As part of our National Cancer Institute–sponsored partnership between New Mexico State University and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, we implemented the Cancer Research Internship for Undergraduate Students to expand the pipeline of underrepresented students who can conduct cancer-related research. A total of 21 students participated in the program from 2008 to 2011. Students were generally of senior standing (47%), female (90%), and Hispanic (85%). We present a logic model to describe the short-term, medium-term, and long-term outputs of the program. Comparisons of pre- and post-internship surveys showed significant improvements in short-term outputs including interest (p<0.001) and motivation (p<0.001) to attend graduate school, as well as preparedness to conduct research (p=0.01) and write a personal statement (p=0.04). Thirteen students were successfully tracked, and of the 9 who had earned a bachelor’s degree, 6 were admitted into a graduate program (67%), and 4 of these programs were in the biomedical sciences.
undergraduate training program; internship; minority students
Residential proximity to pesticide-treated farmland is an important pesticide exposure pathway.
In-person interviews and biological samples were collected from 100 farmworker and 100 non-farmworker adults and children living in Eastern Washington State. We examined the relationship of residential proximity to farmland to urinary metabolite concentrations of dimethylphosphate (DMTP) and levels of pesticide residues in house dust.
DMTP concentrations were higher in farmworkers than non-farmworkers (71 μg/L vs 6 μg/L) and in farmworker children than non-farmworker children (17 μg/L vs 8 μg/L). Compared to non-farmworker households, farmworker households had higher levels of azinphos-methyl (643 ng/g vs 121 ng/g) and phosmet (153 ng/g vs 50 ng/g). Overall, a 20% reduction in DMTP concentration was observed per mile increase in distance from farmland.
Lower OP metabolite concentrations correlated with increasing distance from farmland.
PESTICIDES; DRIFT; RESIDENTIAL PROXIMITY TO FARMLAND
To examine the relationship between age, race, ethnicity, education, insurance coverage, and income and use of cancer screening services.
We used a population-based sample (N = 1863) from a community randomized intervention study that took place in eastern Washington State.
Pap testing was directly associated with having public health insurance, being 40 and older, and having a high income (>$35,000). Having Medicare coverage was predictive of having had a mammogram or sigmoidoscopy / colonoscopy screening, but not an FOBT.
Our findings may reflect age-dependent factors that influence access to health care.
cervical cancer; breast cancer; colorectal cancer; Hispanic; demographic factors
Mortality after breast cancer diagnosis is known to vary by race/ethnicity even after adjustment for differences in tumor characteristics. As adjuvant hormonal therapy decreases risk of recurrence and increases overall survival among women with hormone receptor-positive tumors, treatment disparities may play a role. We explored racial/ethnic differences in initiation of adjuvant hormonal therapy, defined as 2 or more prescriptions for tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor filled within the first year after diagnosis of hormone receptor-positive localized or regional stage breast cancer. The sample included women diagnosed with breast cancer enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC).
Odds ratios [OR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] compared initiation by race/ethnicity (Hispanic, African American, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and South Asian vs. non-Hispanic White (NHW)) using logistic regression. Covariates included age and year of diagnosis, area-level socioeconomic status, co-morbidities, tumor stage, histology, grade, breast cancer surgery, radiation and chemotherapy use.
Our sample included 13,753 women aged 20–79 years, diagnosed between 1996 and 2007, and 70% initiated adjuvant hormonal therapy. In multivariable analysis, Hispanic and Chinese women were less likely than NHW women to initiate adjuvant hormonal therapy ([OR]=0.82; [CI] 0.71–0.96 and [OR]=0.78; [CI] 0.63–0.98; respectively).
