attended. Attentional modulation of gamma power began ∼400 ms after stimulus onset, consistent with the temporal demands on attention. The increase in gamma activity was greatest at frequencies between 80 and 150 Hz, in the so-called high gamma frequency range.
There appears to be a strong link between activity in the high-gamma range (80-150 Hz) and selective attention.
Selective attention is correlated with increased activity in a frequency range that is significantly higher than what has been reported previously using EEG recordings.
PMCID: PMC2444052  PMID: 18037343
Attention; ECoG; Gamma oscillations; High-Gamma Activity; Sensory cortex; Intracranial EEG
5.  Dynamic Changes in Phase-Amplitude Coupling Facilitate Spatial Attention Control in Fronto-Parietal Cortex 
PLoS Biology  2014;12(8):e1001936.
Electrocorticography reveals how coupling between two frequencies of neuronal oscillation allows the frontal and parietal areas of the cortex to control visual attention from moment to moment in the human brain.
Attention is a core cognitive mechanism that allows the brain to allocate limited resources depending on current task demands. A number of frontal and posterior parietal cortical areas, referred to collectively as the fronto-parietal attentional control network, are engaged during attentional allocation in both humans and non-human primates. Numerous studies have examined this network in the human brain using various neuroimaging and scalp electrophysiological techniques. However, little is known about how these frontal and parietal areas interact dynamically to produce behavior on a fine temporal (sub-second) and spatial (sub-centimeter) scale. We addressed how human fronto-parietal regions control visuospatial attention on a fine spatiotemporal scale by recording electrocorticography (ECoG) signals measured directly from subdural electrode arrays that were implanted in patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for localization of epileptic foci. Subjects (n = 8) performed a spatial-cuing task, in which they allocated visuospatial attention to either the right or left visual field and detected the appearance of a target. We found increases in high gamma (HG) power (70–250 Hz) time-locked to trial onset that remained elevated throughout the attentional allocation period over frontal, parietal, and visual areas. These HG power increases were modulated by the phase of the ongoing delta/theta (2–5 Hz) oscillation during attentional allocation. Critically, we found that the strength of this delta/theta phase-HG amplitude coupling predicted reaction times to detected targets on a trial-by-trial basis. These results highlight the role of delta/theta phase-HG amplitude coupling as a mechanism for sub-second facilitation and coordination within human fronto-parietal cortex that is guided by momentary attentional demands.
Author Summary
The frontal and parietal areas of the cortex control the ability to focus visuospatial attention, and damage to these areas results in profound attentional disturbances. Although much research has concentrated on where these areas are located, little is known about how these areas may function in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated that neuronal spiking is more likely to occur in specific time windows based upon the phase of lower frequency neural oscillations – rhythmic or repetitive neuronal activity. These low-frequency rhythms are hypothesized to coordinate the timing of neuronal firing within local and across network regions. Here, we investigated how human frontal and parietal cortices use neural oscillations to control visuospatial attention. We identified a high-frequency component of electrical brain activity, broadband high gamma (70–250 Hz) amplitude, that became phase-locked to a slower rhythm, delta/theta (2–5 Hz), over frontal, parietal, and visual areas while the study subjects paid attention to the peripheral visual field. Changes in the strength of the coupling between delta/theta phase and high gamma amplitude predicted the attentional behavior of the subjects across single trials. From these results, we conclude that coupling between delta/theta phase and high gamma amplitude serves to coordinate information within – and perhaps between – frontal and parietal areas during allocation of visuospatial attention.
PMCID: PMC4144794  PMID: 25157678
6.  Demonstration of a Semi-Autonomous Hybrid Brain-Machine Interface using Human Intracranial EEG, Eye Tracking, and Computer Vision to Control a Robotic Upper Limb Prosthetic 
To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p < 0.05). After BMI-based initiation, the MPL completed the entire task 100% (one object) and 70% (three objects) of the time. The MPL took approximately 12.2 seconds for task completion after system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs.
