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1.  The alarmin IL-1α is a master cytokine in acute lung inflammation induced by silica micro- and nanoparticles 
Background
Inflammasome-activated IL-1β plays a major role in lung neutrophilic inflammation induced by inhaled silica. However, the exact mechanisms that contribute to the initial production of precursor IL-1β (pro-IL-1β) are still unclear. Here, we assessed the implication of alarmins (IL-1α, IL-33 and HMGB1) in the lung response to silica particles and found that IL-1α is a master cytokine that regulates IL-1β expression.
Methods
Pro- and mature IL-1β as well as alarmins were assessed by ELISA, Western Blot or qRT-PCR in macrophage cultures and in mouse lung following nano- and micrometric silica exposure. Implication of these immune mediators in the establishment of lung inflammatory responses to silica was investigated in knock-out mice or after antibody blockade by evaluating pulmonary neutrophil counts, CXCR2 expression and degree of histological injury.
Results
We found that the early release of IL-1α and IL-33, but not HMGB1 in alveolar space preceded the lung expression of pro-IL-1β and neutrophilic inflammation in silica-treated mice. In vitro, the production of pro-IL-1β by alveolar macrophages was significantly induced by recombinant IL-1α but not by IL-33. Neutralization or deletion of IL-1α reduced IL-1β production and neutrophil accumulation after silica in mice. Finally, IL-1α released by J774 macrophages after in vitro exposure to a range of micro- and nanoparticles of silica was correlated with the degree of lung inflammation induced in vivo by these particles.
Conclusions
We demonstrated that in response to silica exposure, IL-1α is rapidly released from pre-existing stocks in alveolar macrophages and promotes subsequent lung inflammation through the stimulation of IL-1β production. Moreover, we demonstrated that in vitro IL-1α release from macrophages can be used to predict the acute inflammogenic activity of silica micro- and nanoparticles.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12989-014-0069-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12989-014-0069-x
PMCID: PMC4279463  PMID: 25497724
Alarmins; Inflammation; Neutrophils; Silica; Nanoparticles; IL-1 family; Inflammasome
2.  Uncoupling between Inflammatory and Fibrotic Responses to Silica: Evidence from MyD88 Knockout Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e99383.
The exact implication of innate immunity in granuloma formation and irreversible lung fibrosis remains to be determined. In this study, we examined the lung inflammatory and fibrotic responses to silica in MyD88-knockout (KO) mice. In comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, we found that MyD88-KO animals developed attenuated lung inflammation, neutrophil accumulation and IL-1β release in response to silica. Granuloma formation was also less pronounced in MyD88-KO mice after silica. This limited inflammatory response was not accompanied by a concomitant attenuation of lung collagen accumulation after silica. Histological analyses revealed that while pulmonary fibrosis was localized in granulomas in WT animals, it was diffusely distributed throughout the parenchyma in MyD88-KO mice. Robust collagen accumulation was also observed in mice KO for several other components of innate immunity (IL-1R, IL-1, ASC, NALP3, IL-18R, IL-33R, TRIF, and TLR2-3-4,). We additionally show that pulmonary fibrosis in MyD88-KO mice was associated with the accumulation of pro-fibrotic regulatory T lymphocytes (T regs) and pro-fibrotic cytokine expression (TGF-β, IL-10 and PDGF-B), not with T helper (Th) 17 cell influx. Our findings indicate that the activation of MyD88-related innate immunity is central in the establishment of particle-induced lung inflammatory and granuloma responses. The development of lung fibrosis appears uncoupled from inflammation and may be orchestrated by a T reg-associated pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099383
PMCID: PMC4106757  PMID: 25050810
3.  ATP release and purinergic signaling in NLRP3 inflammasome activation 
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex involved in IL-1β and IL-18 processing that senses pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs). One step- or two step-models have been proposed to explain the tight regulation of IL-1β production during inflammation. Moreover, cellular stimulation triggers adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and subsequent activation of purinergic receptors at the cell surface. Importantly some studies have reported roles for extracellular ATP, in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to PAMPs and DAMPs. In this mini review, we will discuss the link between active ATP release, purinergic signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We will focus on the role of autocrine or paracrine ATP export in particle-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and discuss how particle activators are competent to induce maturation and secretion of IL-1β through a process that involves, as a first event, extracellular release of endogenous ATP through hemichannel opening, and as a second event, signaling through purinergic receptors that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, we will review the evidence for ATP as a key pro-inflammatory mediator released by dying cells. In particular we will discuss how cancer cells dying via autophagy trigger ATP-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the macrophages engulfing them, eliciting an immunogenic response against tumors.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00414
PMCID: PMC3539150  PMID: 23316199
ATP; danger signal; inflammasome; P2R; NLRP3; purinergic signaling; autophagic cell death
4.  IL-1 and IL-23 Mediate Early IL-17A Production in Pulmonary Inflammation Leading to Late Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e23185.