Within an equal access, insured population, lower levels of initiation of adjuvant hormonal therapy were found for Hispanic and Chinese women. Findings need to be confirmed in other populations and the reasons for under-initiation among these groups need to be explored.
breast cancer; adjuvant hormonal therapy; tamoxifen; aromatase inhibitors; racial/ethnic disparities
Regular physical activity produces various health benefits; however, relatively few adults in the United States (US) get enough physical activity. Little is known about physical activity behaviors, and barriers and facilitators to physical activity among Cambodian-Americans. Cambodian Americans were recruited from community venues to participate in one-on-one interviews and focus groups. A total of 20 adults (10 women and 10 men) participated in one-on-one interviews and 37 adults (23 women and 14 men) participated in one of four focus groups. Fifteen of the 20 interviews and all the focus groups were conducted in Khmer. Participants were generally born in Cambodia and over two-thirds had a high school education or less. About one-half of the participants met or exceeded the 2008 US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Commonly reported types of physical activity were walking, running, and working out at the gym. Barriers to physical activity included lack of time, inconvenient work hours, and family responsibilities. Perceived benefits of physical activity included improved health, improved appearance, and reductions in stress. Sweating caused by physical activity was thought to produce a variety of health benefits. Data from this qualitative study could be used to inform the development of culturally-relevant physical activity survey measures and culturally-relevant physical activity interventions for Cambodian Americans.
Physical activity; Asian Americans; Cambodian Americans; qualitative research
In the US, Hispanic women have a higher incidence of, and mortality from, cervical cancer than non-Hispanic white women. The reason for this disparity may be attributable to both low rates of screening and poor adherence to recommended diagnostic follow-up after an abnormal Pap test. The 'Cervical Cancer Screening and Adherence to Follow-up Among Hispanic Women' study is a collaboration between a research institution and community partners made up of members from community based organizations, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic and the Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program of the Yakima District . The study will assess the efficacy of two culturally-appropriate, tailored educational programs designed to increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women, based in the Yakima Valley, Washington, US.
A parallel randomized-controlled trial of 600 Hispanic women aged 21–64, who are non-compliant with Papanicolau (Pap) test screening guidelines. Participants will be randomized using block randomization to (1) a control arm (usual care); (2) a low-intensity information program, consisting of a Spanish-language video that educates women on the importance of cervical cancer screening; or (3) a high-intensity program consisting of the video plus a ‘promotora’ or lay-community health educator-led, home based intervention to encourage cervical cancer screening. Participants who attend cervical cancer screening, and receive a diagnosis of an abnormal Pap test will be assigned to a patient navigator who will provide support and information to promote adherence to follow-up tests, and any necessary surgery or treatment. Primary endpoint: Participants will be tracked via medical record review at community-based clinics, to identify women who have had a Pap test within 7 months of baseline assessment. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arm. Secondary endpoint: An evaluation of the patient navigator program as a method to improve adherence and reduce time to follow-up among participants who receive an abnormal Pap test result. An additional secondary endpoint is the cost-effectiveness of the two different intensity intervention programs.
This culturally sensitive intervention aims to increase compliance and adherence to cervical screening in a Hispanic population. If effective, such interventions may reduce incidence of cervical cancer.
Hispanic women; Pap test; Cervical cancer screening; Cancer disparities
Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are commonly used in the United States, and farm workers are at risk for chronic exposure. Using data from a community randomized trial to interrupt the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure, we examined the association between floor surface type (smooth floor, thin carpet, and thick carpet) and rooms in which dust samples were collected (living room vs. non-living room) and concentrations of azinphos-methyl residues in home environments. We also examined the association between vehicle type (truck, auto, or other) and footwell floor surfaces (carpeted, smooth surface, or no mat) and concentrations of azinphos-methyl in vehicle dust samples. Dust samples were collected from 203 and 179 households and vehicles, respectively. All households had at least one child aged 2–6. Vehicle dust samples were collected from footwells of the vehicle used for commuting to and from work. A total of 183 samples were collected from living rooms, and 20 were collected from other rooms in the home. Forty-two samples were collected from thick carpets, 130 from thin carpets, and 27 from smooth floor surfaces. Thick and thin carpets had a significantly greater dust mass than smooth floor surfaces (6.0 g/m2 for thick carpets, 7.8 g/m2 for thin carpets, and 1.5 g/m2 for smooth surfaces). Of the 179 vehicle samples, 113 were from cars, 34 from trucks, and 32 from other vehicles. Vehicles with no mats had a significantly higher mass of dust (21.3 g) than those with hard mats (9.3 g) but did not differ from vehicles with plush mats (12.0g). Further research is needed to characterize the environment in which children may be exposed to pesticides.
farmworkers; floor surface; house dust; pesticides; take-home pathway; vehicle dust
Trained community health promoters (i.e., promotoras) conducted home-based group educational interventions (home health parties) to educate Hispanic women from the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington state about breast cancer and mammography screening.