PMCID: PMC4057363  PMID: 24760914
Brain-computer interface (BCI); Brain-machine interface (BMI); Electrocorticography (ECoG); Hybrid BCI; Intelligent robotics; Intracranial EEG (iEEG)
7.  Simultaneous Neural Control of Simple Reaching and Grasping with the Modular Prosthetic Limb using Intracranial EEG 
Intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) signals from two human subjects were used to achieve simultaneous neural control of reaching and grasping movements with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL), a dexterous robotic prosthetic arm. We performed functional mapping of high gamma activity while the subject made reaching and grasping movements to identify task-selective electrodes. Independent, online control of reaching and grasping was then achieved using high gamma activity from a small subset of electrodes with a model trained on short blocks of reaching and grasping with no further adaptation. Classification accuracy did not decline (p<0.05, one-way ANOVA) over three blocks of testing in either subject. Mean classification accuracy during independently executed overt reach and grasp movements for (Subject 1, Subject 2) were (0.85, 0.81) and (0.80, 0.96) respectively, and during simultaneous execution they were (0.83, 0.88) and (0.58, 0.88) respectively. Our models leveraged knowledge of the subject's individual functional neuroanatomy for reaching and grasping movements, allowing rapid acquisition of control in a time-sensitive clinical setting. We demonstrate the potential feasibility of verifying functionally meaningful iEEG-based control of the MPL prior to chronic implantation, during which additional capabilities of the MPL might be exploited with further training.
PMCID: PMC4030429  PMID: 24235276
Brain-machine interface; upper limb prosthesis; electrocorticography; high gamma; functional mapping
8.  Electrocorticographic amplitude predicts finger positions during slow grasping motions of the hand 
Journal of neural engineering  2010;7(4):046002.
Four human subjects undergoing subdural electrocorticography for epilepsy surgery engaged in a range of finger and hand movements. We observed that the amplitudes of the low-pass filtered electrocorticogram (ECoG), also known as the local motor potential (LMP), over specific peri-Rolandic electrodes were correlated (p < 0.001) with the position of individual fingers as the subjects engaged in slow and deliberate grasping motions. A generalized linear model (GLM) of the LMP amplitudes from those electrodes yielded predictions for positions of the fingers that had a strong congruence with the actual finger positions (correlation coefficient, r; median = 0.51, maximum = 0.91), during displacements of up to 10 cm at the fingertips. For all the subjects, decoding filters trained on data from any given session were remarkably robust in their prediction performance across multiple sessions and days, and were invariant with respect to changes in wrist angle, elbow flexion and hand placement across these sessions (median r = 0.52, maximum r = 0.86). Furthermore, a reasonable prediction accuracy for grasp aperture was achievable with as few as three electrodes in all subjects (median r = 0.49; maximum r = 0.90). These results provide further evidence for the feasibility of robust and practical ECoG-based control of finger movements in upper extremity prosthetics.
PMCID: PMC4021582  PMID: 20489239
9.  Connectivity Mapping of the Human ECoG During a Motor Task with a Time-Varying Dynamic Bayesian Network 
As a partially invasive and clinically obtained neural signal, the electrocorticogram (ECoG) provides a unique opportunity to study cortical processing in humans in vivo. Functional connectivity mapping based on the ECoG signal can provide insight into epileptogenic zones and putative cortical circuits. We describe the first application of time-varying dynamic Bayesian networks (TVDBN) to the ECoG signal for the identification and study of cortical circuits. Connectivity between motor areas as well as between sensory and motor areas preceding and during movement is described. We further apply the connectivity results of the TVDBN to a movement decoder, which achieves a correlation between actual and predicted hand movements of 0.68. This paper presents evidence that the connectivity information discovered with TVDBN is applicable to the design of an ECoG-based brainmachine interface.
PMCID: PMC4021587  PMID: 21096524
10.  Towards Electrocorticographic Control of a Dexterous Upper Limb Prosthesis 
IEEE pulse  2012;3(1):38-42.