Background
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice.
Methods
The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice.
Results
We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023185
PMCID: PMC3156735  PMID: 21858022
5.  IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling and the inflammasome are essential in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2007;117(12):3786-3799.
The molecular mechanisms of acute lung injury resulting in inflammation and fibrosis are not well established. Here we investigate the roles of the IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) and the common adaptor for Toll/IL-1R signal transduction, MyD88, in this process using a murine model of acute pulmonary injury. Bleomycin insult results in expression of neutrophil and lymphocyte chemotactic factors, chronic inflammation, remodeling, and fibrosis. We demonstrate that these end points were attenuated in the lungs of IL-1R1– and MyD88-deficient mice. Further, in bone marrow chimera experiments, bleomycin-induced inflammation required primarily MyD88 signaling from radioresistant resident cells. Exogenous rIL-1β recapitulated a high degree of bleomycin-induced lung pathology, and specific blockade of IL-1R1 by IL-1 receptor antagonist dramatically reduced bleomycin-induced inflammation. Finally, we found that lung IL-1β production and inflammation in response to bleomycin required ASC, an inflammasome adaptor molecule. In conclusion, bleomycin-induced lung pathology required the inflammasome and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling, and IL-1 represented a critical effector of pathology and therapeutic target of chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis.
doi:10.1172/JCI32285
PMCID: PMC2066195  PMID: 17992263
6.  Interleukin-17 is a negative regulator of established allergic asthma 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(12):2715-2725.
T helper (Th)17 cells producing interleukin (IL)-17 play a role in autoimmune and allergic inflammation. Here, we show that IL-23 induces IL-17 in the lung and IL-17 is required during antigen sensitization to develop allergic asthma, as shown in IL-17R–deficient mice. Since IL-17 expression increased further upon antigen challenge, we addressed its function in the effector phase. Most strikingly, neutralization of IL-17 augmented the allergic response in sensitized mice. Conversely, exogenous IL-17 reduced pulmonary eosinophil recruitment and bronchial hyperreactivity, demonstrating a novel regulatory role of IL-17. Mechanistically, IL-17 down modulated eosinophil-chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 (TARC) in lungs in vivo and ex vivo upon antigen restimulation. In vitro, IL-17 reduced TARC production in dendritic cells (DCs)—the major source of TARC—and antigen uptake by DCs and IL-5 and IL-13 production in regional lymph nodes. Furthermore, IL-17 is regulated in an IL-4–dependent manner since mice deficient for IL-4Rα signaling showed a marked increase in IL-17 concentration with inhibited eosinophil recruitment. Therefore, endogenous IL-17 is controlled by IL-4 and has a dual role. Although it is essential during antigen sensitization to establish allergic asthma, in sensitized mice IL-17 attenuates the allergic response by inhibiting DCs and chemokine synthesis.
doi:10.1084/jem.20061401
PMCID: PMC2118159  PMID: 17101734

Results 1-6 (6)