Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-2 (2)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Clinical Pharmacy Faculty Interventions in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: An Eight-Month Review 
The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Society of Critical Care Medicine have documented the importance of pharmacist involvement in pediatric care. Numerous studies have reported the impact of clinical pharmacy interventions in various adult care settings. However, in the pediatric critical care setting, the impact has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical pharmacy faculty interventions in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).
A pediatric clinical pharmacy faculty member performed and documented clinical interventions in a level I, 18-bed, tertiary care PICU. Information gathered included medication name, specific intervention performed, basic patient demographics, and length of stay from May to December 2009.
During the study period, there were 893 interventions performed on 159 patients over 66 days of service. (Average of 5.5 interventions/patient, and 34 interventions/100 patient PICU days.) Dosing recommendations and pharmacokinetics were the most common type of intervention (28.8% and 21.4%, respectively). Antibiotics and sedatives/analgesia were the most common drug classes in which interventions were made (34.4% and 20.3%, respectively). Ninety-eight percent of all interventions were accepted by the medical staff. The estimated annual cost savings from these interventions was $119,700.
The average number of interventions per patient in this study was higher than that reported in the literature to date. Dosing recommendations and pharmacokinetics were the most commonly recommended interventions documented. Although this study showed considerable cost savings by a pharmacy clinical faculty member, further study of economic benefits is needed.
PMCID: PMC3526930  PMID: 23258969
pediatric clinical pharmacist; pediatric critical care; pharmacoeconomics; pharmacy faculty; pharmacy interventions
2.  Acute Exercise Decreases Airway Inflammation, but Not Responsiveness, in an Allergic Asthma Model 
Previous studies have suggested that the asthmatic responses of airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperresponsiveness (AHR) are interrelated; in this study, we used exercise to examine the nature of this interrelationship. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA); mice were then exercised via running on a motorized treadmill at a moderate intensity. Data indicate that, within the lungs of OVA-treated mice, exercise attenuated the production of inflammatory mediators, including chemokines KC, RANTES, and MCP-1 and IL-12p40/p80. Coordinately, OVA-treated and exercised mice displayed decreases in leukocyte infiltration, including eosinophils, as compared with sedentary controls. Results also show that a single bout of exercise significantly decreased phosphorylation of the NFκB p65 subunit, which regulates the gene expression of a wide variety of inflammatory mediators. In addition, OVA-treated and exercised mice exhibited decreases in the levels of Th2-derived cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 and the prostaglandin PGE2, as compared with sedentary controls. In contrast, results show that a single bout of exercise had no effect on AHR in OVA-treated mice challenged with increasing doses of aerosolized methacholine (0–50 mg/ml) as compared with sedentary mice. Exercise also had no effect on epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus production, or airway wall thickening in OVA-treated mice as compared with sedentary controls. These findings suggest that a single bout of aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity attenuates airway inflammation but not AHR or airway remodeling in OVA-treated mice. The implication of these findings for the interrelationship between airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and AHR is discussed.
PMCID: PMC2606949  PMID: 18635813
asthma; aerobic exercise; airway inflammation; remodeling; hyperresponsiveness

Results 1-2 (2)