One of the most exciting and compelling areas of research and development is building brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) for controlling prosthetic limbs. Prosthetic limb technology is advancing rapidly, and the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL) permits actuation with 17 degrees of freedom in 26 articulating joints. There are many signals from the brain that can be leveraged, including the spiking rates of neurons in the cortex, electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals from the surface of the cortex, and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp. Unlike microelectrodes which record spikes, ECoG does not penetrate the cortex and also has higher spatial specificity, signal-to-noise ratio, and bandwidth than EEG signals. We have implemented an ECoG-based system for controlling the MPL in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, where patients are implanted with ECoG electrode grids for clinical seizure mapping and asked to perform various recorded finger or grasp movements. We have shown that low frequency local motor potentials and ECoG power in the high gamma frequency (70–150 Hz) range correlates well with grasping parameters and they stand out as good candidate features for closed-loop control of the MPL.
PMCID: PMC3987748  PMID: 22344950
Brain-machine interface (BMI); electrocorticography (ECoG); neuroprosthetics
11.  High-frequency neural activity and human cognition: past, present and possible future of intracranial EEG research 
Progress in neurobiology  2012;98(3):279-301.
Human intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings are primarily performed in epileptic patients for presurgical mapping. When patients perform cognitive tasks, iEEG signals reveal high-frequency neural activities (HFA, between around 40 Hz and 150 Hz) with exquisite anatomical, functional and temporal specificity. Such HFA were originally interpreted in the context of perceptual or motor binding, in line with animal studies on gamma-band (‘40Hz’) neural synchronization. Today, our understanding of HFA has evolved into a more general index of cortical processing: task-induced HFA reveals, with excellent spatial and time resolution, the participation of local neural ensembles in the task-at-hand, and perhaps the neural communication mechanisms allowing them to do so. This review promotes the claim that studying HFA with iEEG provides insights into the neural bases of cognition that cannot be derived as easily from other approaches, such as fMRI. We provide a series of examples supporting that claim, drawn from studies on memory, language and default-mode networks, and successful attempts of real-time functional mapping. These examples are followed by several guidelines for HFA research, intended for new groups interested by this approach. Overall, iEEG research on HFA should play an increasing role in cognitive neuroscience in humans, because it can be explicitly linked to basic research in animals. We conclude by discussing the future evolution of this field, which might expand that role even further, for instance through the use of multi-scale electrodes and the fusion of iEEG with MEG and fMRI.
PMCID: PMC3980670  PMID: 22750156
electrocorticography; ECoG; high gamma; functional mapping; oscillations; gamma
12.  Reliability of Early Cortical Auditory Gamma-Band Responses 
To evaluate the test-retest reliability of event-related power changes in the 30–150 Hz gamma frequency range occurring in the first 150 ms after presentation of an auditory stimulus.
Repeat intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings were performed with 12 epilepsy patients, at ≥ 1-day intervals, using a passive odd-ball paradigm with steady-state tones. Time-frequency matching pursuit analysis was used to quantify changes in gamma-band power relative to pre-stimulus baseline. Test-retest reliability was estimated based on within-subject comparisons (paired t-test, McNemar’s test) and correlations (Spearman rank correlations, intra-class correlations) across sessions, adjusting for within-session variability. Reliability estimates of gamma-band response robustness, spatial concordance, and reproducibility were compared with corresponding measurements from concurrent auditory evoked N1 responses.
All patients showed increases in gamma-band power, 50–120 ms post-stimulus onset, that were highly robust across recordings, comparable to the evoked N1 responses. Gamma-band responses occurred regardless of patients’ performance on behavioral tests of auditory processing, medication changes, seizure focus, or duration of test-retest interval. Test-retest reproducibility was greatest for the timing of peak power changes in the high-gamma range (65–150 Hz). Reliability of low-gamma responses and evoked N1 responses improved at higher signal-to-noise levels.
Early cortical auditory gamma-band responses are robust, spatially concordant, and reproducible over time.
These test-retest ECoG results confirm the reliability of auditory gamma-band responses, supporting their utility as objective measures of cortical processing in clinical and research studies.