Women aged 40–79 participating in the parties completed baseline and follow-up surveys 6 months postintervention (n = 70). Changes in general cancer knowledge, breast cancer screening practices, and intentions to be screened among participants from baseline to follow-up were measured using McNemar's test for marginal homogeneity to evaluate the effectiveness of the parties.
The average age of the sample was 50.0 years (standard deviation [SD] 10.0), 84% reported less than an eighth grade education, and 54% were covered by the state's Basic Health Care Plan. Significant changes between baseline and follow-up were observed with respect to (1) believing that risk of cancer could not be reduced (41% vs. 15%, respectively, p = 0.001), (2) ever having a mammogram (83% vs. 91%, p = 0.014), (3) discussing a mammogram with a doctor (37% vs. 67%, p < 0.001), and (4) intending to have a mammogram within the next few months among women who did not report having a mammogram between baseline and follow-up (61% vs. 81%, p = 0.046).
Participation in home-based group educational interventions delivered by promotoras may be associated with improved breast cancer screening practices among Hispanic women.
To describe the relationship between acculturation and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among diverse US Latinas, a group at high risk for cervical cancer.
Using survey and medical testing data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined the relationship between acculturation level and HPV infection among diverse Latinas (n=503) and Mexican American women (n=442). Multivariable logistic regression was performed using infection with any type of HPV and with high-risk oncogenic genotypes as outcome variables.
More acculturated Mexican American women were more likely to be infected with high-risk HPV than less acculturated women. In multivariate analyses, Mexican Americans with higher levels of self-rated English language ability (2.48 OR, 95% CI: 1.42–4.33); with birth in the US (2.07 OR, 95% CI: 1.03–4.16); and with US born parents (2.98 OR, 95% CI: 1.45–3.72) were more likely to be infected with high-risk HPV genotypes. Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation were more likely to test positive for other sexually transmitted infections.
Higher acculturation levels related to more frequent infection with high-risk HPV genotypes and other STIs among US Mexican American women. This association may in part be due to engagement in sexual behaviors.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention in promoting adoption of behaviors to reduce the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure in farmworker households.
Using two cross-sectional samples of farmworker households in 11 intervention and 12 comparison communities in Washington State, we examined whether differences over time in reported pesticide safety practices varied by community intervention status.
Pesticide safety practices increased in both intervention and comparison communities over time. Changes were significantly greater in intervention communities for removing work shoes before entering the home (p=0.003) and marginally significantly greater for changing out of work clothes within one hour of arriving home (p=0.05).
The intervention was associated with modest effects in certain behaviors among farmworkers. Further research is needed to identify successful strategies for reducing the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure.
A key tenet of community-based participatory research is that communities be involved in all facets of research, from defining the problem to identifying solutions, to assisting in the research, and to participating in the publication of results. In this study, we instituted a small grants program for community participation. A Request for Applications (RFA) was developed and circulated widely throughout the Valley. The RFA sought proposals to address health disparities in cancer education, prevention, and treatment among Hispanics living in the Valley. Funds available were $2,500.00–3,500.00 for 1 year’s worth of work. To help evaluate the progress of the RFA community projects according to the perspectives of the Community Advisory Board (CAB), an open-ended, semi-structured interview was created and administered by a former staff member to CAB members. In 4 years, ten small grants proposed by community members were funded. Funds allocated totaled approximately $25,000. Interviews with CAB members indicated that the RFA program was perceived positively, but there were concerns about sustainability. Our community grants program resulted in the implementation of several novel cancer prevention programs conducted by a variety of community organizations in the Lower Yakima Valley.
