Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli; Escherichia coli O157; Shiga toxins; hemolytic–uremic syndrome; clinical laboratory and immunoenzyme techniques; culture media; Tennessee; bacteria; colectomy; another dimension
Access to contraceptive by minors (pre-adolescents and adolescents) has spurred policy and legislative debates, part of which is that in an effort to successfully meet government's objective of a healthy sexual lifestyle among minors.
This study examined factors affecting sexual reproductive health in minors, namely: access to contraceptive advice and treatment, pregnancy, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and confidentiality.
Materials and Methods:
This research involved quantitative and qualitative data. Two hundred and thirty eight sexually active cases were investigated in Jamaica by the researchers, during the period 2006-2007. The age group population was 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17.
The study showed that access to contraceptive advice and treatment by minors was more favorable to males than females. The difference in access to contraceptive between male and female was statistically significant (x2 = 20.16, p<0.05). Of the 80 male respondents, who are contraceptive users, 11 encountered challenges in legitimately accessing contraceptive methods, while 38 of the 40 female users also encountered challenges. This resulted in unintended pregnancies and impregnation (33.2%), as well as the contracting of STIs (21%).
The findings of this study will be important in informing the development of reproductive health services and family life education programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents in Jamaica and other Caribbean countries.
Contraceptive; minors; adolescents; pre-adolescents; Caribbean countries; Jamaica
Hepatocellular secretion of bile salts into the biliary space induces phospholipid and cholesterol secretion, but the mechanism for integrated lipid secretion is poorly understood. Knockout mice unable to make the canalicular membrane mdr2 P-glycoprotein exhibit normal rates of bile salt secretion, yet are virtually incapable of secreting biliary phospholipid and cholesterol. As the mdr2 P-glycoprotein is thought to mediate transmembrane movement of phospholipid molecules, this mouse model was used to examine the mechanism for biliary phospholipid secretion. In wild-type mdr2 (+/+) mice, ultrarapid cryofixation of livers in situ revealed abundant unilamellar lipid vesicles within bile canalicular lumina. Although 74% of vesicles were adherent to the external aspect of the canalicular plasma membrane, bilayer exocytosis was not observed. Vesicle numbers in mdr2 (+/-) and (-/-) mice were 55 and 12% of wild-type levels, respectively. In a strain of mdr2 (-/-) mice which had been "rescued" by heterozygous genomic insertion of the MDR3 gene, the human homologue of the murine mdr2 gene, vesicle numbers returned to 95% of wild-type levels. Our findings indicate that biliary phospholipid is secreted as vesicles by a process largely dependent on the action of the murine mdr2 P-glycoprotein or human MDR3 P-glycoprotein. We conclude that mdr2-mediated phospholipid translocation from the internal to external hemileaflet of the canalicular membrane permits exovesiculation of the external hemileaflet, a vesiculation process promoted by the detergent environment of the bile canalicular lumen.
Actinomycete strains isolated from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated and uncontaminated environments were compared for TNT tolerance and abilities to transform TNT. Regardless of previous TNT exposure history, no significant differences in TNT tolerance were seen among strains. Selected strains did not significantly mineralize [14C]TNT. The actinomycetes did, however, transform TNT into reduced intermediates. The data indicate that, in actinomycete-rich aerobic environments like composts, actinomycetes will transform TNT into intermediates which are known to form recalcitrant polymers.
Pathways for the degradation of 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-azobenzene-4'-sulfonic acid (I) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonamide (II) by the manganese peroxidase and ligninase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by the peroxidase of Streptomyces chromofuscus have been proposed. Twelve metabolic products were found, and their mechanisms of formation were explained. Preliminary oxidative activation of the dyes resulted in the formation of cationic species, making the molecules vulnerable to the nucleophilic attack of water. Two types of hydrolytic cleavage were observed. Asymmetric splitting gave rise to quinone and diazene derivatives, while symmetric splitting resulted in the formation of quinone monoimine and nitroso derivatives. These unstable intermediates underwent further redox, oxidation, and hydrolytic transformation, eventually furnishing 11 organic products and ammonia.