PMCID: PMC3468656  PMID: 22771035
Auditory Cortex; Gamma-Band; Reliability; Auditory Processing; Variability
13.  Decoding spectrotemporal features of overt and covert speech from the human cortex 
Auditory perception and auditory imagery have been shown to activate overlapping brain regions. We hypothesized that these phenomena also share a common underlying neural representation. To assess this, we used electrocorticography intracranial recordings from epileptic patients performing an out loud or a silent reading task. In these tasks, short stories scrolled across a video screen in two conditions: subjects read the same stories both aloud (overt) and silently (covert). In a control condition the subject remained in a resting state. We first built a high gamma (70–150 Hz) neural decoding model to reconstruct spectrotemporal auditory features of self-generated overt speech. We then evaluated whether this same model could reconstruct auditory speech features in the covert speech condition. Two speech models were tested: a spectrogram and a modulation-based feature space. For the overt condition, reconstruction accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between original and predicted speech features, and was significant in each subject (p < 10−5; paired two-sample t-test). For the covert speech condition, dynamic time warping was first used to realign the covert speech reconstruction with the corresponding original speech from the overt condition. Reconstruction accuracy was then evaluated as the correlation between original and reconstructed speech features. Covert reconstruction accuracy was compared to the accuracy obtained from reconstructions in the baseline control condition. Reconstruction accuracy for the covert condition was significantly better than for the control condition (p < 0.005; paired two-sample t-test). The superior temporal gyrus, pre- and post-central gyrus provided the highest reconstruction information. The relationship between overt and covert speech reconstruction depended on anatomy. These results provide evidence that auditory representations of covert speech can be reconstructed from models that are built from an overt speech data set, supporting a partially shared neural substrate.
PMCID: PMC4034498  PMID: 24904404
electrocorticography; speech production; covert speech; decoding model; pattern recognition
14.  Decrease in gamma-band activity tracks sequence learning 
Learning novel sequences constitutes an example of declarative memory formation, involving conscious recall of temporal events. Performance in sequence learning tasks improves with repetition and involves forming temporal associations over scales of seconds to minutes. To further understand the neural circuits underlying declarative sequence learning over trials, we tracked changes in intracranial field potentials (IFPs) recorded from 1142 electrodes implanted throughout temporal and frontal cortical areas in 14 human subjects, while they learned the temporal-order of multiple sequences of images over trials through repeated recall. We observed an increase in power in the gamma frequency band (30–100 Hz) in the recall phase, particularly in areas within the temporal lobe including the parahippocampal gyrus. The degree of this gamma power enhancement decreased over trials with improved sequence recall. Modulation of gamma power was directly correlated with the improvement in recall performance. When presenting new sequences, gamma power was reset to high values and decreased again after learning. These observations suggest that signals in the gamma frequency band may play a more prominent role during the early steps of the learning process rather than during the maintenance of memory traces.
PMCID: PMC4300908  PMID: 25653598
sequence learning; memory; intracranial recordings; field potentials; gamma frequency oscillations; human neurophysiology
15.  Connectivity between Perisylvian and Bilateral Basal Temporal Cortices 
Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)  2011;22(4):918-925.
Language processing requires the orchestrated action of different neuronal populations, and some studies suggest that the role of the basal temporal (BT) cortex in language processing is bilaterally distributed. Our aim was to demonstrate connectivity between perisylvian cortex and both BT areas. We recorded corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) in 8 patients with subdural electrodes implanted for surgical evaluation of intractable epilepsy. Four patients had subdural grids over dominant perisylvian and BT areas, and 4 had electrode strips over both BT areas and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (LPSTG). After electrocortical mapping, patients with grids had 1-Hz stimulation of language areas. Patients with strips did not undergo mapping but had 1-Hz stimulation of the LPSTG. Posterior language area stimulation elicited CCEPs in ipsilateral BT cortex in 3/4 patients with left hemispheric grids. CCEPs were recorded in bilateral BT cortices in 3/4 patients with strips upon stimulation of the LPSTG, and in the LPSTG in the fourth patient upon stimulation of either BT area. This is the first in vivo demonstration of connectivity between LPSTG and both BT cortices. The role of BT cortex in language processing may be bilaterally distributed and related to linking visual information with phonological representations stored in the LPSTG.