Community based participatory research; Community grants; Cancer education; Community advisory board
We conducted a group-randomized trial to increase smoking cessation and decrease smoking onset and prevalence in 30 colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest.
Random samples of students, oversampling for freshmen, were drawn from the participating colleges; students completed a questionnaire that included seven major areas of tobacco policies and behavior. Following this baseline, the colleges were randomized to intervention or control. Three interventionists developed Campus Advisory Boards in the 15 intervention colleges and facilitated intervention activities. The freshmen cohort was resurveyed 1 and 2 years after the baseline. Two-years postrandomization, new cross-sectional samples were drawn, and students were surveyed.
At follow-up, we found no significant overall differences between intervention and control schools when examining smoking cessation, prevalence, or onset. There was a significant decrease in prevalence in private independent colleges, a significant increase in cessation among rural schools, and a decrease in smoking onset in urban schools.
Intervention in this college population had mixed results. More work is needed to determine how best to reach this population of smokers.
Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12.
A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83).
Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol.
BREAST CANCER; ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION; FOLATE AND VITAMIN B12; MEXICAN WOMEN; HISPANIC
The recent proliferation of studies describing factors associated with HPV vaccine acceptability could inform health care providers in improving vaccine coverage and support future research. This review examined measures of HPV and HPV-vaccine knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and acceptability, described psychometric characteristics, and provided recommendations about their use.
A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, PsychoInfo, and ERIC through May 2008 for English language reports of quantitative data from parents, young adults or adolescents yielded 79 studies.
The majority of studies were cross-sectional surveys (87%), self-administered (67%), conducted before prophylactic vaccines were publicly available (67%) and utilized convenience samples (65%). Most measured knowledge (80%), general attitudes about HPV vaccination (40%), and willingness to vaccinate one's daughter (26%). Two thirds did not report reliability or validity of measures. The majority did not specify a theoretical framework.
Use of a theoretical framework, consistent labeling of constructs, more rigorous validation of measures, and testing of measures in more diverse samples are needed to yield measurement instruments that will produce findings to guide practitioners in developing successful community and clinical interventions.
human papillomavirus; vaccine; measures; methods; systematic review
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest.
Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP). A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by content analysis guided by the theory of diffusion. The majority of participants did not know of CPR and did not know where to get trained. Complexity of CPR procedure, advantages of calling 9-1-1, lack of confidence, and possible liability discourage LEP individuals to learn CPR. LEP individuals welcome simplified Hands-Only CPR and are willing to perform CPR with instruction from 9-1-1 operators. Expanding the current training to include Hands-Only CPR and dispatcher-assisted CPR may motivate Chinese LEP individuals to get trained for CPR.
During February–March 2006, elicitation interviews were conducted with 23 community stakeholders in the Yakima Valley, Washington State to examine concerns about diabetes and to obtain recommendations for how to address concerns among Hispanics in this rural community. Using a snowball approach, stakeholders were identified from organizations providing care/outreach for Hispanics with diabetes. Interviews were guided by a social ecology approach and were conducted as part of a larger parent study using principles of community based participatory research (CBPR). Audio-taped interviews were transcribed, then coded by 3 staff members who identified common themes independently before meeting to reach consensus. Stakeholders represented health care delivery or social service organizations, churches or local radio stations. Diabetes was perceived as an important problem among community members, who often underwent delayed diagnosis of the disease. Lack of disease knowledge, access to appropriate information/services, health insurance, and personal responsibility were perceived as barriers. Stakeholders recommended using exiting organizations and businesses as intervention channels, promoting cultural sensitivity of health professionals/volunteers, creating/distributing appropriate information, and organizing activities to promote awareness/disease-management. Recommendations have informed the design of community interventions to lessen the impact of diabetes in the Yakima Valley.