We examined the bioremediation of soils contaminated with the munition compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine by a procedure that produced anaerobic conditions in the soils and promoted the biodegradation of nitroaromatic contaminants. This procedure consisted of flooding the soils with 50 mM phosphate buffer, adding starch as a supplemental carbon substrate, and incubating under static conditions. Aerobic heterotrophs, present naturally in the soil or added as an inoculum, quickly removed the oxygen from the static cultures, creating anaerobic conditions. Removal of parent TNT molecules from the soil cultures by the strictly anaerobic microflora occurred within 4 days. The reduced intermediates formed from TNT and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine were removed from the cultures within 24 days, completing the first stage of remediation. The procedure was effective over a range of incubation temperatures, 20 to 37 degrees C, and was improved when 25 mM ammonium was added to cultures buffered with 50 mM potassium phosphate. Ammonium phosphate buffer (50 mM), however, completely inhibited TNT reduction. The optimal pH for the first stage of remediation was between 6.5 and 7.0. When soils were incubated under aerobic conditions or under anaerobic conditions at alkaline pHs, the TNT biodegradation intermediates polymerized. Polymerization was not observed at neutral to slightly acidic pHs under anaerobic conditions. Completion of the first stage of remediation of munition compound-contaminated soils resulted in aqueous supernatants that contained no munition residues or aminoaromatic compounds.
Twenty-two azo dyes were used to study the influence of substituents on azo dye biodegradability and to explore the possibility of enhancing the biodegradabilities of azo dyes without affecting their properties as dyes by changing their chemical structures. Streptomyces spp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used in the study. None of the actinomycetes (Streptomyces rochei A10, Streptomyces chromofuscus A11, Streptomyces diastaticus A12, S. diastaticus A13, and S. rochei A14) degraded the commercially available Acid Yellow 9. Decolorization of monosulfonated mono azo dye derivatives of azobenzene by the Streptomyces spp. was observed with five azo dyes having the common structural pattern of a hydroxy group in the para position relative to the azo linkage and at least one methoxy and/or one alkyl group in an ortho position relative to the hydroxy group. The fungus P. chrysosporium attacked Acid Yellow 9 to some extent and extensively decolorized several azo dyes. A different pattern was seen for three mono azo dye derivatives of naphthol. Streptomyces spp. decolorized Orange I but not Acid Orange 12 or Orange II. P. chrysosporium, though able to transform these three azo dyes, decolorized Acid Orange 12 and Orange II more effectively than Orange I. A correlation was observed between the rate of decolorization of dyes by Streptomyces spp. and the rate of oxidative decolorization of dyes by a commercial preparation of horseradish peroxidase type II, extracellular peroxidase preparations of S. chromofuscus A11, or Mn(II) peroxidase from P. chrysosporium. Ligninase of P. chrysosporium showed a dye specificity different from that of the other oxidative enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Five 14C-radiolabeled azo dyes and sulfanilic acid were synthesized and used to examine the relationship between dye substitution patterns and biodegradability (mineralization to CO2) by a white-rot fungus and an actinomycete. 4-Amino-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(3-sulfo-4-aminophenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid were used as representative compounds having sulfo groups or both sulfo and azo groups. Such compounds are not known to be present in the biosphere as natural products. The introduction of lignin-like fragments into the molecules of 4-amino-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(3-sulfo-4-aminophenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid by coupling reactions with guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) resulted in the formation of the dyes 4-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(2-sulfo-3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxy-azobenzene-4-azo)-[U-14C]benzenesulf oni c acid, respectively. The synthesis of acid azo dyes 4-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid also allowed the abilities of these microorganisms to mineralize these commercially important compounds to be evaluated. Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralized all of the sulfonated azo dyes, and the substitution pattern did not significantly influence the susceptibility of the dyes to degradation. In contrast, Streptomyces chromofuscus was unable to mineralize aromatics with sulfo groups and both sulfo and azo groups. However, it mediated the mineralization of modified dyes containing lignin-like substitution patterns. This work showed that lignocellulolytic fungi and bacteria can be used for the biodegradation of anionic azo dyes, which thus far have been considered among the xenobiotic compounds most resistant to biodegradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to bioremediate TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in a soil containing 12,000 ppm of TNT and the explosives RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine; 3,000 ppm) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 300 ppm) was investigated. The fungus did not grow in malt extract broth containing more than 0.02% (wt/vol; 24 ppm of TNT) soil. Pure TNT or explosives extracted from the soil were degraded by P. chrysosporium spore-inoculated cultures at TNT concentrations of up to 20 ppm. Mycelium-inoculated cultures degraded 100 ppm of TNT, but further growth was inhibited above 20 ppm. In malt extract broth, spore-inoculated cultures mineralized 10% of added [14C]TNT (5 ppm) in 27 days at 37 degrees C. No mineralization occurred during [14C]TNT biotransformation by mycelium-inoculated cultures, although the TNT was transformed.