PMCID: PMC3306577  PMID: 21715651
basal temporal language area; connectivity; cortical mapping; epilepsy; evoked potentials
16.  Connectivity analysis as a novel approach to motor decoding for prosthesis control 
The use of neural signals for prosthesis control is an emerging frontier of research to restore lost function to amputees and the paralyzed. Electrocorticography (ECoG) brain-machine interfaces (BMI) are an alternative to EEG and neural spiking and local field potential BMI approaches. Conventional ECoG BMIs rely on spectral analysis at specific electrode sites to extract signals for controlling prostheses. We compare traditional features with information about the connectivity of an ECoG electrode network. We use time-varying dynamic Bayesian networks (TV-DBN) to determine connectivity between ECoG channels in humans during a motor task. We show that, on average, TV-DBN connectivity decreases from baseline preceding movement and then becomes negative, indicating an alteration in the phase relationship between electrode pairs. In some subjects, this change occurs preceding and during movement, before changes in low or high frequency power. We tested TV-DBN output in a hand kinematic decoder and obtained an average correlation coefficient (r2) between actual and predicted joint angle of 0.40, and as high as 0.66 in one subject. This result compares favorably with spectral feature decoders, for which the average correlation coefficient was 0.13. This work introduces a new feature set based on connectivity and demonstrates its potential to improve ECoG BMI accuracy.
PMCID: PMC3327125  PMID: 22084052
Brain computer interfaces; connectivity analysis; motor control; time-varying dynamic Bayesian networks
17.  Multiple Task Interference is Greater in Children with ADHD 
Developmental Neuropsychology  2012;37(2):119-133.
There is considerable lay discussion that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have increased difficult with multitasking, but there are few experimental data. In the current study, we examine the simultaneous processing of two stimulus-response tasks using the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect. We hypothesized that children with ADHD would show a greater PRP effect, suggesting a prolonged “bottleneck” in stimulus-response processing. A total of 19 school-aged children with ADHD showed a prolonged PRP effect compared with 25 control children, suggesting a higher cognitive cost in ADHD for multi-tasking.
PMCID: PMC3313619  PMID: 22339226
Multi-tasking; Executive Function; ADHD; Processing Speed; Psychological Refractory Period
18.  Dynamics of large-scale cortical interactions at high gamma frequencies during word production: Event related causality (ERC) analysis of human electrocorticography (ECoG) 
NeuroImage  2011;56(4):2218-2237.
Intracranial EEG studies in humans have shown that functional brain activation in a variety of functional-anatomic domains of human cortex is associated with an increase in power at a broad range of high gamma (> 60 Hz) frequencies. Although these electrophysiological responses are highly specific for the location and timing of cortical processing and in animal recordings are highly correlated with increased population firing rates, there has been little direct empirical evidence for causal interactions between different recording sites at high gamma frequencies. Such causal interactions are hypothesized to occur during cognitive tasks that activate multiple brain regions. To determine whether such causal interactions occur at high gamma frequencies and to investigate their functional significance, we used event-related causality (ERC) analysis to estimate the dynamics, directionality, and magnitude of event-related causal interactions using subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) recorded during two word production tasks: picture naming and auditory word repetition. A clinical subject who had normal hearing but was skilled in American Signed Language (ASL) provided a unique opportunity to test our hypothesis with reference to a predictable pattern of causal interactions, i.e. that language cortex interacts with different areas of sensorimotor cortex during spoken vs. signed responses. Our ERC analyses confirmed this prediction. During word production with spoken responses, perisylvian language sites had prominent causal interactions with mouth/tongue areas of motor cortex, and when responses were gestured in sign language, the most prominent interactions involved hand and arm areas of motor cortex. Furthermore, we found that the sites from which the most numerous and prominent causal interactions originated, i.e. sites with a pattern of ERC “divergence”, were also sites where high gamma power increases were most prominent and where electrocortical stimulation mapping interfered with word production. These findings suggest that the number, strength and directionality of event-related causal interactions may help identify network nodes that are not only activated by a task but are critical to its performance.
PMCID: PMC3105123  PMID: 21419227
effective connectivity; Granger causality; large-scale brain networks; high gamma oscillations; language mapping
19.  Asynchronous Decoding of Grasp Aperture from Human ECoG During a Reach-to-Grasp Task 
Conference Proceedings  2011;2011:4584-4587.
