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1.  Opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic noncancer pain in the USA, Canada, Germany, and the UK: descriptive analysis of baseline patient-reported outcomes and retrospective chart review 
Background
The characteristics of patients who suffer from noncancer pain and opioid-induced constipation are not well understood.
Methods
Cross-sectional patient survey and chart review data from the baseline assessment of an ongoing longitudinal study in the USA, Canada, Germany, and the UK were evaluated via descriptive statistics. Participants had confirmation of daily opioid therapy ≥30 mg for ≥4 weeks and self-reported opioid-induced constipation. Response to laxatives was defined by classifying participants into categories of laxative use and evaluating the prevalence of inadequate response to one laxative agent and two or more agents from at least two different laxative classes. Outcomes included the Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-Specific Health Problem, EuroQOL 5 Dimensions, and Global Assessment of Treatment Benefit, Satisfaction, and Willingness to Continue.
Results
Patients reported a mean of 1.4 bowel movements not preceded by laxatives and 3.7 bowel movements with laxative use per week; 83% wanted at least one bowel movement per day. Most commonly reported on Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms were straining/squeezing to pass bowel movements (83%), bowel movements too hard (75%), flatulence (69%), and bloating (69%). Eighty-four percent were taking natural or behavioral therapies; 60% were taking at least one over-the-counter laxative; and 19% were taking at least one prescription laxative. Prevalence of inadequate response to one laxative agent was 94%; inadequate response to two or more agents from at least two different laxative classes was 27%. Mean Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-Specific Health Problem values for percent work time missed, percent impairment while working, and percent activity impairment were 9%, 32% (equivalent of 14 hours of lost productivity per week), and 38%. Mean EuroQOL 5 Dimensions index and visual analog scale scores were 0.49 and 50.6, respectively. Forty-four percent reported being satisfied with their treatment for constipation.
Conclusion
Patients treated with opioids for noncancer pain commonly endure constipation symptoms that limit their work productivity and overall health-related quality of life while adhering to treatments that provide little relief. Further research is needed to identify more efficacious constipation therapies for this patient population.
doi:10.2147/CEOR.S61602
PMCID: PMC4041290  PMID: 24904217
opioid; constipation; pain; laxatives; quality of life
2.  Correlations among improvements in urgency urinary incontinence, health-related quality of life, and perception of bladder-related problems in incontinent subjects with overactive bladder treated with tolterodine or placebo 
Background
Previous studies demonstrate that tolterodine extended release (ER) significantly improves urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Instruments that measure patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide additional information that is valuable for assessing whether clinical improvements are meaningful to the patient. This study determined the correlation of changes in bladder diary variables and other PROs in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB).
Methods
Subjects with OAB, urinary frequency, and UUI were treated with 4 mg once-daily tolterodine ER or placebo for 12 weeks. Subjects completed 7-day bladder diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) at baseline and week 12. Only subjects who reported at least some minor bladder-related problems at baseline (PPBC score ≥ 3) were included in this analysis.
Results
Reductions in UUI episodes per week were significantly greater in the tolterodine ER group (n = 500) compared with the placebo group (n = 487) at week 12 (-71% vs -33%, P < 0.0001). A significantly greater percentage of subjects in the tolterodine ER group reported improvement on the PPBC versus placebo (58% vs 45%, P < 0.0001), and 7 of 10 KHQ domains were significantly improved versus placebo (all P < 0.05). Significant correlations were found for median percentage changes in UUI episodes with changes in PPBC scores (r = 0.35,P < 0.0001) and the 7 improved KHQ domains (r = 0.16–0.32, P ≤ 0.0011). Changes in PPBC scores and all KHQ domains were significantly correlated (r = 0.13–0.38, P ≤ 0.009) in the tolterodine ER group. Correlations among endpoints in the placebo group were similar to those observed in the tolterodine ER group.
Conclusion
Improvement in UUI episodes after 12 weeks of treatment with tolterodine ER or placebo was correlated with improvements in patients' perception of their bladder-related problems and health-related quality of life. Correlations were moderate in magnitude but statistically significant, suggesting that PROs are important and relevant measures for evaluating OAB treatment.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-13
PMCID: PMC2649907  PMID: 19226471
3.  The responsiveness of the uterine fibroid symptom and health-related quality of life questionnaire (UFS-QOL) 
Background
A number of noninvasive alternatives to hysterectomy have become available as treatments for uterine fibroids. These alternative therapies, however, may not relieve all symptoms. Consequently, the need for patient-reported outcomes to assess symptom reduction of uterine fibroids has become increasingly important to evaluate the clinical success of patients who choose these alternative therapies. The purpose of the study was to examine the responsiveness of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (UFS-QOL) with treatment of uterine fibroids.
Methods
The responsiveness of the UFS-QOL was assessed as a post-hoc analysis of patients treated with MRI-guided focused ultrasound thermal ablation (MRgFUS) for uterine fibroids. The UFS-QOL and SF-36 were completed at baseline and months 1, 3, and 6. Patient perceived overall treatment effect (OTE) was assessed at month 3, while satisfaction with treatment was collected at month 6. The responsiveness of the UFS-QOL was examined using effect sizes and change scores by patient-reported overall treatment effect and satisfaction.
Results
A total of 102 women with complete UFS-QOL data were included in the analysis; the mean age was 45 years and 79% were Caucasian. From baseline to 6 months, significant improvements were observed in UFS-QOL Symptom Severity and all Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) subscale scores (p < 0.0001). When examining change in general health status over the 6-month follow-up period, significant improvements were noted in all 8 SF-36 subscales. The UFS-QOL was highly responsive with subscale effect sizes ranging from 0.74 for Sexual Function to -1.9 for Symptom Severity. Improvements in UFS-QOL subscales were associated with patient perceptions of perceived benefit and treatment satisfaction.
Conclusion
The UFS-QOL is responsive to treatment for uterine fibroids and is a useful outcome measure for uterine-sparing uterine fibroid treatments.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-99
PMCID: PMC2603004  PMID: 19014505

Results 1-3 (3)