type 2 diabetes; rural Hispanics; community stakeholders; community based participatory research
Cancer survivorship experiences were explored among Hispanic men and women with cancer and family members of cancer survivors, recruited from two rural Washington communities in the Lower Yakima Valley. Five focus groups were conducted from February 2006–October 2007 with 31 women and 10 men. Disbelief, fear, sadness, strength, courage, faith, and hope were common reactions to diagnosis. Concerns about family/children, losing medical coupons, and feelings of depression/isolation were identified as challenges faced after diagnosis. Participants identified smoking and environmental exposures as causes of cancer, but many believed operating on tumors caused cancer to spread. Participants used conventional treatments, but identified herbal/natural remedies as cures. Most participants reported negative experiences with physicians, and believed their community would benefit from language-appropriate information regarding prevention and treatment. The importance of linking survivors through support groups was emphasized and information elicited from sessions has been used to organize survivor support groups in these two communities.
cancer; survivorship; rural Hispanics
Background. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women in Chile and in many Latin American countries. Breast cancer screening is an effective strategy to reduce mortality, but it has a very low compliance among Chilean women.
Objective. To understand barriers and facilitators for breast cancer screening in a group of Chilean women aged 50–70.
Methods. Following the Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing (PRECEDE) framework, seven focus groups (N = 48 women) were conducted with women that have had diverse experiences with breast cancer and screening practices. Information was collected using field notes and audio and video recording. Following the grounded theory model, a sequential process of open, axial and selective coding was used for the information analysis. Atlas ti 5.5 software was used for coding and segmenting the data obtained from the interviews.
Results. The presence of symptoms and/or the finding of lumps through breast self-examination (BSE) were the main predisposing factors for getting a mammogram. Secrecy, embarrassment and fatalism about breast cancer were significant cultural factors that influenced the decision to seek mammogram screening. Confidence in medical staff and dignity in the treatment at the clinic were important enabling factors. The main reinforcing factors for getting the test were a sense of fulfilment by doing something good for themselves and getting timely information about the results.
Conclusions. Primary health care providers should use culturally appropriate strategies to better inform women about the importance of mammography screening and the limitations of BSE for preventing advanced breast cancer.
Breast cancer; Chile; qualitative evaluation; screening
Asian immigrants to the U.S. have an increased prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection compared to native born individuals; an estimated 10 percent of Chinese immigrants are infected with HBV. Using qualitative data from focus groups, we developed an English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) curriculum that aimed to improve knowledge about key hepatitis B facts. The curriculum was pilot-tested among 56 students aged 50 and older from intermediate-level ESL classes at a community-based organization that serves Chinese immigrants. Post-curriculum data showed increases in knowledge that hepatitis B can cause liver cancer (73% at pre-test vs. 91% at post-test; p value = 0.01) and that individuals can be infected with hepatitis B for life (34% vs. 81%; p value <0.0001). These findings suggest that an ESL curriculum can successfully improve knowledge about the severity of hepatitis B and its routes of transmission among older Chinese American adults.
HEPATITIS B; ESL CURRICULA; HEALTH LITERACY; CHINESE AMERICANS; HEPATITIS A
Students from racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds are underrepresented in graduate programs in biomedical disciplines. One goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center partnership between New Mexico State University (NMSU) and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) is to expand the number of underrepresented students who are trained in cancer research. As part of the collaboration, a summer internship program has been organized at the FHCRC. The program runs for 9-weeks and involves mentored research, research seminars, coffee-breaks, social activities, and a final poster session. This study examined the graduate school attendance rates of past interns, explored interns’ perceptions of the training program, and identified ways to improve the program. Thirty undergraduate students enrolled at NMSU participated in the internship program from 2002 – 2007 and telephone interviews were conducted on 22 (73%) of them. One-third of the students were currently in graduate school (32%); the remaining were either working (36%), still in undergraduate school (27%), or unemployed and not in school (5%). Students rated highly the following aspects of the program: mentored research, informal time spent with mentors, and research seminars. Students also reported the following activities would further enhance the program: instruction on writing a personal statement for graduate school and tips in choosing an advisor. Students also desired instruction on taking the GRE/MCAT, receiving advice on selecting a graduate or professional school, and receiving advice on where to apply. These findings can inform the design of internship programs aimed at increasing rates of graduate school attendance among underrepresented students.
training; education; internship; cancer research training; mentorship; underrepresented minority students
The cervical cancer incidence rate among Cambodian American women is 15.0 per 100,000, compared to 7.7 per 100,000 among non-Latina white women. HPV infection has been identified as a universal risk factor for cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine was recently approved in the United States for females aged 9–26 years. There is little information about HPV vaccination knowledge and beliefs in Southeast Asian communities.