A novel soil treatment method for achieving the removal of dinoseb (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol) from contaminated soils was investigated. One soil contained dinoseb as the major contaminant, although several other hazardous compounds were also present. A second soil was highly contaminated with dinoseb. Dinoseb was not degraded in these soils under the aerobic conditions at each site. Pretreatment of the soils by the addition of a starchy potato-processing by-product and flooding with phosphate buffer stimulated the consumption of oxygen and nitrate from the soils, thereby lowering the redox potential and creating anaerobic conditions. Anaerobiosis (Eh less than -200 mV) promoted the establishment of an anaerobic microbial consortium that degraded dinoseb completely, without the formation of the polymerization products seen under aerobic or microaerophilic conditions. When dinoseb was present at low concentrations in a chronically contaminated soil, the natural microflora was capable of establishing anaerobic conditions and degrading dinoseb as a result of starch degradation. Inoculation of this soil with an aerobic starch-degrading microorganism and then an acclimated, anaerobic, dinoseb-degrading consortium did not improve dinoseb degradation. In a second acutely contaminated soil, these inoculations improved dinoseb degradation rates over those of uninoculated controls.
We examined the ability of native microorganisms in various Idaho soils to degrade dinoseb and studied some physical and chemical soil characteristics which might affect the biodegradation process. Dinoseb biodegradation rates were higher in silt-loam soils than in loamy-sand soils. Biodegradation rates were not influenced by previous exposure of the soils to dinoseb. Bacterial numbers, measured by standard plate counts on soil extract agar, were the best predictors of biodegradation rates, accounting for 53% of the variability between soils. Soil nitrate-N inhibited dinoseb biodegradation and accounted for 39% of the variability. Sorption of dinoseb to soil surfaces also appeared to influence biodegradation rates. No other soil parameter contributed significantly to the variability in biodegradation rates. Persistence of dinoseb in one soil was due to inhibition of biodegradation by nitrate, while in another soil persistence appeared to be due to lack of native degradative microorganisms.
A new, quantitatively significant intermediate formed during lignin degradation by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A was isolated and characterized. In Streptomyces-inoculated cultures, the intermediate, an acid-precipitable, polyphenolic, polymeric lignin (APPL), accumulated in the growth medium. The APPL was a water-soluble polymer probably consisting of a heterogeneous mixture of molecular weight components of ≥20,000. APPLs were precipitable from culture filtrates after they had been acidified to pH <3 to 5. Noninoculated controls yielded little APPL, but supernatant solutions from inoculated cultures produced quantities of APPL that correlated with the biodegradability of the lignocellulose type. Maximal recovery of APPL was obtained from corn lignocellulose, reaching 30% of the initial lignin present in the substrate. APPLs contained small amounts of carbohydrate, organic nitrogen, and inorganic materials. The lignin origin of APPLs was confirmed by chemical analyses, which included acidolysis, permanganate oxidation, elemental analyses, functional group analyses, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 14C isotopic techniques. Analyses of APPLs from corn lignocelluloses showed that S. viridosporus-degraded APPLs were lignin derived but significantly different in structure from APPLs derived from uninoculated controls or from a standard corn milled-wood lignin. Degraded APPLs were enriched in phenolic hydroxyl groups and, to a small extent, in carboxyl groups. Degradative changes appeared to be largely oxidative and were thought to involve substantial cleavage of p-hydroxy ether linkages and methoxyl groups in the lignin.
Microbial decomposition of lignocellulose in soil was studied using radioisotope techniques. Natural lignocelluloses containing 14C in either their lignin or cellulose (glucan) components were prepared by feeding plants l-[U-14C]phenylalanine or d-[U-14C]glucose, respectively, through their cut stems. Detailed chemical and chromatographic characterization of labeled lignocelluloses from three hardwood and three softwood species showed that those labeled by the [14C]glucose incorporation method contained specifically labeled cellulosic components, whereas those labeled by the [14C]phenylalanine incorporation method contained specifically labeled lignin components. Microbial degradation of these differentially labeled lignocelluloses was followed by monitoring 14CO2 evolution from selected soil samples incubated with known amounts of radiolabeled lignocelluloses. The lignin components of the six woods were shown to be decomposed in soil 4 to 10 times more slowly than their cellulosic components. These rates of mineralization were comparable to the generalized patterns previously reported in the literature. The present technique, however, was thought to be simpler, more sensitive, and less prone to interference than methods previously available.
