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1.  Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test Scores With Academic and Experiential Performance 
Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum.
Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course.
Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited.
PMCID: PMC4028582  PMID: 24850935
Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT); critical thinking; academic performance; grades; advanced pharmacy practice experiences
2.  Correlation of the Health Sciences Reasoning Test With Student Admission Variables 
Objectives. To assess the association between scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) and pharmacy student admission variables.
Methods. During the student admissions process, cognitive data, including undergraduate grade point average and Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores, were collected from matriculating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. Between 2007 and 2009, the HSRT was administered to 329 first-year PharmD students. Correlations between HSRT scores and cognitive data, previous degree, and gender were examined.
Results. After controlling for other predictors, 3 variables were significantly associated with HSRT scores: percentile rank on the reading comprehension (p<0.001), verbal (p<0.001), and quantitative (p<0.001) subsections of the PCAT.
Conclusions. Scores on the reading comprehension, verbal, and quantitative sections of the PCAT were significantly associated with HSRT scores. Some elements of critical thinking may be measured by these PCAT subsections. However, the HSRT offers information absent in standard cognitive admission criteria.
PMCID: PMC3748299  PMID: 23966721
Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT); critical thinking; admissions; Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT)
4.  Rational and Experiential Decision-Making Preferences of Third-Year Student Pharmacists 
Objective. To examine the rational (systematic and rule-based) and experiential (fast and intuitive) decision-making preferences of student pharmacists, and to compare these preferences to the preferences of other health professionals and student populations.
Methods. The Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI-40), a validated psychometric tool, was administered electronically to 114 third-year (P3) student pharmacists. Student demographics and preadmission data were collected. The REI-40 results were compared with student demographics and admissions data to identify possible correlations between these factors.
Results. Mean REI-40 rational scores were higher than experiential scores. Rational scores for younger students were significantly higher than students aged 30 years and older (p<0.05). No significant differences were found based on gender, race, or the presence of a prior degree. All correlations between REI-40 scores and incoming grade point average (GPA) and Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores were weak.
Conclusion. Student pharmacists favored rational decision making over experiential decision making, which was similar to results of studies done of other health professions.
PMCID: PMC4140486  PMID: 25147392
decision making; student pharmacists; rational; experiential
5.  Development of a Course Review Process 
Objective. To describe and assess a course review process designed to enhance course quality.
Design. A course review process led by the curriculum and assessment committees was designed for all required courses in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a school of pharmacy. A rubric was used by the review team to address 5 areas: course layout and integration, learning outcomes, assessment, resources and materials, and learner interaction.
Assessment. One hundred percent of targeted courses, or 97% of all required courses, were reviewed from January to August 2010 (n=30). Approximately 3.5 recommendations per course were made, resulting in improvement in course evaluation items related to learning outcomes. Ninety-five percent of reviewers and 85% of course directors agreed that the process was objective and the course review process was important.
Conclusion. The course review process was objective and effective in improving course quality. Future work will explore the effectiveness of an integrated, continual course review process in improving the quality of pharmacy education.
PMCID: PMC3448468  PMID: 23049102
course review; curriculum; assessment; instructional methods; course evaluations
7.  The Structured Interview and Interviewer Training in the Admissions Process 
To determine the extent to which the structured interview is used in the PharmD admissions process in US colleges and schools of pharmacy, and the prevalence and content of interviewer training.
A survey instrument consisting of 7 questions regarding interviews and interviewer training was sent to 92 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States that were accredited or seeking accreditation.
Sixty survey instruments (65% response rate) were returned. The majority of the schools that responded (80%) used interviews as part of the PharmD admissions process. Of the schools that used an interview as part of the admissions process, 86% provided some type of interviewer training and 13% used a set of predefined questions in admissions interviews.
Most colleges and schools of pharmacy use some components of the structured interview in the PharmD admissions process; however, training for interviewers varies widely among colleges and schools of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2064881  PMID: 17998980
structured interview; interview; interviewer training; admissions

Results 1-7 (7)