Recent studies in primate neurophysiology have focused on decoding multi-joint kinematics from single unit and local field potential recordings. However, the extent to which these results can be generalized to human subjects is not known. We have recorded simultaneous electrocorticographic (ECoG) and hand kinematics in a human subject performing reach-grasp-hold of objects varying in shape and size. All Spectral features in various gamma bands (30–50 Hz, 70–100 Hz and 100–150 Hz frequency bands) were able to predict the time course of grasp aperture with high correlation (max r = 0.80) using as few as one ECoG feature from a single electrode (max r for single feature = 0.75) in single trials without prior knowledge of task timing. These results suggest that the population activity captured with ECoG contains information about coordinated finger movements that potentially can be exploited to control advanced upper limb neuroprosthetics.
PMCID: PMC3324943  PMID: 22255358
20.  Coherence Potentials Encode Simple Human Sensorimotor Behavior 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e30514.
Recent work has shown that large amplitude negative periods in the local field potential (nLFPs) are able to spread in saltatory manner across large distances in the cortex without distortion in their temporal structure forming ‘coherence potentials’. Here we analysed subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals recorded at 59 sites in the sensorimotor cortex in the left hemisphere of a human subject performing a simple visuomotor task (fist clenching and foot dorsiflexion) to understand how coherence potentials arising in the recordings relate to sensorimotor behavior. In all behaviors we found a particular coherence potential (i.e. a cascade of a particular nLFP wave pattern) arose consistently across all trials with temporal specificity. During contrateral fist clenching, but not the foot dorsiflexion or ipsilateral fist clenching, the coherence potential most frequently originated in the hand representation area in the somatosensory cortex during the anticipation and planning periods of the trial, moving to other regions during the actual motor behavior. While these ‘expert’ sites participated more consistently, other sites participated only a small fraction of the time. Furthermore, the timing of the coherence potential at the hand representation area after onset of the cue predicted the timing of motor behavior. We present the hypothesis that coherence potentials encode information relevant for behavior and are generated by the ‘expert’ sites that subsequently broadcast to other sites as a means of ‘sharing knowledge’.
PMCID: PMC3272042  PMID: 22319572
21.  Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex 
PLoS Biology  2012;10(1):e1001251.
Direct brain recordings from neurosurgical patients listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex.
How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations. These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex.
Author Summary
Spoken language is a uniquely human trait. The human brain has evolved computational mechanisms that decode highly variable acoustic inputs into meaningful elements of language such as phonemes and words. Unraveling these decoding mechanisms in humans has proven difficult, because invasive recording of cortical activity is usually not possible. In this study, we take advantage of rare neurosurgical procedures for the treatment of epilepsy, in which neural activity is measured directly from the cortical surface and therefore provides a unique opportunity for characterizing how the human brain performs speech recognition. Using these recordings, we asked what aspects of speech sounds could be reconstructed, or decoded, from higher order brain areas in the human auditory system. We found that continuous auditory representations, for example the speech spectrogram, could be accurately reconstructed from measured neural signals. Reconstruction quality was highest for sound features most critical to speech intelligibility and allowed decoding of individual spoken words. The results provide insights into higher order neural speech processing and suggest it may be possible to readout intended speech directly from brain activity.
PMCID: PMC3269422  PMID: 22303281
22.  Subdural Electrodes 
Subdural electrodes are frequently used to aid in the neurophysiological assessment of patients with intractable seizures. We review the indications for these, their uses for localizing epileptogenic regions and for localizing cortical regions supporting movement, sensation, and language.