A new procedure was developed for the study of lignin biodegradation by pure or mixed cultures of microorganisms. Natural lignocelluloses were prepared containing 14C in primarily their lignin components by feeding plants l-[U-14C]phenylalanine through their cut stems. Lignin degradation was observed in numerous soils by monitoring evolution of 14CO2 from [14C]lignin-labeled oak (Quercus albus), maple (Acer rubrum), and cattail (Typha latifola). An organism (Thermonospora fusca ATCC 27730) that is known to degrade cellulose but not lignin was shown to grow on lignocellulose in the presence of [14C]lignocelluloses without evolution of 14CO2. A known lignin degrader (a white-rot fungus, Polyporus versicolor) was shown to readily evolve 14CO2 from damp 14C-labeled cattail and 14C-labeled maple.
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted serpin that exhibits a variety of interesting biological activities. The multifunctional PEDF has neurotrophic and antiangiogenic properties, and acts in retinal differentiation, survival, and maintenance. It is also antitumorigenic and antimetastatic, and has stem cell self-renewal properties. It is widely distributed in the human body and exists in abundance in the eye as a soluble extracellular glycoprotein. Its levels are altered in diseases characterized by retinopathies and angiogenesis. Its mechanisms of neuroprotection and angiogenesis are associated with receptor interactions at cell-surface interfaces and changes in protein expression. This serpin lacks demonstrable serine protease inhibitory activity, but has binding affinity to extracellular matrix components and cell-surface receptors. Here we describe purification protocols, methods to quantify PEDF, and determine interactions with specific molecules, as well as neurotrophic and angiogenesis assays for this multifunctional protein.
Astrocytes contribute to many neuronal functions, including synaptogenesis, but their role in the development of synaptic plasticity remains unclear. Presynaptic muting of hippocampal glutamatergic terminals defends against excitotoxicity. Here we studied the role of astrocytes in the development of presynaptic muting at glutamatergic synapses in rat hippocampal neurons. We found that astrocytes were critical for the development of depolarization-dependent and Gi/o-dependent presynaptic muting. The ability of cAMP analogues to modulate presynaptic function was also impaired by astrocyte deficiency. Although astrocyte deprivation resulted in postsynaptic glutamate receptor deficits, this effect appeared independent of astrocytes’ role in presynaptic muting. Muting was restored with chronic, but not acute, treatment with astrocyte-conditioned medium, indicating that a soluble factor is permissive for muting. Astrocyte-derived thrombospondins (TSPs) are likely responsible because TSP1 mimicked the effect of conditioned medium, and gabapentin, a high-affinity antagonist of TSP binding to the α2δ-1 calcium channel subunit, mimicked astrocyte deprivation. We found evidence that protein kinase A activity is abnormal in astrocyte-deprived neurons but restored by TSP1, so protein kinase A dysfunction may provide a mechanism by which muting is disrupted during astrocyte deficiency. In summary our results suggest an important role for astrocyte-derived TSPs, acting through α2δ-1, in maturation of a potentially important form of presynaptic plasticity.
astrocyte; thrombospondin; presynaptic; homeostasis; plasticity
We conducted a 2-stage, multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase II clinical trial of 100 and 300 unit doses of onabotulinum toxin A to treat the lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Materials and Methods
Men 50 years old or older with clinically diagnosed benign prostatic hyperplasia, American Urological Association symptom index 8 or greater, maximum urinary flow rate less than 15 ml per second, voided volume 125 ml or greater, and post-void residual 350 ml or less were randomized to prostatic transrectal injection of 100 or 300 units of onabotulinum toxin A. The primary outcome was at least 30% improvement from baseline to 3 months in American Urological Association symptom index and/or maximum urinary flow rate and safety. The men were followed for 12 months.
A total of 134 men were randomized and treated (68 with 100 units, 66 with 300 units), with 131 assessed at 3 months and 108 assessed at 12 months. Each dose met the 3-month primary outcome criteria. In the 100 unit arm the mean baseline American Urological Association symptom index of 18.8 decreased by 7.1 and 6.9 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. In the 300 unit arm the baseline of 19.5 decreased by 8.9 and 7.1, respectively. In the 100 unit arm the mean baseline maximum urinary flow rate of 10.0 ml per second increased by 2.5 and 2.2, respectively, and in the 300 unit arm the baseline of 9.6 increased by 2.6 and 2.3, respectively.