We conducted 13 key informant interviews with Cambodian community leaders, as well as four focus groups with Cambodian parents (37 participants). Two of the focus groups included fathers and two of the focus groups included mothers. Interview and focus group questions addressed HPV vaccine barriers and facilitators.
Participants had limited knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Barriers to HPV vaccination included a lack of information about the vaccine, as well as concerns about vaccine safety, effectiveness, and financial costs. The most important facilitators were a health care provider recommendation for vaccination and believing in the importance of disease prevention.
Future cervical cancer control educational programs for Cambodians should promote use of the HPV vaccine for age-eligible individuals. Health care providers who serve Cambodian communities should be encouraged to recommend HPV vaccination.
Cervical cancer; Cambodian Americans; HPV vaccine
According to recent census data, 1,216,600 Canadians are of Chinese descent, and over 80% of Chinese Canadians are foreign born. Approximately 10% of Chinese immigrants are chronic carriers of hepatitis B, compared with less than 0.5% of the general population. English as a second language (ESL) classes provide ready access for individuals with limited English proficiency who are not reached by English language health education materials and media campaigns. We conducted a group-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B ESL educational curriculum for Chinese immigrants.
Five community-based organizations that provide ESL education in the greater Vancouver area participated in the study. Forty-one ESL classes (which included 325 Chinese students) were randomly assigned to experimental or control status. A follow-up survey, conducted six months after randomization, assessed knowledge about hepatitis B. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data.
Follow-up surveys were completed by 298 (92%) of the students. At follow-up, experimental group students were significantly (p<0.05) more likely than control group students to know that immigrants have higher hepatitis B infection rates than people who were born in Canada; hepatitis B can be spread during childbirth, during sexual intercourse and by sharing razors; hepatitis B is not spread by sharing eating utensils; and hepatitis B infection can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Our findings indicate that ESL curricula can have a positive impact on health knowledge among Chinese immigrants with limited English. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of ESL curricula for other immigrant groups, as well as other health topics.
Chinese; health education; hepatitis B
Chinese immigrants in Canada have a disproportionately high risk for hepatitis B compared with non-Hispanic whites. Hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma among Asian immigrants to North America. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes are an effective way of reaching newly immigrated individuals and are a potential channel for delivering health messages.
Using data from six focus groups among ESL instructors and students, we characterized perceptions about activities that are successfully used in ESL classrooms and strategies for delivering hepatitis B information.
Instructors and students generally reported that activities which focused on speaking and listening skills and that addressed content relevant to students' daily lives were successful in the classroom. Instructors generally avoided material that was irrelevant or too difficult to understand. Focus group participants offered strategies for delivering hepatitis B information in ESL classrooms; these strategies included addressing symptoms and prevention, and not singling out a specific population subgroup in order to avoid stigmatization.
These findings might assist efforts to develop ESL curricula that target immigrant populations.
Hepatitis B; ESL; Chinese Canadians; curricula; focus groups
This study explores barriers to and facilitators of breast cancer screening and how people in a woman’s social networks influence these screening behaviors. A total of 40 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in rural Washington State (USA) among Mexican women aged 50 and over. Eligible women reported either having had a mammogram within the last two years, over two years ago, or never. We found that lack of health insurance, the perception that the mammogram is painful, and fear of finding cancer were cited as barriers to participation in mammography screening. Women who had lived in the US for a shorter period were more likely to report never having had a mammogram than women who had lived in the US for a longer period. Women often cited daughters and female friends as those from whom they received advice or encouragement to receive a mammogram. Few differences were found related to network size and mammography use among the groups. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to promote mammography screening among Mexican women. Including daughters in intervention activities may help facilitate mammography use among Mexican women.
mammography; rural; USA; barriers; facilitators; Mexican women; Hispanic; screening