PMCID: PMC2962988  PMID: 20573543
Subdural electrodes; implanted electrodes; intracranial EEG recordings; functional localization
23.  Language Mapping in Multilingual Patients: Electrocorticography and Cortical Stimulation During Naming 
Multilingual patients pose a unique challenge when planning epilepsy surgery near language cortex because the cortical representations of each language may be distinct. These distinctions may not be evident with routine electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM). Electrocorticography (ECoG) has recently been used to detect task-related spectral perturbations associated with functional brain activation. We hypothesized that using broadband high gamma augmentation (HGA, 60–150 Hz) as an index of cortical activation, ECoG would complement ESM in discriminating the cortical representations of first (L1) and second (L2) languages. We studied four adult patients for whom English was a second language, in whom subdural electrodes (a total of 358) were implanted to guide epilepsy surgery. Patients underwent ECoG recordings and ESM while performing the same visual object naming task in L1 and L2. In three of four patients, ECoG found sites activated during naming in one language but not the other. These language-specific sites were not identified using ESM. In addition, ECoG HGA was observed at more sites during L2 versus L1 naming in two patients, suggesting that L2 processing required additional cortical resources compared to L1 processing in these individuals. Post-operative language deficits were identified in three patients (one in L2 only). These deficits were predicted by ECoG spectral mapping but not by ESM. These results suggest that pre-surgical mapping should include evaluation of all utilized languages to avoid post-operative functional deficits. Finally, this study suggests that ECoG spectral mapping may potentially complement the results of ESM of language.
PMCID: PMC3044479  PMID: 21373361
multilingual; naming; electrocorticography; ECoG; high gamma; functional mapping; electrocortical stimulation mapping; epilepsy surgery
24.  Use of Quantitative EEG in Infants with Port-Wine Birthmark to Assess for Sturge-Weber Brain Involvement 
Many infants born with a facial port-wine (PW) birthmark will not develop brain involvement of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Previous studies have shown asymmetry in quantitative EEG (qEEG) correlates with degree of clinical impairment in children and adults with known SWS. We hope to determine if quantitative qEEG can be used as a method to predict which infants are most likely to develop SWS brain involvement on MRI. The current study looks at the ability of qEEG to differentiate between infants with radiographically-demonstrated SWS and those without.
We first performed an observational study of qEEG results on 8 infants with facial PW birthmark (4 had SWS brain involvement). We recorded standard clinical EEGs and then derived a measure of asymmetry. We subsequently validated this threshold through a study of an additional 9 infants with PW birthmark (5 with SWS brain involvement).
Quantitative EEG correctly identified infants with SWS brain involvement in all cases in the validation cohort. This technique was at least as good as a pediatric electroencephalographer with extensive experience reading SWS EEGs.
This study demonstrates the ability for qEEG to discriminate between those infants with SWS brain involvement and those with neurologically asymptomatic PW birthmark.
This study represents an important step toward the development of a qEEG technique able to predict which infants with PW birthmark will develop SWS brain involvement.
PMCID: PMC2754702  PMID: 19589723
Sturge-Weber syndrome; electroencephalography
25.  Quantifying Auditory Event-Related Responses in Multichannel Human Intracranial Recordings 
Multichannel intracranial recordings are used increasingly to study the functional organization of human cortex. Intracranial recordings of event-related activity, or electrocorticography (ECoG), are based on high density electrode arrays implanted directly over cortex, combining good temporal and spatial resolution. Developing appropriate statistical methods for analyzing event-related responses in these high dimensional ECoG datasets remains a major challenge for clinical and systems neuroscience. We present a novel methodological framework that combines complementary, existing methods adapted for statistical analysis of auditory event-related responses in multichannel ECoG recordings. This analytic framework integrates single-channel (time-domain, time–frequency) and multichannel analyses of event-related ECoG activity to determine statistically significant evoked responses, induced spectral responses, and effective (causal) connectivity. Implementation of this quantitative approach is illustrated using multichannel ECoG data from recent studies of auditory processing in patients with epilepsy. Methods described include a time–frequency matching pursuit algorithm adapted for modeling brief, transient cortical spectral responses to sound, and a recently developed method for estimating effective connectivity using multivariate autoregressive modeling to measure brief event-related changes in multichannel functional interactions. A semi-automated spatial normalization method for comparing intracranial electrode locations across patients is also described. The individual methods presented are published and readily accessible. We discuss the benefits of integrating multiple complementary methods in a unified and comprehensive quantitative approach. Methodological considerations in the analysis of multichannel ECoG data, including corrections for multiple comparisons are discussed, as well as remaining challenges in the development of new statistical approaches.
PMCID: PMC2859880  PMID: 20428513
electrocorticography; auditory; matching pursuit; multivariate autoregressive modeling; epilepsy; statistical testing

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