The intraprostatic injection of 100 or 300 units of onabotulinum toxin A passed predetermined criteria for treatment efficacy and safety, and a randomized trial with either dose is warranted. The 100 unit dose may be preferable due to similar efficacy with reduced costs and adverse effects.
prostatic hyperplasia; onabotulinum toxin A
More than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in India. Two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in Mexico. We studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in India (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has been lower than expected).
We recruited children at birth in urban slums in Vellore; they were followed for 3 years after birth, with home visits twice weekly. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks, as well as on alternate days during diarrheal episodes, and were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Serum samples were obtained every 6 months and evaluated for seroconversion, defined as an increase in the IgG antibody level by a factor of 4 or in the IgA antibody level by a factor of 3.
Of 452 recruited children, 373 completed 3 years of follow-up. Rotavirus infection generally occurred early in life, with 56% of children infected by 6 months of age. Levels of reinfection were high, with only approximately 30% of all infections identified being primary. Protection against moderate or severe disease increased with the order of infection but was only 79% after three infections. With G1P, the most common viral strain, there was no evidence of homotypic protection.
Early infection and frequent reinfection in a locale with high viral diversity resulted in lower protection than has been reported elsewhere, providing a possible explanation why rotavirus vaccines have had lower-than-expected efficacy in Asia and Africa. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust.)
The treatment for deep surgical site infection (SSI) following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) varies internationally and it is at present unclear which treatment approaches are used in Australia. The aim of this study is to identify current treatment approaches in Queensland, Australia, show success rates and quantify the costs of different treatments.
Data for patients undergoing primary THA and treatment for infection between January 2006 and December 2009 in Queensland hospitals were extracted from routinely used hospital databases. Records were linked with pathology information to confirm positive organisms. Diagnosis and treatment of infection was determined using ICD-10-AM and ACHI codes, respectively. Treatment costs were estimated based on AR-DRG cost accounting codes assigned to each patient hospital episode.
A total of n=114 patients with deep surgical site infection were identified. The majority of patients (74%) were first treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR), which was successful in eradicating the infection in 60.3% of patients with an average cost of $13,187. The remaining first treatments were 1-stage revision, successful in 89.7% with average costs of $27,006, and 2-stage revisions, successful in 92.9% of cases with average costs of $42,772. Multiple treatments following ‘failed DAIR’ cost on average $29,560, for failed 1-stage revision were $24,357, for failed 2-stage revision were $70,381 and were $23,805 for excision arthroplasty.
As treatment costs in Australia are high primary prevention is important and the economics of competing treatment choices should be carefully considered. These currently vary greatly across international settings.
Hip replacement arthroplasty; Surgical wound infection; Cost analysis; Outcome assessment; Surgical revision
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a useful approach in the study of the genetic components of complex phenotypes. Aside from large cohorts, GWAS have generally been limited to the study of one or a few diseases or traits. The emergence of biobanks linked to electronic medical records (EMRs) allows the efficient re-use of genetic data to yield meaningful genotype-phenotype associations for multiple phenotypes or traits. Phase I of the electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics (eMERGE-I) Network is a National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)-supported consortium composed of five sites to perform various genetic association studies using DNA repositories and EMR systems. Each eMERGE site has developed EMR-based algorithms to comprise a core set of fourteen phenotypes for extraction of study samples from each site’s DNA repository. Each eMERGE site selected samples for a specific phenotype, and these samples were genotyped at either the Broad Institute or at the Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR) using the Illumina Infinium BeadChip technology. In all, approximately 17,000 samples from across the five sites were genotyped. A unified quality control (QC) pipeline was developed by the eMERGE Genomics Working Group and used to ensure thorough cleaning of the data. This process includes examination of sample quality, marker quality, and various batch effects. Upon completion of the genotyping and QC analyses for each site’s primary study, the eMERGE Coordinating Center merged the datasets from all five sites. This larger merged dataset re-entered the established eMERGE QC pipeline. Based on lessons learned during the process, additional analyses and QC checkpoints were added to the pipeline to ensure proper merging. Here we explore the challenges associated with combining datasets from different genotyping centers and describe the expansion to the eMERGE QC pipeline for merged datasets. These additional steps will be useful as the eMERGE project expands to include additional sites in eMERGE-II and also serve as a starting point for investigators merging multiple genotype data sets accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Our experience demonstrates that merging multiple datasets after additional QC can be an efficient use of genotype data despite new challenges that appear in the process.
quality control; genome-wide association (GWAS); eMERGE; dbGaP; merging datasets